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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409668

RESUMO

Happiness at work is a consolidated topic. Perhaps the PR and communication sector, often at the forefront of organizational change, is one of the industries where most progress has been made in this regard. The objective of the present study was to carry out an exploratory analysis on the extent to which PR is a profession that enables the development of happiness in the workplace. To this end, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of PR professionals in Spain (N = 256). The questionnaire consisted of the PERMA-profiler, a model where work relationships, engagement, positive affections/emotions, vital sense/purpose and achievements are measured. The results show a remarkable level of happiness among surveyed professionals, especially among women, who obtained higher scores on all five factors, although with a statistically significant difference only in two of the five factors in PERMA (Engagement and Relationships). Neither age nor the hierarchical level of the respondent had any incidence. Therefore, PR can be a profession that notably enables human flourishing at work, even more so among women.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Satisfação no Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Públicas , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
3.
Milbank Q ; 99(4): 1088-1131, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402554

RESUMO

Policy Points  Investments in early childhood education can have long-lasting influence on health and well-being at later stages of the life course.  Widespread public support and strategies to counter opposition will be critical to the future political feasibility of enhancing early childhood policies and programs.  Simple advocacy messages emphasizing the need for affordable, accessible, high-quality childcare for all can increase public support for state investments in these policies.  Policy narratives (short stories with a setting, characters, and a plot that unfolds over time and offers a policy solution to a social problem) that describe structural barriers to childcare and policy solutions to address these barriers may be particularly effective to persuade individuals inclined to oppose such policies to become supportive.  Inoculation messages (messages designed to prepare audiences for encountering and building resistance to opposing messages) may protect favorable childcare policy attitudes in the face of oppositional messaging. CONTEXT: Early childhood education (ECE) programs enhance the health and social well-being of children and families. This preregistered, randomized, controlled study tested the effectiveness of communication strategies to increase public support for state investments in affordable, accessible, and high-quality childcare for all. METHODS: At time 1 (August-September 2019), we randomly assigned members of an online research panel (n  =  4,363) to read one of four messages promoting state investment in childcare policies and programs, or to a no-exposure control group. Messages included an argument-based message ("simple pro-policy"), a message preparing audiences for encountering and building resistance to opposing messages ("inoculation"), a story illustrating the structural nature of the problem and solution ("narrative"), and both inoculation and narrative messages ("combined"). At time 2 (two weeks later) a subset of respondents (n  =  1,436) read an oppositional anti-policy message and, in two conditions, another narrative or inoculation message. Ordinary least squares regression compared groups' levels of support for state investment in childcare policies and programs. FINDINGS: As hypothesized, respondents who read the narrative message had higher support for state investment in childcare policies than those who read the inoculation message or those in the no-exposure control group at time 1. Among respondents who were initially opposed to such investments, those who read the narrative had greater support than respondents who read the simple pro-policy message. Those who received the inoculation message at time 2 were more resistant to the anti-policy message than respondents who did not receive such a message, but effects from exposures to strategic messages at time 1 did not persist at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Results offer guidance for policy advocates seeking to increase public support for early childhood policies and programs and could inform broader efforts to promote high-value policies with potential to improve population health.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Relações Públicas/tendências , Adulto , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255804

RESUMO

The Chilean health authorities have implemented a sanitary strategy known as dynamic quarantine or strategic quarantine to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Under this system, lockdowns were established, lifted, or prolonged according to the weekly health authorities' assessment of municipalities' epidemiological situation. The public announcements about the confinement situation of municipalities country-wide are made typically on Tuesdays or Wednesdays before noon, have received extensive media coverage, and generated sharp stock market fluctuations. Municipalities are the smallest administrative division in Chile, with each city broken down typically into several municipalities. We analyze social media behavior in response to the confinement situation of the population at the municipal level. The dynamic quarantine scheme offers a unique opportunity for our analysis, given that municipalities display a high degree of heterogeneity, both in size and in the socioeconomic status of their population. We exploit the variability over time in municipalities' confinement situations, resulting from the dynamic quarantine strategy, and the cross-sectional variability in their socioeconomic characteristics to evaluate the impact of these characteristics on social sentiment. Using event study and panel data methods, we find that proxies for social sentiment based on Twitter queries are negatively related (more pessimistic) to increases in the number of confined people, but with a statistically significant effect concentrated on people from the wealthiest cohorts of the population. For indicators of social sentiment based on Google Trends, we found that search intensity during the periods surrounding government announcements is positively related to increases in the total number of confined people. Still, this effect does not seem to be dependent on the segments of the population affected by the quarantine. Furthermore, we show that the observed heterogeneity in sentiment mirrors heterogeneity in stock market reactions to government announcements. We provide evidence that the observed stock market behavior around quarantine announcements can be explained by the number of people from the wealthiest segments of the population entering or exiting lockdown.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Relações Públicas , Quarentena/organização & administração , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Soc Stud Sci ; 51(5): 780-796, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213373

