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1.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(5): 146, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor speech treatment approaches have been applied in both adults with aphasia and apraxia of speech and children with speech-sound disorders. Identifying links between motor speech intervention techniques and the modes of action (MoA) targeted would improve our understanding of how and why motor speech interventions achieve their effects, along with identifying its effective components. The current study focuses on identifying potential MoAs for a specific motor speech intervention technique. OBJECTIVES: We aim to demonstrate that somatosensory inputs can influence lexical processing, thus providing further evidence that linguistic information stored in the brain and accessed as part of speech perception processes encodes information related to speech production. METHODS: In a cross-modal repetition priming paradigm, we examined whether the processing of external somatosensory priming cues was modulated by both word-level (lexical frequency, low- or high-frequency) and speech sound articulatory features. The study participants were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of twenty-three native English speakers who received somatosensory priming stimulation to their oro-facial structures (either to labial corners or under the jaw). The second group consisted of ten native English speakers who participated in a control study where somatosensory priming stimulation was applied to their right or left forehead as a control condition. RESULTS: The results showed significant somatosensory priming effects for the low-frequency words, where the congruent somatosensory condition yielded significantly shorter reaction times and numerically higher phoneme accuracy scores when compared to the incongruent somatosensory condition. Data from the control study did not reveal any systematic priming effects from forehead stimulation (non-speech related site), other than a general (and expected) tendency for longer reaction times with low-frequency words. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide further support for the notion that speech production information is represented in the mental lexicon and can be accessed through exogenous Speech-Language Pathologist driven somatosensory inputs related to place of articulation.


Assuntos
Priming de Repetição , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2210478119, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161885

RESUMO

Two-trial learning in Aplysia reveals nonlinear interactions between training trials: A single trial has no effect, but two precisely spaced trials induce long-term memory. Extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) activity is essential for intertrial interactions, but the mechanism remains unresolved. A combination of immunochemical and optogenetic tools reveals unexpected complexity of ERK signaling during the induction of long-term synaptic facilitation by two spaced pulses of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT). Specifically, dual ERK phosphorylation at its activating TxY motif is accompanied by dephosphorylation at the pT position, leading to a buildup of inactive, singly phosphorylated pY-ERK. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation occur concurrently but scale differently with varying 5HT concentrations, predicting that mixed two-trial protocols involving both "strong" and "weak" 5HT pulses should be sensitive to the precise order and timing of trials. Indeed, long-term synaptic facilitation is induced only when weak pulses precede strong, not vice versa. This may represent a physiological mechanism to prioritize memory of escalating threats.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Memória de Longo Prazo , Priming de Repetição , Serotonina , Animais , Aplysia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Optogenética , Fosforilação/genética , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011510

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that physical exercise improves memory. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of the intensity of physical exercise as a function of the affective valence of words on implicit memory. In the study, 79 young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to perform moderate- (50% VO2max) or high-intensity exercise (80% VO2max) on a stationary bike. Once the required exercise intensity was achieved, participants performed an affective and repetition priming task concurrently with the physical exercise. Both groups showed similar repetition priming. The moderate-intensity exercise group showed affective priming with positive words, while affective priming was not found in the high-intensity exercise group. Facilitation occurred in both groups when a negative target word was preceded by a positive prime word. Our results suggest that the positive effect of physical exercise on memory is modulated by the affective valence of the stimuli. It seems that moderate-intensity exercise is more beneficial for implicit memory than high-intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Afeto , Priming de Repetição , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Neuropsychologia ; 170: 108230, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395249

RESUMO

An influential theory in the field of visual object recognition proposes that it is the fast magnocellular (M) system that facilitates neural processing of spatially more fine-grained information rather the slower parvocellular (P) system. While written words can be considered as a special type of visual objects, it is unknown whether magnocellular facilitation also plays a role in reading. We used a masked priming paradigm that has been shown to result in neural facilitation in visual word processing and tested whether these facilitating effects are mediated by the magnocellular system. In two experiments, we manipulated the influence of magnocellular and parvocellular systems on visual processing of a contextually predictable target character by contrasting high versus low spatial frequency and luminance versus color contrast, respectively. In addition, unchanged (normal) primes were included in both experiments as a manipulation check. As expected, unchanged primes elicited typical repetition effects in the N1, N250 and P3 components of the ERP in both experiments. In the experiment manipulating spatial contrast, we obtained repetition effects only for the N1 component for both M- and P-biased primes. In the luminance versus color contrast experiment, repetition effects were found in N1 and N250 for both M- and P- biased primes. Furthermore, no interactions were found between M-vs. P-biased prime types and repetition. Together these results indicate that M- and P- information contributes jointly to early neural processes underlying visual word recognition.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Priming de Repetição , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Tempo de Reação , Leitura , Percepção Visual
5.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(4): 1193-1207, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391659

