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1.
Cogn Sci ; 46(4): e13129, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398906

RESUMO

How and why does the moon cause the tides? How and why does God answer prayers? For many, the answer to the former question is unknown; the answer to the latter question is a mystery. Across three studies testing a largely Christian sample within the United States (N = 2524), we investigate attitudes toward ignorance and inquiry as a window onto scientific versus religious belief. In Experiment 1, we find that science and religion are associated with different forms of ignorance: scientific ignorance is typically expressed as a personal unknown ("it's unknown to me"), whereas religious ignorance is expressed as a universal mystery ("it's a mystery"), with scientific unknowns additionally regarded as more viable and valuable targets for inquiry. In Experiment 2, we show that these forms of ignorance are differentially associated with epistemic goals and norms: expressing ignorance in the form of "unknown" (vs. "mystery") more strongly signals epistemic values and achievements. Experiments 2 and 3 additionally show that ignorance is perceived to be a greater threat to science and scientific belief than to religion and religious belief. Together, these studies shed light on the psychological roles of scientific and religious belief in human cognition.


Assuntos
Religião e Ciência , Religião , Atitude , Cristianismo , Cognição , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113914

RESUMO

Religious responses to COVID-19 as portrayed in a major news source raise the issue of conflict or cooperation between religious bodies and public health authorities. We compared articles in the New York Times relating to religion and COVID-19 with the COVID-19 statements posted on 63 faith-based organizations' web sites, and with the guidance documents published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) specifically for religious bodies. We used computational text analysis to identify and compare sentiments and topics in the three bodies of text. Sentiment analysis showed consistent positive values for faith-based organizations' texts throughout the period. The initial negative sentiment of religion-COVID-19 coverage in the New York Times rose over the period and eventually converged with the consistently positive sentiment of faith-based documents. In our topic modelling analysis, rank order and regression analysis showed that topic prevalence was similar in the faith-based and public health sources, and both showed statistically significant differences from the New York Times. We conclude that there is evidence of both narratives and counter-narratives, and that these showed demonstrable shifts over time. Text analysis of public documents shows alignment of the interests of public health and religious bodies, which can be discerned for the benefit of communities if parties are trusted and religious messages are consistent with public health communications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Narração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Religião e Ciência , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Jornais como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais
3.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 120(6): 1720-1748, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242044

RESUMO

Teleology involves an appeal to function to explain why things are the way they are. Among scientists and philosophers, teleological explanations are widely accepted for human-made artifacts and biological traits, yet controversial for biological and nonbiological natural entities. Prior research shows a positive relationship between religiosity and acceptance of such controversial teleological explanations. Across three large online studies, we show that the relationship between religiosity and teleological acceptance cannot be explained by acceptance of objectively false explanations. Furthermore, we show that anthropomorphism and a belief in supernatural agents each independently predict teleological acceptance. In contrast, the tendency to inhibit intuitively appealing, yet incorrect responses to simple reasoning problems was associated with lower teleological acceptance. These results provide strong support for an intention-based account of teleology, and further contribute to the existing literature which situates teleological reasoning within a dual-process framework. Several avenues of future research are discussed, including the need to dissociate implicit and explicit measures of teleological belief, and the need for a greater focus on cross-cultural variation in teleological beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Religião e Psicologia , Religião e Ciência , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Intuição , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(3): e547-e548, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018562

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) does not discriminate; it affects everyone regardless of beliefs, gender, nationality, skin color, and social class. A recent correspondence published in the Journal of Public Health proposed the 'collaboration of science and religion in COVID-19 vaccine promotion.' The said article was in response to a previously published correspondence, which proposed a multi-sectoral approach on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination hesitancy. This article further adds that science, religion and state are not mutually exclusive with each other. What this article, therefore, proposes is a multidimensional relationship of science, religion and state to promote the COVID-19 vaccine and other science-based findings to combat the public fear of the public on vaccine and virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Religião , Religião e Ciência , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 3): S257-S279, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010252