RESUMO

Amid rising interest in participatory research, some industries have recently begun to practice public relations citizen science (PRCS). Unlike citizen science and crowdsourcing projects that generate raw materials for product development, PRCS benefits capitalist firms primarily by improving their public image and deflecting accusations of causing harm. Three cases illustrate how PRCS works: (1) a growing assortment of citizen science projects associated with Antarctic tourism, (2) an initiative to document biodiversity, linked to Canada's oil and gas industry, and (3) a study sponsored by Biology Fortified, a nonprofit organization that works to communicate positive information about agricultural biotechnology. Scientists and research organizations may have legitimate reasons for entering into these partnerships, but PRCS can benefit industries in problematic ways. First, by supporting environmental science, PRCS can attach a 'sustainable' image to a polluting industry, without changing its core practices. Second, PRCS can accumulate data and steer volunteers' observations in ways that undermine claims about the harms caused by the industry's practices or products. Finally, in some cases, PRCS organizers hope to induce people to view an industry more 'rationally' than those who make 'emotional' or 'ideological' claims about its harms.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Humanos , Indústrias , Relações Públicas , Voluntários
6.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 33, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous groups, such as the tobacco industry, have deliberately altered and misrepresented knowable facts and empirical evidence to promote an agenda, often for monetary benefit, with consequences for environmental and public health. Previous research has explored cases individually, but none have conducted an in-depth comparison between cases. The purpose of this study was to compile a comprehensive list of tactics used by disparate groups and provide a framework for identifying further instances of manufactured doubt. METHODS: We examined scholarly books, peer-reviewed articles, well-researched journalism pieces, and legal evidence related to five disparate industries and organizations selected for their destructive impacts on environmental and public health (tobacco, coal, and sugar industries, manufacturers of the pesticide Atrazine, and the Marshall Institute, an institute focused on climate change research, and other scientists from the era that associated with those in the Institute). These documents provided evidence for a list of tactics used to generate pro-industry spin and manufacture doubt about conferred harm. We then identified trends among sets of strategies that could explain their differential use or efficacy. RESULTS: We recognized 28 unique tactics used to manufacture doubt. Five of these tactics were used by all five organizations, suggesting that they are key features of manufactured doubt. The intended audience influences the strategy used to misinform, and logical fallacies contribute to their efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: This list of tactics can be used by others to build a case that an industry or group is deliberately manipulating information associated with their actions or products. Improved scientific and rhetorical literacy could be used to render them less effective, depending on the audience targeted, and ultimately allow for the protection of both environmental health and public health more generally.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Comunicação , Decepção , Saúde Ambiental , Indústrias , Saúde Pública , Carvão Mineral , Herbicidas , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Praguicidas , Relações Públicas , Açúcares , Tabaco
9.
Public Underst Sci ; 30(2): 139-152, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274694

RESUMO

This study examined how and whether Japanese research organizations adapt their communications outputs and practices to the media's requirements in a media landscape that has frequently been described as "cartelized." A survey and subsequent in-depth interviews with communications and public relations departments at Japanese research organizations showed that universities and government-funded research institutions employ outputs expected by the media, such as issuing press releases and using fax machines for dissemination. The adoption of media-imposed requirements appears to meet the dual interests of Japanese research organizations and established media. The results suggest that press clubs, one manifestation of an information cartel, are an indicator of how research organizations orient to the media at the organizational level. The findings add a non-Western perspective to the current literature of science medialization.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Comunicação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Japão , Relações Públicas
11.
J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg ; 81(6): 495-500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgery is a common topic in contemporary medical dramas. This study aimed to examine depictions of several neurosurgical diseases and techniques as well as the perception of the personality of neurosurgeons in the media, focusing on their impact on the physician-patient relationship. METHODS: TV series and movies with a main focus on neurosurgeons and/or neurosurgical diseases were identified by consulting the International Movie Database (IMDb). RESULTS: After investigation of many TV series and movies, we identified five main topics: vascular neurosurgery, neuro-oncology, neurointensive care, neurosurgical techniques, and neurosurgeon's personality. The portrayal of neurosurgery in medical drama is characterized to a large extent by sensationalism, a lot of misinformation, and an unfavorable portrayal of neurosurgeons, although it is assumed that expert advice was sought in advance of every production. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the popularity of medical dramas and movies dealing with medical topics, we must consider the general public's picture of neurosurgery to be widely influenced by the media.