RESUMO

A warning signal preceding an imperative stimulus by a certain foreperiod can accelerate responses (foreperiod effect). When foreperiod is varied within a block, the foreperiod effect on reaction time (RT) is modulated by both the current and the prior foreperiods. Using a non-aging foreperiod distribution in a simple-reaction task, Capizzi et al. (Cognition, 134, 39-49, 2015) found equal sequential effects for different foreperiods, which they credited to repetition priming. The multiple-trace theory of Los et al. (Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Article 1058, 2014) attributes the slope of the foreperiod-RT function to the foreperiod distribution. We conducted three experiments that examined these predicted relations. Experiment 1 tested Capizzi et al.'s prediction in a choice-reaction task and found an increasing foreperiod-RT function but a larger sequential effect at the shorter foreperiod. Experiment 2 used two distinct short foreperiods with the same foreperiod distribution and found a decreasing foreperiod-RT function. By increasing the difference between the foreperiods used in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 yielded a larger sequential effect overall. The experiments provide evidence that, with a non-aging foreperiod distribution, the variable-foreperiod paradigm yields unequal sequential-effect sizes at the different foreperiods, consistent with the multiple-trace theory but contrary to Capizzi et al.'s repetition-priming account. The foreperiod-RT functions are similar to those of the fixed-foreperiod paradigm, which is not predicted by the multiple trace theory.


Assuntos
Cognição , Priming de Repetição , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
6.
Br J Psychol ; 113(3): 677-695, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277854

RESUMO

Matching identity in images of unfamiliar faces is error prone, but we can easily recognize highly variable images of familiar faces - even images taken decades apart. Recent theoretical development based on computational modelling can account for how we recognize extremely variable instances of the same identity. We provide complementary behavioural data by examining older adults' representation of older celebrities who were also famous when young. In Experiment 1, participants completed a long-lag repetition priming task in which primes and test stimuli were the same age or different ages. In Experiment 2, participants completed an identity after effects task in which the adapting stimulus was an older or young photograph of one celebrity and the test stimulus was a morph between the adapting identity and a different celebrity; the adapting stimulus was the same age as the test stimulus on some trials (e.g., both old) or a different age (e.g., adapter young, test stimulus old). The magnitude of priming and identity after effects were not influenced by whether the prime and adapting stimulus were the same age or different age as the test face. Collectively, our findings suggest that humans have one common mental representation for a familiar face (e.g., Paul McCartney) that incorporates visual changes across decades, rather than multiple age-specific representations. These findings make novel predictions for state-of-the-art algorithms (e.g., Deep Convolutional Neural Networks).


Assuntos
Face , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Humanos , Priming de Repetição
7.
Neuropsychologia ; 170: 108212, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288121

RESUMO

Object repetition commonly leads to long-lasting improvements in identification speed and accuracy, a behavioral facilitation referred to as "repetition priming". Neuroimaging and non-invasive electromagnetic stimulation studies have most often implicated the involvement of left lateral frontal cortex in repetition priming, although convergent evidence from neuropsychological studies is lacking. In the current study, we examine the impact of surgical resection for the treatment of epilepsy on the magnitude of repetition priming at relatively short-term (30-60 min delay) and long-term (3 months) delays in 41 patients with varying seizure foci and resection locations. Overall, patients exhibited significant repetition priming at both short-term and long-term delays. However, patients with frontal resections (largely anterior and medial frontal) differed significantly from those with right anterior temporal resections in showing fully intact short-term priming but absent long-term priming. In a comparison set of 10 recovered aphasic patients, patients with left lateral frontal damage exhibited impaired short-term priming relative to other frontal damage locations, suggesting the differential involvement of lateral and anteromedial frontal regions in mediating repetition priming at short-lag and long-lag timescales, respectively.


