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1.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2123090, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited information is known from studies regarding traditional, religious, and cultural perspectives on mental illness and the use of traditional and alternative therapies by mentally ill people in Indonesia. This study explored traditional, religious, and cultural beliefs about causes of mental illness and the use of traditional/alternative treatments for mentally ill patients. METHOD: We adopted a qualitative content analysis method as proposed by Schreier. This study was conducted at a mental Hospital in Indonesia. We interviewed 15 nurses and 15 patients. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis method. RESULTS: Five discrete but interrelated themes emerged: 1) Possessed illness and belief in supernatural forces; 2) Sinful or cursed illness; 3) Witchcraft or human-made illness; 4) traditional/alternative treatments; and 5) Barriers to treatment of mental illness. CONCLUSION: Traditional/alternative treatments play an important role in meeting the need for mental health treatment. The findings are relevant for mental health nurses who provide direct to their patients, and for other areas of mental health practice. We also found a lack of knowledge about the causes of mental illness among patients and families. Education should be at the heart of mental health promotion to raise the level of mental health literacy in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião
2.
Palliat Support Care ; 20(5): 711-719, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111730

RESUMO

This integrative literature review aimed to identify the religious and spiritual experiences of family members and caregivers of children and adolescents with cancer. Through systematized searches in the databases/libraries CINAHL, PsycINFO, Pubmed, SciELO, and Lilacs, 69 articles produced between 2010 and 2020 were retrieved. There was a predominance of studies with parents developed in hospital facilities. The caregivers' religious and spiritual experiences helped them to cope with childhood cancer, especially in maintaining hope, reducing stress and anxiety symptoms, as well as in providing psychological and social support. Negative outcomes such as questioning faith, the feeling of punishment, and disruption with the religious and spiritual group were also perceived. It is recommended to include religiosity and spirituality for the provision of more humanized and comprehensive care, as well as further investigation of the negative experiences regarding religiosity and spirituality in this public.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Religião , Espiritualidade
3.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(8): 535-539, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117488

RESUMO

Background  Diversity manifests itself emphatically in the broad field of spirituality and worldview. Aim  To contribute to the diversity competence of mental health professionals consistent with the intent of the WPA Position Statement on religion and spirituality in psychiatry. Method  Explanation of a number of aspects: the spiritual landscape, the problem of definitions, interpretive power and diversity, and the concept of ‘lived religion’ as an alternative. Results  There is a lot of well-researched material available to enable mental health professionals to work with spiritual and worldview diversity. Conclusion  Diversity can mainly be seen as a challenge to do justice to the person asking for care in all respects.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Religião
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054189

RESUMO

Religious institutions have been responsive to the needs of Black men and other marginalized populations. Religious service attendance is a common practice that has been associated with stress management and extended longevity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between religious service attendance and all-cause mortality among Black men 50 years of age and older. Data for this study were from NHANES III (1988-1994). The analytic sample (n = 839) was restricted to participants at least 50 years of age at the time of interview who self-identified as Black and male. Mortality was the primary outcome for this study and the NHANES III Linked Mortality File was used to estimate race-specific, non-injury-related death rates using a probabilistic matching algorithm, linked to the National Death Index through December 31, 2015, providing up to 27 years follow-up. The primary independent variable was religious service attendance, a categorical variable indicating that participants attended religious services at least weekly, three or fewer times per month, or not at all. The mean age of participants was 63.6±0.3 years and 36.4% of sample members reported that they attended religious services one or more times per week, exceeding those attending three or fewer times per month (31.7%), or not at all (31.9%). Cox proportional hazard logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between religious service attendance and mortality. Participants with the most frequent religious service attendance had a 47% reduction of all-cause mortality risk compared their peer who did not attend religious services at all (HR 0.53, CI 0.35-0.79) in the fully adjusted model including socioeconomic status, non-cardiovascular medical conditions, health behaviors, social support and allostatic load. Our findings underscore the potential salience of religiosity and spirituality for health in Black men, an understudied group where elevated risk factors are often present.


