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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 44(2): 341-361, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647263

RESUMO

Emerging evidence indicates that activity flow over resting-state network topology allows the prediction of task activations. However, previous studies have mainly adopted static, linear functional connectivity (FC) estimates as activity flow routes. It is unclear whether an intrinsic network topology that captures the dynamic nature of FC can be a better representation of activity flow routes. Moreover, the effects of between- versus within-network connections and tight versus loose (using rest baseline) task contrasts on the prediction of task-evoked activity across brain systems remain largely unknown. In this study, we first propose a probabilistic FC estimation derived from a dynamic framework as a new activity flow route. Subsequently, activity flow mapping was tested using between- and within-network connections separately for each region as well as using a set of tight task contrasts. Our results showed that probabilistic FC routes substantially improved individual-level activity flow prediction. Although it provided better group-level prediction, the multiple regression approach was more dependent on the length of data points at the individual-level prediction. Regardless of FC type, we consistently observed that between-network connections showed a relatively higher prediction performance in higher-order cognitive control than in primary sensorimotor systems. Furthermore, cognitive control systems exhibit a remarkable increase in prediction accuracy with tight task contrasts and a decrease in sensorimotor systems. This work demonstrates that probabilistic FC estimates are promising routes for activity flow mapping and also uncovers divergent influences of connectional topology and task contrasts on activity flow prediction across brain systems with different functional hierarchies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1180, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670182

RESUMO

High-quality sleep is an important factor in sustaining health and improving well-being. Previous evidence has demonstrated the positive associations between increased physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour (SB) with sleep quality. The substitutional relationships between SB, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) need to be considered when examining how a particular behaviour may impact sleep quality. No studies, to our knowledge, have explored these substitutional relationships in middle-aged adulthood. Using an isotemporal substitution approach, this study examined the associations of replacing sedentary time with physical activity on sleep quality measures in a sample of middle-aged adults in Japan. Data from 683 adults aged 40-64 living in Japan were used. The average daily time spent in SB, LPA, and MVPA was objectively assessed by accelerometers. Two self-reported sleep quality measures were obtained using questionnaires, including rest by sleep and sleep quality. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations of SB, LPA, and MVPA with the sleep quality measures stratified by gender. We found that each 60 min unit of SB or LPA replaced with MVPA was favourably associated with rest by sleep among women (ß = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.28, p < 0.001; ß = 0.18, 95% CI 0.07, 0.32, p < 0.05, respectively). There were no significant associations between SB, LPA, and MVPA with sleep measures in men across all three models. These findings indicate that higher MVPA has a positive association with sleep quality in middle-aged women.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Qualidade do Sono , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Sono , Descanso , Acelerometria
3.
J Neural Eng ; 20(1)2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535032

RESUMO

Objective. Spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral hemodynamics measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are widely used to study the network organization of the brain. The temporal correlations among the ultra-slow, <0.1 Hz fluctuations across the brain regions are interpreted as functional connectivity maps and used for diagnostics of neurological disorders. However, despite the interest narrowed in the ultra-slow fluctuations, hemodynamic activity that exists beyond the ultra-slow frequency range could contribute to the functional connectivity, which remains unclear.Approach. In the present study, we have measured the brain-wide hemodynamics in the human participants with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a whole-head, cap-based and high-density montage at a sampling rate of 6.25 Hz. In addition, we have acquired resting state fMRI scans in the same group of participants for cross-modal evaluation of the connectivity maps. Then fNIRS data were deliberately down-sampled to a typical fMRI sampling rate of ∼0.5 Hz and the resulted differential connectivity maps were subject to a k-means clustering.Main results. Our diffuse optical topographical analysis of fNIRS data have revealed a default mode network (DMN) in the spontaneous deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin changes, which remarkably resemble the same fMRI network derived from participants. Moreover, we have shown that the aliased activities in the down-sampled optical signals have altered the connectivity patterns, resulting in a network organization of aliased functional connectivity in the cerebral hemodynamics.Significance.The results have for the first time demonstrated that fNIRS as a broadly accessible modality can image the resting-state functional connectivity in the posterior midline, prefrontal and parietal structures of the DMN in the human brain, in a consistent pattern with fMRI. Further empowered by the fast sampling rate of fNIRS, our findings suggest the presence of aliased connectivity in the current understanding of the human brain organization.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Humanos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Descanso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Hemodinâmica
4.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14149, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843910

RESUMO

Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is considered to be a reliable marker of affective processing and psychopathology. Traditionally, the magnitude of alpha is calculated by taking the average over a nomothetic fixed frequency window (e.g., 8 to 13 Hz). Alternatively, methods have been proposed to extract individualized alpha frequency (IAF) peaks and windows in hopes of improving the reliability and validity of signal detection. However, no study has compared the nomothetic to IAF approaches to examine the reliability and validity of resting FAA in a large well-characterized data set. In this study, we assessed the psychometric performance of the standard fixed window approach, a PZ-alpha based IAF approach and a global-alpha based IAF windows detection approach on a previously collected EEG data set (8 recordings per subject collected on four occasions across two weeks). Our results revealed that resting FAA calculated with these three different methods are highly correlated at all frontal regions (mean r = .98). The stability across the 8 recordings over the two weeks also showed no substantial difference between approaches as indicated by intraclass correlations. Moreover, internal-consistency reliability, validity with respect to measures of emotion and emotion-related psychopathology and state-trait Structure equation model (SEM) fitting were evaluated and yielded no significant differences across methods. Our results supported the overall reliability and validity of two different IAF approaches to assessing resting FAA but fail to find any incremental advantage over nomothetic approaches to defining alpha bands. Guidelines for methods selection for future research are provided.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Lobo Frontal , Descanso
5.
Neurobiol Aging ; 121: 78-87, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379095