Assuntos
Afasia , Priming de Repetição , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
8.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 48(3): 246-261, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130015

RESUMO

Salient distractors such as color singletons typically capture attention. Recent studies have shown that probabilistic expectations of color singletons' occurrence-even when their location and features are unpredictable-can eliminate attentional capture. Here we ask whether this effect, referred to as "second-order distractor suppression," (a) could be merely a result of repetition priming, and (b) is also observed when distractor occurrences are predictable within a sequence of trials? Experiment 1 introduces a novel approach for manipulating the frequency of distractor occurrence while controlling for intertrial priming by design, by embedding identical trial sequences in the to-be-compared conditions. We observed no elimination but significant attenuation of capture in the condition with a higher distractor frequency. In Experiments 2 and 3 we investigated the effect of the trial-to-trial predictability of distractor presence. Repeating regular distractor absent/present patterns did not result in attenuated capture compared with a random condition, not even when upcoming distractor presence was cued. Taken together, the results demonstrate that second-order distractor suppression is not merely a result of repetition priming. However, it is not a response to any type of expectation; this nonspecific type of suppression is almost instantly elicited by environments characterized by a high likelihood of distractors but not by distractor presence that can be anticipated on a trial-by-trial basis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Priming de Repetição , Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
9.
Psychol Res ; 86(7): 2195-2214, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041058

RESUMO

Both active response execution and passive listening to verbal codes (a form of instruction) in single prime trials lead to item-specific repetition priming effects when stimuli re-occur in single probe trials. This holds for task-specific classification (stimulus-classification, SC priming, e.g., apple-small) and action (stimulus-action, SA priming, e.g., apple-right key press). To address the influence of expectation on item-specific SC and SA associations, we tested if item-specific SC and SA priming effects were modulated by the instructed probability of re-encountering individual SC or SA mappings (25% vs. 75% instructed switch probability). Importantly, the experienced item-specific switch probability was always 50%. In Experiment 1 (N = 78), item-specific SA/SC switch  expectations affected SA, but not SC priming effects exclusively following active response execution. Experiment 2 (N = 40) was designed to emphasize SA priming by only including item-specific SC repetitions. This yielded stronger SA priming for 25% vs. 75% expected switch probability, both following response execution as in Experiment 1 and also following verbally coded SA associations. Together, these results suggest that SA priming effects, that is, the encoding and retrieval of SA associations, is modulated by item-specific switch expectation. Importantly, this expectation effect cannot be explained by item-specific associative learning mechanisms, as stimuli were primed and probed only once and participants experienced item-specific repetitions/switches equally often across stimuli independent of instructed switch probabilities. This corroborates and extends previous results by showing that SA priming effects are modulated by  expectation not only based on experienced item-specific switch probabilities, but also on mere instruction.


Assuntos
Motivação , Priming de Repetição , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
10.
Cogn Psychol ; 132: 101445, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839088

RESUMO

Letters are often repeated in words in many languages. The present work explored the mechanisms underlying processing of repeated and unique letters in strings across three experimental paradigms. In a 2AFC perceptual identification task, the insertion but not the deletion of a letter was harder to detect when it was repeated than when it was unique (Exp. 1). In a masked primed same-different task, deletion primes produced the same priming effect regardless of deletion type (repeated, unique; Exp. 2), but insertion primes were more effective when the additional inserted letter created a repetition than when it did not (Exp. 3). In a same-different perceptual identification task, foils created by modifying a repetition, by either repeating the wrong letter or substituting a repeated letter, were harder to reject than foils created by modifying unique letters (Exp. 4). Thus, repetition effects were task-dependent. Since considering representations alone would suggest repetition effects would always occur or never occur, this indicates the importance of modelling task-specific processes. The similarity calculations embedded in the Overlap Model (Gomez et al., 2008) appeared to always predict a repetition effect, but its decision rule for the task of Experiment 1 allowed it to predict the asymmetry between insertions and deletions. In the Letters in Time and Retinotopic Space (LTRS; Adelman, 2011) model, repetition effects arise only from briefly presented stimuli as their perception is incomplete. It was therefore consistent with Experiments 2-4 but required a task-specific response bias to account for the insertion-deletion asymmetry of Experiment 1.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Humanos , Idioma , Atividade Motora , Tempo de Reação , Priming de Repetição
11.
Psychophysiology ; 59(3): e13970, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813664