Assuntos
Religião , Espiritualidade , Negros , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e062464, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are presently over four million people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the South African national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. However, some ART programmes are battling poor ART adherence emanating from patient-related factors, including their religious beliefs. In this paper, we outline a study protocol to understand the adherence behaviours of Pentecostal Christians living with HIV to ART and to develop guidelines that can be used to strengthen ART adherence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose an exploratory multimethod research design. In phase 1, a scoping review will be conducted. The data captured in this phase will be put into charting forms, analysed qualitatively, and then collated and summarised to hypothesise the relationship between religious beliefs and ART adherence. In phase 2, an explanatory qualitative approach will be used. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposefully selected religious leaders, Pentecostal Christians living with HIV who are not adhering to ART and healthcare workers delivering ART at selected healthcare facilities in the Milnerton subhealth district. The qualitative data obtained in this phase will be transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using the ATLAS.ti V.8 software program towards strengthening the hypothesised relationship between religious beliefs and ART adherence. In phase 3, intervention mapping and nominal group techniques will be applied with purposefully selected stakeholders to develop guidelines to strengthen ART adherence among PLHIV. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Phase 1 of the study will not require ethics approval. Ethics approval for phases 2 and 3 has been received from the University of the Western Cape Biomedical Research and Ethics Committee and the Western Cape Department of Health. Informed consent forms will be obtained from all participants at the different phases of the study. The study findings will be disseminated through publications in scientific journals, presentations at conferences and workshops aimed at improving ART adherence.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adesão à Medicação , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Religião , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , África do Sul
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1343, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122393
8.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(5): 326-333, Sep-Oct 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207827

RESUMO

Objetivo: El dolor se califica como un fenómeno subjetivo, sin embargo, casi todas las mujeres reconocen que el dolor de parto es la forma más severa de dolor que una mujer experimenta en su vida. La analgesia obstétrica está infrautilizada en los países en desarrollo debido a mitos y tabúes culturales. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio pretende identificar los conocimientos de las mujeres nigerianas sobre la analgesia del parto y explorar qué mitos y factores dificultan el uso de la analgesia en el parto. Método: En este estudio se adoptó un diseño cuantitativo descriptivo transversal. La población a estudio consistió predominantemente en mujeres embarazadas de la «etnia Yoruba». Se utilizó un cuestionario semiestructurado adaptado para obtener datos de las participantes de los centros de salud seleccionados en el estado de Ekiti, Nigeria. Los datos recogidos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial y se representaron en forma de tablas y gráficos. El nivel de significación estuvo fijado en p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: Un total de 236 encuestadas fueron incluidas en el estudio (n = 236). Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que las participantes tenían un conocimiento muy pobre de las estrategias de tratamiento del dolor del parto, ya que solo 26,3% conocía las estrategias de tratamiento del dolor utilizadas para aliviar el dolor del parto. Un elevado número de las participantes (56,8%) creía que el dolor del parto no debía aliviarse con el uso de fármacos, estando muy de acuerdo en que la analgesia era «un signo de debilidad» (57,2%). Asimismo, más de la mitad (51,7%) de las participantes temían que el alivio del dolor administrado durante el parto pudiera causar daños al feto. La creencia de que experimentar el dolor del parto completa la maternidad (49,6%), la religión (50,4%) y la cultura (54,5%) se señalaron como factores que influyen en la aceptación de la analgesia del parto entre las participantes.(AU)


