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1.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 13, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994442
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131264, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788949

RESUMO

Supercooling can preserve beef without freezing damage, whereas maintaining the supercooled state is difficult. An innovative method of static magnetic field extended supercooling (SM-ES) was proposed to maintain the non-frozen state of beef. Effect of SM-ES (-4 °C + SMF) compared with refrigerated (4 °C), slow-frozen (-4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C) treatment on beef quality was investigated. Results demonstrated that SM-ES successfully preserved beef at -4 °C without ice nucleation for 14 days. The SEM images revealed that the microstructure of slow-frozen/frozen samples was damaged due to crystallizing, while the ice nucleation was not observed in SM-ES treated beef. Compared with refrigerated, slow-frozen and frozen treatment, the drip loss of SM-ES decreased by 21.9%, 47.8% and 30.9%, respectively. The lipid oxidation degree of beef decreased following SM-ES treatment. SM-ES treatment extended the shelf-life of beef for more than 6 days compared with refrigeration while prevented its crystallizing.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Refrigeração , Animais , Bovinos , Congelamento , Campos Magnéticos , Oxirredução
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130713, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359006

RESUMO

Shrimp meat is an extremely perishable product; however, refrigeration can slow down spoilage. In this study, we used electron beam irradiation (EBI) to pre-treat shrimp meat and analyzed the metabolites of the treated shrimp meat during refrigerated storage using metabonomic analysis methods. In total, 4865 metabolites were identified, of which, 103 differential metabolites had KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) IDs. Further, two potential biomarkers were obtained. Based on the results, l-lysine was downregulated, while 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyl ester were upregulated during the refrigerated storage. The metabolic activity began to weaken gradually after 9 days. However, the different metabolites related to EBI were not identified herein. Nonetheless, the study findings revealed the metabolic changes in Solenocera melantho at the molecular level during refrigerated storage after EBI.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Elétrons , Animais , Metabolômica , Músculos , Refrigeração
4.
Food Chem ; 369: 130769, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461509

RESUMO

A colorimetric indicator cube for use in smart packaging was designed and fabricated to detect ethanol produced by microbial fermentation in preserved baby mangoes. The presence and level of ethanol was indicated by color variations of the indicator cube, which consists of porous melamine foam (MF) that entraps an indicator solution of potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. Within the packaging, the cube sits behind a gas-permeable membrane. The morphological structure of MF was studied by digital microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the optimal condition, the indicator cube exhibited distinct color changes from yellow to brown, green and blue over an ethanol concentration range from 0.25% to 5.0%. Color changes were clearly visible to the naked eye. The repeatability of the ethanol indicator cube was good and storage stability was maintained for up to 19 and 74 days at room and refrigeration temperatures, respectively. The smart packaging was applied to detect ethanol in preserved baby mangoes at different storage times.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Mangifera , Etanol , Embalagem de Produtos , Refrigeração
5.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108660, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736839

RESUMO

Commercially harvested cull dairy cow carcasses (n = 64) from the two lowest-valued marketing classes (MC: Lean, LE; Light, LI) were conventionally chilled (CN) or vascularly rinsed with a chilled isotonic substrate solution (Rinse & Chill®; RC). Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Triceps brachii (TB) muscles were processed (steaks, ground). Early postmortem (first 24 h), RC resulted in a lower pH at each time measured. RC steaks had longer sarcomeres and lower shear force than CN. RC produced greater redness associated with blooming and display times. RC LE beef resulted in greater oxymyoglobin during display times. RC ground TB had greater moisture fat-free than CN. RC Lean LL had less purge loss compared to CN LE. RC had greater total pigments than CN. RC ground TB had greater oxygen consumption and lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to CN. RC has the potential to improve tenderness and color as well as limit lipid oxidation with similar benefits across the two marketing classes.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Músculo Esquelético/química , Mioglobina/análise , Carne Vermelha/classificação , Refrigeração/métodos , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 38, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928420