RESUMO

To a crucial extent, the efficiency of reading results from the fact that visual word recognition is faster in predictive contexts. Predictive coding models suggest that this facilitation results from pre-activation of predictable stimulus features across multiple representational levels before stimulus onset. Still, it is not sufficiently understood which aspects of the rich set of linguistic representations that are activated during reading-visual, orthographic, phonological, and/or lexical-semantic-contribute to context-dependent facilitation. To investigate in detail which linguistic representations are pre-activated in a predictive context and how they affect subsequent stimulus processing, we combined a well-controlled repetition priming paradigm, including words and pseudowords (i.e., pronounceable nonwords), with behavioral and magnetoencephalography measurements. For statistical analysis, we used linear mixed modeling, which we found had a higher statistical power compared to conventional multivariate pattern decoding analysis. Behavioral data from 49 participants indicate that word predictability (i.e., context present vs. absent) facilitated orthographic and lexical-semantic, but not visual or phonological processes. Magnetoencephalography data from 38 participants show sustained activation of orthographic and lexical-semantic representations in the interval before processing the predicted stimulus, suggesting selective pre-activation at multiple levels of linguistic representation as proposed by predictive coding. However, we found more robust lexical-semantic representations when processing predictable in contrast to unpredictable letter strings, and pre-activation effects mainly resembled brain responses elicited when processing the expected letter string. This finding suggests that pre-activation did not result in "explaining away" predictable stimulus features, but rather in a "sharpening" of brain responses involved in word processing.


Assuntos
Leitura , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mem Cognit ; 50(1): 192-215, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453287

RESUMO

Comprehension or production of isolated words and production of words embedded in sentence contexts facilitated later production in previous research. The present study examined the extent to which contextualized comprehension exposures would impact later production. Two repetition priming experiments were conducted with Spanish-English bilingual participants. In Experiment 1 (N = 112), all encoding stimuli were presented visually, and in Experiment 2 (N = 112), all encoding stimuli were presented auditorily. After reading/listening or translating isolated words or words embedded in sentences at encoding, pictures corresponding to each target word were named aloud. Repetition priming relative to new items was measured in RT and accuracy. Relative to isolated encoding, sentence encoding reduced RT priming but not accuracy priming. In reading/listening encoding conditions, both isolated and embedded words elicited accuracy priming in picture naming, but only isolated words elicited RT priming. In translation encoding conditions, repetition priming effects in RT (but not accuracy) were stronger for lower-frequency words and with lower proficiency in the picture-naming response language. RT priming was strongest when the translation response at encoding was produced in the same language as final picture naming. In contrast, accuracy priming was strongest when the translation stimulus at encoding was comprehended in the same language as final picture naming. Thus, comprehension at encoding increased the rate of successful retrieval, whereas production at encoding speeded later production. Practice of comprehension may serve to gradually move less well-learned words from receptive to productive vocabulary.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Idioma , Compreensão/fisiologia , Humanos , Leitura , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Vocabulário
13.
Psychophysiology ; 59(3): e13975, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791683

RESUMO

Repetition priming and event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time course of sign recognition in deaf users of American Sign Language. Signers performed a go/no-go semantic categorization task to rare probe signs referring to people; critical target items were repeated and unrelated signs. In Experiment 1, ERPs were time-locked either to the onset of the video or to sign onset within the video; in Experiment 2, the same full videos were clipped so that video and sign onset were aligned (removing transitional movements), and ERPs were time-locked to video/sign onset. All analyses revealed an N400 repetition priming effect (less negativity for repeated than unrelated signs) but differed in the timing and/or duration of the N400 effect. Results from Experiment 1 revealed that repetition priming effects began before sign onset within a video, suggesting that signers are sensitive to linguistic information within the transitional movement to sign onset. The timing and duration of the N400 for clipped videos were more parallel to that observed previously for auditorily presented words and was 200 ms shorter than either time-locking analysis from Experiment 1. We conclude that time-locking to full video onset is optimal when early ERP components or sensitivity to transitional movements are of interest and that time-locking to the onset of clipped videos is optimal for priming studies with fluent signers.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Semântica , Línguas de Sinais , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Gravação em Vídeo
14.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 84(1): 1-9, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820767