Objective: Pain is termed as a subjective phenomenon, however almost all women acknowledge that labor pain is the most severe form of pain a woman experiences in her lifetime. Obstetric analgesia is underutilized in developing countries due to cultural myths and taboos. Hence, the present study aims to identify Nigerian women's knowledge of labor analgesia and to explore what myths and factors hinder with the use of analgesia in labor. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. The population of the study predominantly consisted of pregnant women from the «Yoruba ethnic group». An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from participants from selected Health Care Centers in Ekiti state, Nigeria. The collected data was analyzed using a descriptive and inferential statistics and was represented in form of tables and charts with level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 236 respondents were included in the study (n = 236). Findings from this study revealed that, the participants showed very poor knowledge on labor pain management strategies, with only 26.3% being aware of pain management strategies used in relieving labor pain. An elevated number of the participants (56.8%) believed that labor pain should not be relieved with the use of drugs, strongly agreeing that analgesia was «a sign ofweakness» (57.2%). Also, more than half (51.7%) of participants had fears that pain relief administered during labor can cause harm to the unborn baby. Belief that experiencing labor pain completes one's motherhood (49.6%), Religion (50.4%) and Culture (54.5%), were reported as factors influencing the uptake/acceptance of labor analgesia among participants.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Trabalho de Parto , Cultura , Religião , 57374 , Mães , Analgesia Epidural , Analgesia , Dor do Parto , Analgesia Obstétrica , Nigéria , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , 24960 , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e20210724, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the expressions of spirituality and religiosity of relatives of people who abuse or are dependent on psychoactive substances. METHODS: exploratory-descriptive research that dialogues with the spirituality and religiosity conceptual framework. It was performed at an outpatient clinic specialized in drug treatment in southern Brazil. Semi-structured interviews conducted with 11 relatives of patients undergoing treatment were analyzed by content analysis. RESULTS: the findings were grouped into two categories: forms of expression of spirituality and religiosity practices; and their influence on relatives' lives. Spirituality and religiosity almost always serve as a protective factor against feelings of anguish, conflicts and loneliness. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: despite the important role of expressions of spirituality and religiosity for many relatives, not everyone seems to benefit from them. Health professionals should consider these expressions in the construction of comprehensive health care for relatives.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Espiritualidade , Brasil , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Religião
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e060820, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-related cues trigger relapse in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These cues may automatically activate motivational approach tendencies. Through computerised cognitive bias modification (CBM), the tendencies of patients with AUD to approach alcohol can be reduced. The present protocol describes a training intervention with approach bias modification (ApBM) incorporating religion-related stimuli as an alternative to alcohol to improve the effectiveness of CBM in a religion-based rehabilitation centre. AUD is often related to patients' religious attitudes in this treatment context. The religion-adapted ApBM, therefore, combines training in avoidance of alcohol-related motivational cues and an approach to religion-based motivational cues. This combination's effectiveness will be compared with a standard ApBM and to a sham ApBM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using a double-blind multiarm parallel randomised controlled trial procedure (ratio 1:1:1), 120 patients with AUD will be randomised into 1 of 3 conditions (religion-adapted ApBM, standard ApBM or sham ApBM) with personalised stimuli. The interventions are delivered over 4 consecutive days during an inpatient detoxification programme in addition to treatment as usual. Assessments occur before the start of the training and after the fourth training session, with follow-up assessments after 1 and 4 months. A multivariate analysis of variance will be used with the primary outcomes, the percentage of days abstinent and meaning in life 4-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include differences in reported training satisfaction and symptoms of AUD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been reviewed and approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee Academic Medical Center Amsterdam (Reference number: 2020_251). Further, study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL75499.018.20.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Cognição , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Religião , Salicilamidas
11.
F1000Res ; 11: 177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035886

RESUMO

Since thousands of years ago, oral sex has become part of sexual behavior among humans. Oral sex is considered taboo. Its taboo does not lie in the behavior, but its expression is deemed inappropriate. As technology becomes more sophisticated, human rights also stand out, leading to the disclosure of the practice in the 21 st century. The oral sex that is discussed on a large scale in media encourages people to express it as feedback whether within right or not. It all depends on the value of each people. We found that this sexual behavior is found everywhere regardless of religion, culture, and race. Pop culture influences this behavior so much, it can be seen from music, movies, and television programs that provoke oral sex. Many motivations underlying this behavior include getting sexual pleasure for the sake of living well-being. But it is undeniable that this behavior is still controversial. It could be at risk of causing disease and, on the other hand, is reported to provide many benefits.  According to our theory, oral sex is not a new behavior crossing boundaries. It is just an old behavior that surfaces because of the factors that support it. This behavior, which is still considered taboo, has its disadvantages such as sexually transmitted disease but has also benefits such as preventing preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Religião , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954951