RESUMO

This study evaluated the dynamics of the physiological responses of potentially probiotic fruit-derived Limosilactobacillus fermentum 139 and L. fermentum 263 in apple and orange juice during 28 days of refrigeration storage (4 °C) and when submitted to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Physiological responses were measured with multiparametric flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI), carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and bis-1,3-dibutylbarbutiric acid (BOX). Viable counts were enumerated with plate count. L. fermentum strains had sizes of > 30% of cell subpopulations with non-permeabilized membrane and enzymatic activities (viable cells, PI-CFDA +) in apple and orange juices during storage and viable counts of > 6 log CFU ml-1. Sizes of cell subpopulations with permeabilized membrane without enzymatic activity (dead cells, PI + cFDA-) were low (< 15%) in apple and orange juices during storage. Sizes of cell subpopulations with non-permeabilized and depolarized membrane (PI-BOX +) were decreased (14%) on day 28 of storage. The sizes of permeabilized and depolarized membrane cell (PI + BOX-) subpopulations were variable among the examined strains in juices during storage. Both strains maintained high PI-cFDA + cell subpopulation sizes (> 35%) after exposure to ileum condition and viable counts of ≥ 5 log CFU/mL. PI-BOX + cell subpopulation sizes were low (< 13%) after exposure to ileum condition. L. fermentum 139 and L. fermentum 263 are capable of maintaining a high population of physiologically active and functional cells in apple and orange juice during 28 days of refrigeration storage and when exposed to gastrointestinal conditions.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Probióticos , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Refrigeração
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6378-6385, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020 has become the world's largest public health event, causing global attention and concern. Despite national efforts to control this emerging infectious disease, it still cannot be contained. China, which reported the disease early, was able to control the outbreak quickly, but there is the problem of imported infections abroad. This review aims to summarize SARS-CoV-2 detected on the outer packaging of imported cold chain food and lead to the transmission of novel coronavirus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed information on SARS-COV-2 detected on the outer packaging of imported cold chain food and relevant literature.  We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and CNKI. search terms were "2019 nCoV", "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "cold-chain", "item surface", "spread", "people". RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 survives on the surface of cold-chain food for a long period of time and these active viruses can be transmitted to humans. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that while strictly preventing and controlling the importation of infected patients, we should strengthen the management of imported cold-chain food and its workers to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to humans on the surface of cold-chain food objects.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Refrigeração , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , China , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Vaccine ; 39(45): 6660-6670, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629207

RESUMO

Expansion of immunization coverage is dependent in part on delivering potent vaccines in an equitable and timely manner to immunization outreach session sites from Cold Chain Points (CCPs). When duration of travel between the last CCP and the session site (Time-to-Supply) is too long, three consequences may arise: decreased potency due to exposure to heat and freezing, beneficiary dropouts due to delayed session starts, and, increased operational costs for the Health Facility (HF) conducting the outreach sessions. Guided by the Government of India's recommendation on cold chain point expansion to ensure that all session sites are within a maximum of 60 min from the last CCP, CHAI and the State Routine Immunization Cell in the state of Madhya Pradesh collaborated to pilot a novel approach to cold chain network optimization and expansion in eight districts of Madhya Pradesh. Opportunities for realignment of remote sub-health centers (SHCs) and corresponding session sites to alternative existing CCPs or to HFs which could be converted to new CCPs were identified, and proposed using a greedy adding algorithm-based optimization which relied on health facility level geo-location data. Health facility geo-coordinates were collected through tele-calling and site visits, and a Microsoft Excel based optimization tool was developed. This exercise led to an estimated reduction in the number of remote SHCs falling beyond the permissible travel time from CCPs by 56.89 percent (132 remote sites), from 232 to 100. The 132 resolved sites include 73 sites realigned to existing CCPs, and 59 sites to be attached to 22 newly proposed CCPs. Both the network optimization approach and the institutional capacity built during this project will continue to be useful to India's immunization program. The approach is replicable and may be leveraged by developing countries facing similar challenges due to geographical, institutional, and financial constraints.


Assuntos
Refrigeração , Vacinas , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação
9.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(3): 307-310, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558497

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread globally with 190.8 million infected cases and 4.1 million deaths as of July 18, 2021. In absence of any definite antiviral agent availability and therapeutic armamentarium, vaccines are considered critical. While 20 vaccines are in use, about 295 vaccines are underdevelopment globally using eleven technological platforms. While the vaccines have >80% efficacy, the ultracold (-70°C and -20°C) storage and logistics requirements for some raise concerns for implementation, especially in developing countries. The Ebola vaccination in African countries, which required an ultracold chain provided lessons for these COVID-19 vaccines. The existing vaccine cold chain system suffers from temperature excursions at cold chain stores and during transportations in different countries suggests careful assessment and addressing the gaps for effective vaccine introduction. Appropriate attention for cold chain storage, logistics (especially the last mile), and vaccine management and upgradation is needed to achieve optimal vaccine effectiveness for curtailing the pandemic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Refrigeração , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia
10.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 147-155, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556617