RESUMO

One of the most controversial topics in modern bioethics, science, and philosophy is the beginning of individual human life. In the seemingly endless debate, strongly stimulated by recent technologic advances in human reproduction, a synthesis between scientific data and hypothesis, philosophical thought, and issues of humanities has become a necessity to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems. Furthermore, in this field there is a temptation to ask science to choose between opinions and beliefs, which neutralize one another. The question of when human life begins requires the essential aid of different forms of knowledge. Here we become involved in the juncture between science and religion, which needs to be carefully explored. Modern bioethics and science are strongly concerned for the respect of human life at both ends of its existence (birth and death), but other sciences (eg. Philosophy, technology, psychology, sociology, law, and politics) consider the beginning of human life according to different points of view. However, bioethical topics like this one cannot be treated from only one perspective (eg. Biological, philosophical, or religious) because conclusions might be not good enough or reductive. This reality should be regarded in all its richness: An embryo gives a biologist and a geneticist substance for consideration, but because we are talking about the beginning of human life, it requires philosophical-anthropological consideration and confrontation with theology; in its protection we have to include ethics and law. In experiencing and investigating social behavior, other disciplines, such as the history of medicine and sociology, have to be included. It is hard to answer the question when human life should be legally protected. At the time of conception? At the time of implantation? At the time of birth? In all countries (except Ireland and Liechtenstein) juridical considerations are based on Roman law. Roman civil law says that the fetus has right when it is born or if it is born-nasciterus. Few countries agree with definition of beginning of human personality at the time of conception. The majority does not grant legal status to the human embryo in vitro (i.e., during the 14 days after fertilization). Thus, even in the absence of legal rights, there is no denying that the embryo constitutes the beginning of human life, a member of the human family. Therefore, whatever the attitude, every country has to examine which practices are compatible with the respect of that dignity and the security of human genetic material.The question when a human life begins and how to define it, could be answered only through the inner-connecting pathways of history, philosophy, medical science and religion. It has not been easy to determine where to draw the fine line between the competence of science and methaphysics in this delicate philosophical field. To a large extent the drawing of this line depends on one's fundamental philosophical outlook. The point at which human life begins will always be seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religious faiths. In democracy there are always at least two sides, and the center holds only when the majority realizes that without a minority democracy itself is lost. The minority in turn must realize its best chance lies in persuasion by reason and thoughtfulness rather than fanaticism.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Bioética , Humanos , Irlanda , Filosofia , Religião , Religião e Ciência
7.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(3): e513-e514, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866364

RESUMO

A recent correspondence published in this journal proposed a multi-sectoral approach on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination hesitancy, whereas another proposed that religious leaders play a role in gaining the public's trust in COVID-19 vaccine. This article raises awareness that though religious leaders play a huge role in promoting the COVID-19 vaccine, they are still bound by the findings of science. What this article, therefore, proposes is the collaboration of science and religion in COVID-19 vaccine promotion.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Religião e Ciência , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
9.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 47(3): 441-454, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515273

RESUMO

Stereotypes of religion (particularly Christianity) as incompatible with science are widespread, and prior findings show that Christians perform worse than non-Christians on scientific reasoning tasks following reminders of such stereotypes. The present studies (N = 1,456) examine whether these reminders elicit stereotype threat (i.e., fear of confirming negative societal stereotypes about one's group), disengagement (i.e., distancing oneself from a domain perceived as incongruent with the values of one's group), or both. In Studies 1 and 2, Christians demonstrated lower task performance and greater subjective feelings of stereotype threat (but did not spend less time on the task) relative to non-Christians when beliefs about Christianity-science incompatibility were chronic or made salient. Furthermore, the effects of incompatibility stereotypes on performance were most pronounced among Christians who identified strongly with science and hence worried most about confirming negative stereotypes (Studies 3-4). Implications for Christians' responses to religion-science conflict narratives and participation in science are discussed.