RESUMO

The item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect reflects the phenomenon that Stroop congruency effects are larger for Stroop items that are more likely to be congruent (MC) than incongruent (MI). While the ISPC effect is purported to reflect long-term memory associations, the proportion manipulation entails that stimulus repetitions vary as a function of the MC and MI conditions, suggesting that a short-term repetition priming process may also contribute. In the present study, we investigated whether the ISPC effect reflected contributions from separate long-term associative learning and short-term repetition priming processes. To do so, the magnitude of the ISPC effect was compared when stimulus repetitions were present and absent. While the ISPC effect was robust, it was revealed that removing stimulus repetitions significantly attenuated the effect. Overall, the present study indicates the ISPC effect can reflect contributions from both short-term repetition and long-term memory processes.


Assuntos
Atenção , Priming de Repetição , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop
15.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 29(1): 262-267, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505272

RESUMO

We explored whether speakers self-prime during question-answer dialogues. Experimenters called restaurants and asked two questions. The first was about the timing of different menu options ((At)What time do you stop serving breakfast?), and the second was about the closing time of the restaurant ((At)What time do you close?). Participants were more likely to use a preposition in their responses (At 7 vs. 7) when experimenters used a preposition in their question. However, the participants' use of a preposition (or not) in their first response did not prime the use of a preposition in their second response (i.e., no self-priming). The lack of self-priming in these data provide support for error-based theories of structural priming, and against activation-based accounts of priming.


Assuntos
Priming de Repetição , Humanos , Linguística
16.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 32(2): 228-246, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895980

RESUMO

The literature on repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is inconsistent, with some findings supporting spared priming while others do not. Several factors may explain these inconsistencies, including AD severity (e.g., dementia vs. Mild Cognitive Impairment; MCI) and priming paradigm-related characteristics. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a quantitative summary of repetition priming in AD. We examined the between-group standard mean difference comparing repetition priming in AD dementia or amnestic MCI (aMCI; presumably due to AD) to controls. Thirty-two studies were selected, including 590 individuals with AD dementia, 267 individuals with amnestic MCI, and 703 controls. Our results indicated that both individuals with aMCI and AD dementia perform worse on repetition priming tasks than cognitively older adults. Paradigm-related moderators suggested that the effect size between studies comparing the combined aMCI or AD dementia group to cognitively healthy older adults was the highest for paradigms that required participants to produce, rather than identify, primes during the test phase. Our results further suggested that priming in AD is impaired for both conceptual and perceptual priming tasks. Lastly, while our results suggested that priming in AD is impaired for priming tasks that require deep processing, we were unable to draw firm conclusions about whether priming is less impaired in aMCI or AD dementia for paradigms that require shallow processing.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Priming de Repetição , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(1): 48-66, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029115

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Repetition priming has been suggested as a method for targeting implicit processes in anomia treatment. Prior studies have used masked priming for this purpose. This study extends that work with visible primes, a more clinically feasible approach. METHOD: This study used a single-subject design across three participants with aphasia. Treatment involved repeated exposure to identity primes (trained condition) or sham primes (untrained condition) paired with pictures. Analyses assessed acquisition effects for trained items and untrained items that were seen during the training period, generalization to untrained items that had not been seen, and generalization to broader language skills, immediately and 3 months post-treatment. RESULTS: All participants improved in naming trained items immediately after treatment, with greater improvements for trained than for untrained items. All participants maintained some degree of improvement on trained items 3 months post-treatment, although the degree differed across participants. Inconsistent generalization occurred to unexposed items. Improvements were noted in some areas of broader language ability, although these varied. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a repetition priming treatment paradigm may increase naming accuracy for individuals with anomia and may benefit other aspects of language. Participant factors may have influenced response to treatment. Directions for future investigation are discussed.