RESUMO

The widespread COVID-19 conspiracy theories are a problem in dealing with the pandemic, as their proponents tend not to adhere to public health regulations. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between religious fundamentalism, delusions, compliance with public health regulations, and religion-related conspiracy beliefs about the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were 570 internet users aged 18-60. They responded to questions regarding sociodemographic variables, compliance with public health regulations, conspiracy beliefs concerning COVID-19, as well as the Revised Religious Fundamentalism Scale, and the Delusions Scale. The results indicated that people exhibiting more conspiracy beliefs were less likely to comply with public health regulations concerning the COVID-19 pandemic and showed more religious fundamentalism. Additionally, there was an indirect effect of religious fundamentalism on conspiracy beliefs through delusions. The results suggest that when formulating epidemiological messages, it is worth paying attention to the importance of rational thinking.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Delusões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Religião
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954998

RESUMO

Bullying is a major risk factor for poor psychological development for both children and adolescents worldwide. The current study, based on data from the International Survey of Children's Well-Being (ISCWeB), explores the association between bullying victimization and subjective well-being as well as the moderating role of the child religiosity in this context among a sample of 2733 children aged 10-12 years old in Israel. Data was collected from children using self-reporting questionnaires, adopting a random stratified sampling method. A PROCESS moderation analysis was performed using SPSS for assessing the part played by child religiosity in moderating bullying victimization and the subjective well-being of children. This produced two key findings: first, children's subjective well-being is negatively associated with bullying victimization; second, children's religiosity serves as a protective factor by moderating the association between the child's bullying victimization and subjective well-being. In light of the results, we recommend professionals who work with children to incorporate spiritual and religious resources into school-based interventions aiming at strengthening the child's inner resilience and help overcome difficulties in their lives, based on a religious coping strategies.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Religião , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271515, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951596

RESUMO

Several studies show that religion hinders concerns for the natural environment preservation. Others, however, have found that the belief in God or the identification with a particular religion is not associated with measures for environmental concerns. This study investigates the influence of religious narrative framing and the relation between Allport's intrinsic personal (IP) and extrinsic social (ES) religious orientation towards general environmental apathy (GEA) and acceptability for harming animals (AIS). This study surveyed 657 teachers and school staff in East Java, Indonesia. Using ANOVA, we find that religious narrative affects participant's GEA and AIS. Participants in stewardship narrative group have significantly lower GEA and AIS compared to participants in human dominance and the non-narratives control group. Using multiple regression, we also confirm the persistence of religious narrative's influence towards GEA. In addition, lower GEA and AIS correlate with higher IP and lower ES. Lastly, we identify and discuss significant demographic and other determinants relation to GEA and AIS.


Assuntos
Narração , Religião , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 23(1): 91-98, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000621

RESUMO

Background: HIV is a chronic illness that impacts the lives of more than 1 million people in the United States. As persons living with HIV (PWH) are living longer, it is important to understand the influence that religiosity/spirituality has among middle-aged and older PWH.Objective: Compare the degree of religiosity/spirituality among middle-aged and older PWH and HIV-negative individuals, and to identify demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with religiosity/spirituality among PWH.Method: Baseline data on 122 PWH and 92 HIV-negative individuals (ages 36-65 years; 61.1% Non-Hispanic White) from a longitudinal study were analyzed for the current study. Recruitment occurred through HIV treatment clinics and community organizations in San Diego. Participants completed questionnaires on religiosity, spirituality, and psychosocial functioning. Independent samples t-tests, Pearson correlations, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test the study objective.Results: No significant differences in religiosity/spirituality were found between PWH and HIV-negative individuals. Demographic and psychosocial variables were unrelated to religiously/spirituality among HIV-negative individuals. Among PWH, multiple linear regression models indicated higher daily spirituality was significantly associated with racial/ethnic minority membership (Hispanic/Latino, African American/Black, or Other), fewer years of estimated duration of HIV, greater social support, and higher grit. Greater engagement in private religious practices was significantly associated with racial/ethnic minority membership and higher social support.Conclusions: For PWH, being a racial/ethnic minority and having higher social support was associated with greater engagement in religious/spiritual practices. Future longitudinal studies should examine whether religion/spirituality impacts well-being across the lifespan among racial/ethnic minority groups of PWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Idoso , Etnicidade , Processos Grupais , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Religião , Estados Unidos
16.
Soins ; 67(865): 43-46, 2022 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995501

RESUMO

Working in a palliative care unit raises a number of questions for carers relating to suffering and death. This case study of a Catholic nurse investigates the link between spirituality and caregiving by exploring her subjective relationship to the work of caregiving.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Espiritualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Religião
17.
Soins ; 67(865): 50-53, 2022 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995503

RESUMO

Often ignored, reduced or refuted by caregivers, the patient's spiritual dimension should be fully integrated into the support offered to him. In no way reducible to religion, it relates to what is most profound as a singular being, and as such, the intervention of the psychologist can be particularly helpful.