Assuntos
Drama , Neurocirurgia/tendências , Televisão , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocirurgiões/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Relações Públicas
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(Suppl 1): 821, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public relations-a marketing communications method involving the use of publicity and other unpaid promotional methods to deliver messages-historically has served as the communicative workhorse of the health services industry, representing the predominant pathway over many decades by which health and medical facilities conveyed stories to the public. While other components of the marketing communications mix, perhaps most notably that of advertising, have now captured a significant portion of interest, attention, and use by healthcare establishments, public relations remains a valuable communicative avenue when deployed properly. DISCUSSION: As an unpaid method of promotion, public relations is uniquely positioned among its counterparts in the marketing communications mix which require direct expenditures to reach audiences. Typically effected by preparing and submitting press releases to news media firms in hopes that they, in turn, will present given stories to their audiences, limitations are somewhat obvious as transmission control rests with external entities. But overcoming limitations is possible with prudent strategies. This article presents Willis-Knighton Health System's associated strategies, along with a range of public relations insights from decades of deployment experience. CONCLUSIONS: Prudently deployed and led by guiding strategies, public relations offers health and medical organizations opportunities to engage audiences in an efficient and highly credible manner. Courtesy of its unique properties, public relations capably can complement other marketing communications, operating synergistically to help healthcare institutions achieve their conveyance goals, fostering exchange and bolstering market share. Careful operationalization of this marketing communications avenue can help healthcare establishments realize their full communicative potential.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Relações Públicas , Humanos , Louisiana , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 274: 42-51, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990664

RESUMO

This chapter is written in order to provide the student with a general overview of communication and public relations in healthcare. All healthcare institutions have a need for adequate and successful communication with their external and internal stakeholders. Every contact of a particular healthcare organization with the public represents a unique interface, as an important part of the communication strategy. Therefore, it is very important to create strategic consistency among all the messages that stakeholders need to receive. The chapter will discuss the relationships between the various components of integrated marketing communications in healthcare, crisis management in the communications sphere and ethics and social responsibility issues.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Públicas , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 316: 110473, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882640

RESUMO

For almost three decades, the Association for the Recovery of the Fallen in Eastern Europe (Verein zur Bergung Gefallener in Osteuropa e.V., VBGO) has committed itself to the location, recovery, documentation, and identification of the missing victims of World War II. Through the tireless efforts of the VBGO volunteers, over 7.000 fallen soldiers have been recovered and given a proper burial, many of them having been identified. The VBGO's work contributes to the ongoing process of coming to terms with one of the darkest chapters in European history. Countless dead are still missing, but they are not forgotten. The aim of this text is to present the VBGO, its goals and work, and the battlefield of Klessin as the main focus of the VBGO.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Exumação , Antropologia Forense/organização & administração , Militares , Sepultamento , Europa Oriental , História do Século XX , Humanos , Relações Públicas , Voluntários , II Guerra Mundial
15.
Semin Neurol ; 40(4): 461-468, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712947