Assuntos
Cristianismo/psicologia , Religião e Ciência , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
10.
Ann Sci ; 78(2): 197-220, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317404

RESUMO

This paper is intended as a contribution to the study of science and religion in late modern Catholic societies. I explore the treatment of natural philosophy vis-à-vis religious (Roman Catholic) authority, the teaching of Biblical geology, and the use of natural theology in texts from Río de la Plata in the transition from late colonial to early independent times (1770-1815). After reviewing the assimilation of modern science into scholastic teaching and the articulation of reason and religious authority, the article considers the handling of the early history of the Earth in the theses of scholastic teachers and in the geological memoirs of the naturalist priest from Montevideo Dámaso Larrañaga. The core of the paper is devoted to the treatment of natural theology in Larrañaga's Diary of Natural History and in the speeches and documents of enlightened crown bureaucrats. The conclusion is reached that the harmonious character of the relationships between science and religion in this period and location harboured tensions (such as the blurred frontier between natural theology and natural religion) which could be accounted for in terms of the inherent inconsistencies in the programme of Catholic Enlightenment.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , História Natural/história , Religião e Ciência , Argentina , Colonialismo , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
11.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(8): 582-586, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740559

RESUMO

Since the beginning of American psychiatry, we have discovered and rediscovered connections among religion, spirituality, meaning, and mental health. In the 19th century, religion was an embedded attribute of moral therapy, the framework for treatment in mental institutions. During the decades in the 20th century when psychoanalysis was ascendant in the profession, some psychiatrists collaborated with the emerging field of pastoral care. As biological psychiatry has come to dominate the profession, though, pastoral care providers and some psychiatric researchers have identified gaps in the human interactions that characterize ideal and meaningful encounters with patients. This article examines how religion has been mobilized in American psychiatry over the centuries within institutional settings, but also looks at a broad consideration of faith in psychiatrists' clinical interventions, how that has affected their interactions with religious ideas and people, and where they have found meaning and purpose in mental health care.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria/história , Religião e Psicologia , Serviço Religioso no Hospital/história , Cura pela Fé/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Assistência Religiosa/história , Religião e Ciência , Espiritualidade , Estados Unidos
12.
Teresina; SESAPI; 2020000. 5 p. (ORIENTAÇÕES PARA CENTROS ESPÍRITAS: MEDIDAS DE PREVENÇÃO E(CONTROLE DA DISSEMINAÇÃO DO SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, SESAPI | ID: biblio-1357890
13.
Asclepio ; 72(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195649

RESUMO

Valiéndose de un análisis cultural de larga duración, el autor trata de analizar la influencia de la idea de la especificidad del ser humano dentro de la construcción de la historia natural en occidente. Se pretende mostrar cómo ese concepto del ser humano incidió en la construcción de los distintos razonamientos científicos sobre la relación entre variedad, diferencia y desigualdad, condicionando una forma de identidad biológica marcada por la apropiación del valor de superioridad física y moral esencial que se atribuyó al primer hombre. Ello da pie a una reflexión sobre la forma en que la relación entre la ciencia y el poder impuso límites al proceso de secularización en occidente


Through a cultural analysis in long-term, the author tries to analyze the influence of the idea of the specificity of the human being in the construction of Western natural history. The aim is to show how this concept of human being influenced the construction of the different scientific reasoning about the relationship between variety, difference and inequality, and how that conditioned the construction of a biological identity marked by the appropriation of the value of an essential physical and moral superiority attributed to the first man. This leads to a reflection on the way in which the relationship between science and power, imposed limits on the process of Western secularization


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Religião e Ciência , Conhecimento , Reprodução , Biologia/história , Cristianismo
15.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 10-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250204

RESUMO

Astrologers have exercised self-censorship throughout the centuries in order to fend off criticism. This was largely for religious reasons, but social, political, and ethical motivations also have to be taken into account. This paper explores the main reasons that led astrologers to increase censorship in their writings in the decades that preceded the Church's regulations and offers some examples of this self-imposed restraint in astrological judgements.


Assuntos
Astrologia/história , Censura Científica , Cristianismo/história , Religião e Ciência , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XV , História Medieval
16.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 50-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250205

RESUMO

This paper explores the rules for the expurgation of texts of astrology in the Iberian Indices of forbidden books. It addresses the prohibitions put forward in Rule IX of the Index of Trent and the bull Coeli et terrae of Sixtus V, and studies its impact on the rules and their interpretation in the Spanish and Portuguese Indices, in particular, those published in the first decades of the seventeenth century: the Spanish Index librorum prohibitorum et expurgatorum of 1612 and the Portuguese Index auctorum damnatae memoriae of 1624. It shows how these indices offer a more meticulous examination of the prohibitions providing not only more detail regarding the different practices of astrology, but also explicitly accept the doctrine of inclinations of Thomas Aquinas as a central rule to deal with astrological judgments on human behaviour. It also highlights some specific details of the practice of censorship of astrological books by examining case studies of censored Portuguese and Spanish astrological publications. These provide new dimensions and highlight significant differences between the theoretical rules, practical guidelines, and actual restriction of astrological content.