Assuntos
Terapias Espirituais , Espiritualidade , Cuidadores , Humanos , Masculino , Religião
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(33): e29959, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Successful recruitment of participants into clinical research has always been challenging and is affected by many factors. This systematic review aimed to explore the perceptions and attitudes as well as identify the factors affecting the participation in clinical research among the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office countries' population. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted to explore attitudes or perceptions of the general public or patients towards participation in clinical research. PubMed, Pro-Quest Central, World Health Organizations Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and Google Scholar were searched. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they presented primary data and were conducted in one of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office countries. A data extraction sheet was used to record the following: year, country, aim, population, sample size, study design, data collection, and setting. The identified factors from the included studies were categorized into motivators and barriers. RESULTS: In total, 23 original research articles were identified that addressed perceptions or attitudes towards clinical research participation. Six main motivators and barriers of research participation among patients, the general public, and patient family members were identified. The most common cited motivators included personal benefits to the individual, altruism and the desire to help others, the research process, the influence of the physician, family encouragement, and religion. Concerns regarding safety, confidentiality, and other factors in addition to the research process, lack of trust in healthcare providers or healthcare system, lack of interest in research and no perceived personal benefit, religious concerns, and family/cultural concerns were the most cited barriers to participation. CONCLUSION: The identified motivators and barriers are essential to tackle during clinical research planning among the population of Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office countries. Further research is needed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of individuals approached to participate in trials.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos , Humanos , Religião , Tamanho da Amostra , Confiança
19.
Acta Biomed ; 93(4): e2022244, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043962

RESUMO

Controversies and skepticism about vaccination have existed as long as vaccination itself. Today and yesterday, the authority of religious leaders has a fundamental role to convince members of their congregations to accept or reject vaccination. Our contribution tells of the stratagem used by the Italian doctor Luigi Sacco to make the faithful lean towards the vaccination using their faith as a means. The history of yesterday's end of today opens a current debate on the role and responsibility of religion around vaccination practice. As COVID-19 vaccine mandates grow, so are requests for religious exemptions.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Religião , Vacinação , Recusa de Vacinação
20.
Bioethics ; 36(8): 891-898, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909319

RESUMO

Recently, Brummett and Crutchfield advanced two critiques of theists who object to moral enhancement. First, a conceptual critique: theists who oppose moral enhancement commonly do so because virtue is thought to be acquired only via a special kind of process. Enhancement does not involve such processes. Hence, enhancement cannot produce virtue. Yet theists also commonly claim that God is perfectly virtuous and not subject to processes. If virtue requires a process and God is perfectly virtuous without a process, however, then theists contradict themselves. Second, a moral critique: theists who reject moral enhancement are selfish, because accepting moral enhancement would (allegedly) reduce widespread suffering. Theists often condemn selfishness, however. By condemning selfishness and (simultaneously) rejecting enhancement, therefore, theists contradict themselves yet again. We argue that both critiques fail. Both substantially misrepresent their target. First, Brummett and Crutchfield confuse metaphysical enhancement (attempts to alter human nature) with moral enhancement (attempts to become better human beings). Authors that Brummett and Crutchfield cite object to the former, not the latter. Second, both conceptual and moral critiques overlook the many resources within theistic traditions that can quickly resolve relevant (alleged) contradictions. The conceptual critique, for example, misrepresents both common views held among theists (regarding God's virtue) and the ways in which virtue may be acquired. Similarly, the moral critique mischaracterizes the relationship commonly posited by theists between enhancement and agency. By attending to what theists actually claim-rather than relying on caricatures-it becomes clear that each of Brummett and Crutchfield's critiques fail.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Virtudes , Humanos , Religião
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