RESUMO

In this study, spore heat resistance and growth ability at refrigeration temperatures of Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. were determined. The spore D90°C of 67.6% (23 of 34 strains) of Bacillus and 73.9% (17 of 23 strains) of Paenibacillus was less than 15 min. The growth abilities of both genera were equivalent at 10°C. However, 71.1% (32 of 45 strains) of Paenibacillus and only 6.3% (3 of 48 strains) of Bacillus cereus group could grow at 4°C. Eight B. cereus strains formed spores with higher heat resistance compared to the other Bacillus strains assessed; however, they did not grow at tempreratures below 10°C. Conversely, four Paenibacillus strains formed spores with heat resistance equivalent to that of the eight B. cereus strains and grew at 6°C or lower. In particular, Paenibacillus sp. JCM13343 formed the highest heat-resistant spores (D90°C = 136.1 min) and grew well at 4°C. These results indicate that Paenibacillus can grow in processed foods during refrigerated storage and has the potential to cause spoilage as well as Bacillus. Therefore, Paenibacillus should be considered as one of the targets for microbiological control in refrigerated processed foods.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Paenibacillus , Bacillus cereus , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Refrigeração , Esporos Bacterianos , Temperatura
11.
Vaccine ; 39(41): 6166-6173, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is anticipated that transforming the vaccine supply chain from syringe-and-needle to thermostable vaccines enabled by Micro Array Patch (MAP) will result in reduced supply chain costs as well as reduced wastes (environmental impact) and improved safety. This paper provides a thorough cost comparison of the conventional syringe-and-needle vaccine supply chain versus the MAP vaccine supply chain for influenza vaccine delivery in Australia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential cost implications and general benefits of replacing syringe-and-needle flu vaccine with MAP-enabled thermostable flu vaccine in Australia. METHODS: We first provide a snapshot of the existing flu vaccine supply chain in Australia including its limitations and opportunities for improvement. Data/information is collected through interviewing the key stakeholders across vaccine supply chain including vaccine manufacturers, logistics providers, clinics, hospitals, and pharmacies. A cost/benefit analysis of the anticipated supply chain of the MAP-enabled vaccine will reveal the opportunities and challenges of supply chain transformation for flu vaccine delivery in Australia. FINDINGS: Our high-level practice-informed cost/benefit analysis identifies cold chain removal as an important source of cost saving, but administrative cost savings appear to be even more significant (e.g., time saving for nurses and those involved in cold chain management). Our analysis also identifies the key benefits and limitations of vaccine supply chain transformation in Australia. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the benefits of moving from syringe-and-needle vaccines to thermostable MAP-delivered vaccines are beyond transportation and storage cost saving. Potential benefits through cost saving, waste reduction, and service level improvement are discussed along with various safety and wellbeing consequences as well as directions for future research in this area.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Vacinas , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Refrigeração
12.
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5845-5853, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481696

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rapid outbreak response vaccination is a strategy for measles control and elimination. Measles vaccines must be stored and transported within a specified temperature range, but this can present significant challenges when targeting remote populations. Measles vaccine licensure for delivery outside cold chain (OCC) could provide more vaccine transport/storage space without ice packs, and a solution to shorten response times. However, due to vaccine safety and wastage considerations, the OCC strategy will require other operational changes, potentially including the use of 1-dose (monodose) instead of 10-dose vials, requiring larger transport/storage equipment currently achieved with 10-dose vials. These trade-offs require quantitative comparisons of vaccine delivery options to evaluate their relative benefits. METHODS: We developed a modelling framework combining elements of the vaccine supply chain - cold chain, vial, team, and transport equipment types - with a measles transmission dynamics model to compare vaccine delivery options. We compared 10 strategies resulting from combinations of the vaccine supply elements and grouped into three main classes: OCC, partial cold chain (PCC), and full cold chain (FCC). For each strategy, we explored a campaign with 20 teams sequentially targeting 5 locations with 100,000 individuals each. We characterised the time needed to freeze ice packs and complete the campaign (campaign duration), vaccination coverage, and cases averted, assuming a fixed pre-deployment delay before campaign commencement. We performed sensitivity analyses of the pre-deployment delay, population sizes, and two team allocation schemes. RESULTS: The OCC, PCC, and FCC strategies achieve campaign durations of 50, 51, and 52 days, respectively. Nine of the ten strategies can achieve a vaccination coverage of 80%, and OCC averts the most cases. DISCUSSION: The OCC strategy, therefore, presents improved operational and epidemiological outcomes relative to current practice and the other options considered.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Refrigeração
13.
Inorg Chem ; 60(17): 12719-12723, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424680