Assuntos
Astrologia/história , Catolicismo/história , Censura Científica , Religião e Ciência , História do Século XVII , Portugal , Espanha
18.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 26-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134363

RESUMO

Historians have portrayed the papal bull Coeli et terrae (1586) as a significant turning point in the history of the Catholic Church's censorship of astrology. They argue that this bull was intended to prohibit the idea that the stars could naturally incline humans towards future actions, but also had the effect of preventing the discussion of other forms of natural astrology including those useful to medicine, agriculture, and navigation. The bull, therefore, threatened to overturn principles established by Thomas Aquinas, which not only justified long-standing astrological practices, but also informed the Roman Inquisition's attitude towards this art. The promulgation of the bull has been attributed to the 'rigour' of the incumbent pope, Sixtus V. In this article I revise our understanding of this bull in two ways. First, I reconsider the Inquisition's attitude towards astrology in the mid-sixteenth century, arguing that its members promoted a limited form of Thomist astrology that did not permit the doctrine of inclination. Second, using Robert Bellarmine's unpublished lectures discussing Aquinas's views of astrology, I suggest that this attitude was common during the sixteenth century, and may have been caused by the crisis of Renaissance astrology precipitated by the work of Giovanni Pico.


Assuntos
Astrologia/história , Catolicismo/história , Censura Científica , Religião e Ciência , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI
19.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 96-107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159442

RESUMO

It is known that throughout the seventeenth century the world system proposed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) assumed a preponderant position in the Iberian cosmological debate, according to many opinions the one showing the best agreement to empirical evidence. Moreover, the Tychonian model (or variants thereof) did not present the difficulties of apparent contradiction with scriptures, as the heliocentric system of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) did, since it kept the earth fixed at the centre of the world. However, Tycho, as a Lutheran author, was targeted by the Inquisition. Passages of various works of the Danish astronomer were included in the Spanish Indices of 1632, 1640 and 1707, although the formal condemnation of the Roman Inquisition never materialized. In the network of the Society of Jesus a seemingly informal censorship also circulated, apparently based on Tridentine determinations, published in 1651 in the influential work of Giambattista Riccioli (1598-1671) Almagestum novum. In this paper I will discuss the scope, effects and limitations of the censorship of Tycho's scientific books in Portugal and Spain, through the analysis of several annotated copies, preserved manly in Iberian libraries, with a special attention to books with a well-established provenance in past Jesuit colleges.


Assuntos
Astronomia/história , Censura Científica , Cristianismo/história , Religião e Ciência , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Portugal , Espanha
20.
Ann Sci ; 77(1): 71-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157948

RESUMO

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Inquisition was the institution most invested in the censorship of printed books in the Portuguese empire. Besides publishing the Indices of Forbidden Books, the Holy Office was also responsible for overseeing their implementation and ensuring their efficacy in preventing the importation, reading, and circulation of banned books. Overall, the sixteenth-century Indices condemned 785 authors and 1081 titles, including 52 authors and 85 titles of medicine, natural history, natural philosophy, astronomy, chronology, cosmography, astrology, and divinatory arts. By looking at the largest collection of early modern scientific books in Portugal, I will argue that a closer inspection of marginalia and ownership, and the establishment of a typology of expurgations is essential for the comprehension of the actual practices and the mechanisms of censorship. By examining the material evidence of censorship, in order to reconstruct expurgation practices, this paper reveals the processes and effectiveness of ecclesiastical control in the Portuguese Inquisition and highlights the differences between what inquisitors wrote in the Indices and what others put into practice.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Censura Científica , Religião e Ciência , Ciência/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Portugal
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