RESUMO

Over the past 40 years, advocacy groups have been instrumental in raising awareness for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. More recently, advocates have emerged to educate about sports concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), including the Concussion Legacy Foundation (CLF). CTE is a neurodegenerative disease caused in part by repetitive head impacts (RHI). While the majority of CTE research has focused on studying former American football players, CTE has also been found in military personnel, victims of domestic violence, and contact sport athletes from high school to professional levels of play. Advocates' many goals include creating a culture of brain donation and modifying youth contact sports to decrease RHI. Here, we provide the first review of CTE advocacy, summarize the accomplishments of the CLF, and consider the connections between CTE advocacy, research, and legislation over the last decade.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Pesquisa Biomédica , Concussão Encefálica , Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica , Fundações , Defesa do Paciente , Relações Públicas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 890, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As diet-related diseases have increased over the past decades, large food companies have come under scrutiny for contributing to this public health crisis. In response, the food industry has implemented Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives related to nutrition and physical activity to emphasize their concern for consumers. This study sought to describe the nature and targeted demographic of physical activity and nutrition-related CSR initiatives of large food companies in Canada and to compare companies who participate in the Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI), a self-regulatory initiative aimed at reducing unhealthy food advertising to children, with non-participating companies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. Thirty-nine large food companies, including 18 participating in the CAI, were included in the study. The webpages, Facebook pages and corporate reports of these companies were surveyed to identify CSR initiatives related to nutrition and physical activity. Initiatives were then classified by type (as either philanthropic, education-oriented, research-oriented or other) and by targeted demographic (i.e. targeted at children under 18 years or the general population). Differences between CAI and non-CAI companies were tested using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Overall, 63 CSR initiatives were identified; 39 were nutrition-related while 24 were physical activity-related. Most (70%) initiatives were considered philanthropic activities, followed by education-oriented (20%), research-oriented (8%) and other (2%). Almost half (47%; n = 29) of initiatives targeted children. Examples of child-targeted initiatives included support of school milk programs (n = 2), the sponsorship of children's sports programs (n = 2) and the development of educational resources for teachers (n = 1). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of CSR initiatives per company (CAI: Mdn = 1, IQR = 3; non-CAI: Mdn = 0, IQR = 2; p = .183) or the proportion of child-targeted initiatives (CAI: 42%; non-CAI: 54%; p = .343) between CAI and non-CAI companies. CONCLUSION: Food companies, including many that largely sell and market unhealthy products, are heavily involved in physical activity and nutrition-related initiatives in Canada, many of which are targeted to children. Government policies aimed at protecting children from unhealthy food marketing should consider including CSR initiatives that expose children to food company branding.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico , Indústria Alimentícia , Marketing , Saúde Pública , Relações Públicas , Responsabilidade Social , Publicidade/ética , Bebidas , Canadá , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Educação , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia/ética , Doações , Humanos , Marketing/ética , Pesquisa
17.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 250(4): 253-262, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321870

RESUMO

The Tohoku Medical Megabank Project was designed as part of the national reconstruction project for addressing the damage from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. It is an integrated project involving the genome cohort study of 150,000 participants, integrated biobank construction, and multi-omics analyses. Public relations and communication activities emerged to be extremely important in the successful development of this project. To gain insights into the contributions of these activities, we divided the public relations and communication activities for the project into three phases based on the situations surrounding the project. Prior to the start of the cohort study (Phase I), a cooperative relationship was established with a focus on concluding cooperation agreements with local governments. Until the participants reached the target number (Phase II), we actively communicated with the media to publicize the project. During the phase in which use of the constructed biobank is promoted (Phase III), for ensuring the industrial utilization of the biobank, visits from the industry are promoted. Throughout the execution of these activities, we explored the best strategies for building relationships with multiple stakeholders like local government, media and industry. By paying attention to these phases that have been changing according to the project's progress, we were able to adapt the strategies and methods of public relations and communication. The success of these activities has enabled the overall project to progress smoothly. We hope that the process of designing our project's public relations and communication activities will be useful for other similar initiatives.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Comunicação , Relações Públicas , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Cooperativo , Geografia , Humanos , Japão , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Participação dos Interessados
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(7): 915-924, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086443

RESUMO

Broad consent is increasingly recommended as an acceptable consent model for biobanking human samples and health data with a view to their future use in research. Empirical evidence on the practice of broad consent and its implementation in the hospital setting, however, is still very limited. We analyse and discuss results from a qualitative study of perceptions of a sample of patients and biobank recruiters regarding broad consent to participate in a hospital-based biobank for prospective research on genomic and health data. Our findings suggest that contextual and relational factors play an important role in the practice of broad consent, and illustrate that broad consent relies as much on intuition as on reasoning. Moreover, we show that seeking broad consent in the hospital affects patient-recruiter interaction and that "conditional" trust plays a significant role in broad-consent decision-making. In conclusion, we provide recommendations to improve patient autonomy in the context of hospital-based broad consent.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Testes Genéticos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Públicas
20.
J Homosex ; 67(7): 965-989, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880614

RESUMO

The article assesses and analyzes different dimensions of the current configuration of North/South dialogues within gay-lesbian and queer studies, with particular attention to the interrelations between the United States and South America. It looks into how gay-lesbian and queer studies relate to the global division and hierarchy of intellectual labor traditionally embedded in academic practices, and it asks whether the scope of its radical program includes a revision of unequal academic dynamics. Its concerns are both ethical and epistemological, as they speak not only to the moral and political dimensions of academic practice, but also to how these modes affect the knowledge produced in the United States and in South America today. By offering a view from the South conversant with South American as well as Northern production, we hope to contribute to both local and international debates regarding the present and future of the field.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Relações Públicas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Princípios Morais , Política , América do Sul , Estados Unidos
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