RESUMO

The coexistence of field-induced blockage of the magnetization and significant magnetocaloric effects in the low-temperature region occurs in a mononuclear holmium(III) diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetate complex, whose gadolinium(III) analogue is a commercial MRI contrast agent. Both properties make it a suitable candidate for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration, thus enlarging the variety of applications of this simple class of multifunctional molecular nanomagnets.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Hólmio/química , Imãs/química , Ácido Pentético/química , Refrigeração/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Fenômenos Magnéticos
14.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443539

RESUMO

During the shelf-life, meat undergoes a number of processes that negatively affect the quality of the product, including fatty acid composition. The application of various plant extracts in meat could affect the changes of fatty acids during storage. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various spice and herb extracts on fatty acid composition in raw pork, beef, and chicken meat when stored at 4 °C for 13 days. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, two datasets were extracted from each type of meat. One dataset included samples with allspice, bay leaf, black seed, cardamom, caraway, clove, and nutmeg with the high share of total MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) in chicken and pork meat and high MUFA and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) contribution in beef meat after storage. The second dataset included basil, garlic, onion, oregano, rosemary, and thyme with high PUFA share in chicken and pork meat and high SFA (saturated fatty acids) contribution in beef meat. From the regression analysis, a significant effect of time on fatty acid composition in meat was reported. Generally, the rates of fatty acid changes were dependent on the plant extract incorporated into the meat. The most visible effect of plant extracts was obtained in chicken meat. In chicken meat with plant extracts, the rates of SFA and PUFA changes with time were slower compared to the control sample. In summary, the fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat varied during storage, and the addition of plant extracts significantly affected the rate of these changes, which was dependent on the meat matrix.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne de Porco/análise , Preservação Biológica , Carne Vermelha/análise , Refrigeração , Animais , Galinhas , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão
15.
Vaccine ; 39(34): 4871-4884, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253418

RESUMO

Developing vaccine stabilizers from local natural sources is desirable especially if the stabilizer would enhance the ability of the antigen to withstand frequent failures in cold chains. The study was undertaken to formulate immunogenic live Newcastle Disease (ND) LaSota vaccines stabilized with modified native starches for use at cold and ambient temperatures and to assess the immunogenicity of the starch stabilized vaccines in vaccinated chickens. Native starch extracted from the tubers of Plectranthus esculentus (Family, Lamiaceae) was modified by carboxymethylation and acetylation/xerogel formation and used as vaccine stabilizers of ND LaSota virus with/without buffers/bulking excipients. Cold Chain Failure (CCF) was simulated by storing the vaccines at 5 ± 2 °C for one month then at 37 ± 1 °C for 96 h. The stability of the samples were evaluated in comparison with peptone stabilized ND vaccines using pH, residual moisture, XRD, reconstitution time, mean embryo infective dose (EID50) and haemagglutination (HA) tests. Haemagglutination inhibition was used to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccines in conferring positive serum antibody titers (≥23 log2) in vaccine-naïve 2-week old broilers that were orally administered a single dose of the vaccines kept at 37 ± 1 °C for 96 h and bled weekly over four weeks. Temperature, pH, moisture content and amorphousness impacted vaccine stability. Peptone stabilized vaccines were significantly less stable and most affected by temperature changes with 1.2log10EID50 loss while buffered/bulked trehalose, carboxymethylated and acetylated/xerogelized starch stabilized vaccines were most stable (0.2-0.5log10EID50 loss in titer) after 96 h in CCF. Buffered trehalose stabilized vaccine (TVB) had lower HA titres than peptone and starch stabilized vaccines containing D-mannitol and Na2HPO4. Antibody titres of vaccinated broilers were between 3.3 ± 1.398 and 8.35 ± 2.678. All the vaccines were immunogenic (HI ≥ 23) and developed HI titres (≥24) considered to be protective. Carboxymethylated and acetylated/xerogel derivatives of P. esculentus starch have a great potential as vaccine stabilizers especially in areas prone to CCF.