Assuntos
Anomia , Afasia , Anomia/diagnóstico , Anomia/terapia , Afasia/terapia , Humanos , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Priming de Repetição , Semântica
18.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 34(3): 446-453, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-207340

RESUMO

Background: Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a technique by which rats press a lever to stimulate their brains through an electrode chronically implanted in brain reward areas. Currently only two laboratories in the world, one in India and one in Spain, are intensively studying the effect of this kind of deep brain stimulation on learning and memory. This paper will present the main findings. Methods: Different groups of young and old healthy and brain-damaged rats with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle received a treatment of ICSS after being trained in several paradigms of implicit and explicit learning. Memory was tested over short and long-term periods. Structural and molecular post-mortem analyses of their brains were examined in relation to memory results. Results: ICSS enhances implicit and explicit memory, especially in animals showing poor performance in the learning tasks, such as brain-damaged subjects. At the structural and molecular level, ICSS enhances size and dendritic arborization and promotes neurogenesis in specific hippocampal areas. ICSS also regulates the expression of genes related to learning and memory. Conclusions: Through activating reward and neural plasticity mechanisms, ICSS in the medial forebrain bundle is a promising technique for memory-enhancing treatments.(AU)


Antecedentes: La autoestimulación eléctrica intracraneal (AEIC) es un tipo de estimulación cerebral profunda autoadministrada a través de un electrodo implantado de forma crónica en áreas cerebrales de la recompensa. Actualmente, dos laboratorios en el mundo, uno en India y otro en España, están estudiando intensivamente el efecto de este tipo de estimulación cerebral reforzante sobre el aprendizaje y la memoria. Aquí se presentan los principales hallazgos. Métodos: Diferentes grupos de ratas sanas y con daño cerebral, jóvenes y viejas, con electrodos implantados en el haz prosencefálico medial recibieron un tratamiento de AEIC después de ser entrenados en diferentes paradigmas de aprendizaje. La memoria se evaluó a corto y largo plazo. Resultados: La AEIC mejora la memoria implícita y explícita, especialmente en animales con un bajo rendimiento o con daño cerebral. A nivel estructural y molecular, la AEIC estimula del desarrollo de la arborización dendrítica, promueve la neurogénesis en el hipocampo y regula la expresión de genes relacionados con plasticidad, aprendizaje y memoria. Conclusiones: La AEIC en el haz prosencefálico medial, al activar mecanismos de recompensa y de plasticidad neural, constituye un tratamiento prometedor para la mejora de la memoria.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Autoestimulação , Estimulação Elétrica , Aprendizagem , Feixe Prosencefálico Mediano/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/psicologia , Ratos , Recompensa , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Eletrodos , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Psicologia , Priming de Repetição
19.
Exp Psychol ; 68(4): 189-197, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918541

RESUMO

The current research investigated whether individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and affective states have differential effects on lexical-semantic repetition priming outcomes based on whether participants were first- or second-language English speakers. Individual differences in priming effects have often been overlooked in the priming literature. Using logistic mixed-effects models to account for within-subject variation, the current paper investigated a three-way interaction between WMC, negative affect (NA) score, and language primacy on lexical-semantic repetition priming outcomes. The results indicate that a statistically significant three-way interaction exists between language primacy, WMC, and NA scores. No significant interaction effect was found for positive affect scores. We present an argument which posits that an individual's primary language and subsequent familiarity with the primed concepts, in conjunction with individual differences in WMC and mood, plays an important role in determining the most effective strategy used to complete a word-stem completion task. The implications of the findings presented highlight that second-language English speakers are more susceptible to priming effects when prime-inducing stimuli are constructed using English lexicon; however, larger WMC and heighted negative affective states help to mitigate these priming effects.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Priming de Repetição , Humanos , Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Semântica
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843494

RESUMO

It is now a matter of scientific consensus that priming, a recency effect of activation in memory, has a significant impact on language users' choice of linguistic means. However, it has long remained unclear how priming effects coexist with the creative aspect of language use, and the importance of the latter has been somewhat downplayed. By introducing the results of two experiments, for English and Russian native speakers, this paper seeks to explain the mechanisms establishing balance of priming and language creativity. In study 1, I discuss the notion of collective language creativity that I understand as a product of two major factors interacting: cognitive priming effects and the unsolicited desire of the discourse participants to be linguistically creative, that is, to say what one wants to say using the words that have not yet been used. In study 2, I explore how priming and antipriming effects work together to produce collective language creativity. By means of cluster analysis and Bayesian network modelling, I show that patterns of repetition for both languages differ drastically depending on whether participants of the experiment had to communicate their messages being or not being able to see what others had written before them.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Priming de Repetição , Semântica
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