Assuntos
Doença de Newcastle , Plectranthus , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Galinhas , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Refrigeração , Amido
17.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S68-S79, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269433

RESUMO

Although it is well established that transfusion of platelets in cases of severe bleeding reduces mortality, the availability of platelets is hampered by harsh restrictions on shelf life due to elevated risks of microbial contamination and functional losses with room temperature-stored platelets (RTP) kept at 22°C. In contrast, many recent studies have shown that 4°C cold-stored platelets (CSP) are able to overcome these shortcomings leading to the recent Food and Drug Administration licensure for 14-day stored CSP when conventional platelets are unavailable. This work expands the evidence supporting superiority of CSP function by assaying the less explored platelet-mediated clot retraction of RTP and CSP in either autologous plasma (AP) or platelet additive solution (PAS) for up to 21 days. The results demonstrate that CSP have better preservation of contractile function, exhibiting retraction for up to 21 days in both AP and PAS and forming highly ordered fibrin scaffolds similar to those of fresh platelets. In contrast, RTP stored in AP showed impaired contractile function by Day 5 with no retraction after 10 days, whereas PAS-stored RTP retained contractile function for up to 21 days. Collectively, these findings support extended storage of CSP and suggest that storage in PAS can mitigate functional losses in RTP.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Coagulação Sanguínea , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fibrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Refrigeração , Temperatura
18.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S58-S67, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Refrigeration, or cold-storage, of platelets may be beneficial to extend the limited shelf-life of conventionally stored platelets and support transfusion protocols in rural and military areas. The aim of this study was to compare the morphologic, metabolic, and functional aspects of apheresis platelets stored at room-temperature (RT) or cold conditions, in either plasma or supplemented with platelet additive solution (PAS). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Double-dose apheresis platelets were collected in either 100% plasma or 40% plasma/60% PAS-E using the Trima apheresis platform. One component from each group was either stored at RT (20-24°C) or refrigerated (2-6°C). Platelets were tested over a 21-day period. RESULTS: The platelet concentration decreased by approximately 30% in all groups during 21 days of storage (p > .05). Cold-storage reduced glycolytic metabolism, and the pH was maintained above the minimum specification (>6.4) for 21 days only when platelets were stored in PAS. The surface phenotype and the composition of the supernatant were differentially affected by temperature and storage solution. Functional responses (aggregation, agonist-induced receptor activation, clotting time) were improved during cold-storage, and the influence of residual plasma was assay dependent. CONCLUSION: In vitro platelet quality is differentially affected by storage time, temperature, and solution. Cold-storage, particularly in PAS, better maintains key metabolic, phenotypic, and functional parameters during prolonged storage.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Plaquetoferese , Refrigeração
19.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(8): 3386-3395, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213889

RESUMO

There are 150 million people with diabetes worldwide who require insulin replacement therapy, and the prevalence of diabetes is rising the fastest in middle- and low-income countries. The current formulations require costly refrigerated transport and storage to prevent loss of insulin integrity. This study shows the development of simple "drop-in" amphiphilic copolymer excipients to maintain formulation integrity, bioactivity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics for over 6 months when subjected to severe stressed aging conditions that cause current commercial formulation to fail in under 2 weeks. Further, when these copolymers are added to Humulin R (Eli Lilly) in original commercial packaging, they prevent insulin aggregation for up to 4 days at 50 °C compared to less than 1 day for Humulin R alone. These copolymers demonstrate promise as simple formulation additives to increase the cold chain resilience of commercial insulin formulations, thereby expanding global access to these critical drugs for treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insulina , Excipientes , Humanos , Insulina Regular Humana , Refrigeração
20.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204052

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the packaging system type on the physical characteristics and microbial changes in ostrich meat during refrigerated storage. The applied packaging systems were vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) using two combinations of gases: MAP1 (40% O2/40% CO2/20% N2) and MAP2 (60% O2/30% CO2/10% N2). Eight meat samples were obtained in three replicates for all parameters, except for pH, for which six replicates were obtained from the M. ilifibularis (IF) muscle, and were stored in a refrigerator at 2 °C and analyzed at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days for the effect of packaging methods on physical meat quality. The initial pH (5.99) decreased at the end of the storage time for MAP1 to 5.81, whereas VP was stable from day 0 to 12 and increased up to 6.08 on day 16. Regarding meat color, the L* value increased during storage for MAP1 and MAP2 from 36.99 to 40.75 and 41.60, respectively, whereas it declined for VP to 34.22. The same tendencies were reported for redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Drip loss was the lowest in MAP1 and highest in VP. The lowest total viable bacteria counts were identified in VP, as compared to MAP1 and MAP2.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Struthioniformes , Animais , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Refrigeração , Tempo , Vácuo
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