RESUMO

Alpha-band oscillatory activity in human electroencephalography (EEG) becomes slower and lower in amplitude with advanced age. However, the influence of aperiodic activity on these measures has received little consideration. We investigated whether age-related differences in aperiodic activity explains differences in resting EEG peak alpha frequency and power. We assessed aperiodic activity in 85 younger and 92 older adults by fitting the 1/f-like background activity evident in EEG power spectra using the spectral parameterization ("specparam") algorithm. Across the scalp, the aperiodic exponent and offset were smaller in older compared to younger participants, reflecting a flatter 1/f-like slope and a downward broadband shift in power spectra with age. After correcting for aperiodic activity, peak alpha frequency remained slower in older adults; however, peak alpha power no longer differed statistically between age groups. The large sample size utilized in this study, as well as the depth of analysis, provides further evidence that the aperiodic component of the resting EEG signal is altered with aging and should be considered when investigating neural oscillatory activity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Idoso , Descanso
6.
Sleep Med ; 101: 550-557, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can affect temporal fluctuations in brain activity during rest. Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) captures the fluctuations in FC during the resting state. This study aimed to investigate differences in dFC between moderate-to-severe OSA patients and healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and sliding-window analysis. METHODS: Thirty-seven consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe OSA and 16 age- and sex-matched controls underwent resting-state fMRI in the morning following overnight polysomnography. The dynamics of aberrant FC between the groups and the correlation between the dynamics and clinical variables were evaluated. RESULTS: dFC analysis revealed two distinct connectivity states: hypoconnected (State I) and hyperconnected (State II). In OSA patients, State I occurred 34% more often than in the controls and the occurrence of State II was proportionally reduced. The time in State I positively correlated with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score in the OSA patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed dFC alterations in moderate-to-severe OSA patients, which may serve as a novel physiological biomarker for OSA.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Polissonografia , Descanso/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
7.
Sleep ; 45(4)2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624895

RESUMO

Rest-activity rhythm (RAR) disruptions are frequently associated with chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC), but they are less known in BC with endocrine therapy (ET). The aim of this ancillary study was to characterize the RAR and estimated sleep characteristics from actigraphy in BC patients either treated (ET+) or untreated with ET (ET-), compared to healthy controls (HC) and using a cross-sectional design. Eighteen ET+, 18 ET-, and 16 HC completed questionnaires and wore wrist actigraphs at home for 2 weeks. Parametric and nonparametric RAR, sleep parameters, and quality of life were compared between groups (p < .05). BC groups presented lower daytime activity than HC according to RAR analysis (mesor and M10 parameters). Compared to HC, ET- had lower inter-daily stability and ET+ had greater sleep complaints. Compared to ET-, ET+ had lower sleep efficiency, more time awake, and higher activity levels at night, as assessed with actigraphy. Our results suggest an effect of cancer independent of treatment on RAR in BC, highlighting the need for further investigation of this topic. In contrast, sleep as assessed with actigraphy seems modified only during ET which matches with patients' sleep complaints. Further longitudinal studies would aid in confirming the latter hypothesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Actigrafia/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Descanso , Sono
8.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454988

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of conditioning, rest, and post-rest transport duration on welfare indicators of 6-7 mo old beef calves following a 20-h transport. Three hundred and twenty-eight weaned calves (237 ± 29.7 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 nested factorial design: conditioning, conditioned (C) or non-conditioned (N); rest, 0 (R0) or 8 (R8) h, and post-rest transport, 4 (T4) or 15 (T15) h. Calves were sampled before (LO1) and after (UN1) the initial 20-h journey, before (LO2) and after (UN2) the additional 4 or 15-h journey, and at 1, 2, 3, 5, 14, and 28 d after UN2. Data was analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Fixed effects included conditioning, transport, and time nested within rest period, while random effects included animal and pen. Greater shrink (p < 0.01) was observed in C than N calves after the initial 20-h transport. During the first week after transportation, the mean ADG of N calves was greater than C calves (p < 0.01). From d 14 to d 28, however, the mean ADG of C calves was greater than N calves (p < 0.01). Flight speed, cortisol and L-lactate concentrations were greater (p ≤ 0.05) in C than N calves between LO1 and d 5, while greater (p ≤ 0.02) non-esterified fatty acids, creatine kinase, serum amyloid-A, and haptoglobin concentrations were observed in N than C calves between LO1 and d 3. The R8-T4 calves had greater (p < 0.01) ADG than R8-T15 calves between LO1 and d 5. The R0-T4 calves had greater L-lactate concentrations than R0-T15 and R8-T4 calves (both p = 0.02) on d 1. The R0 calves had greater (p < 0.01) ADG than R8 calves between 14 and 28 d. This study suggests that C calves are better fit for transport than N calves as evidenced by behavioural and physiological parameters. Fewer and inconsistent differences were observed for rest and post-rest transport treatments.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase , Descanso , Bovinos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Haptoglobinas , Ácido Láctico
9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(13): 7, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36478197

RESUMO

Purpose: Vasomotion is spontaneous oscillations in the diameter of resistance vessels with derived effects on blood flow, and it has been proposed that disturbances in vasomotion may be involved in retinal vascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinal vasomotion shows regional variation and is modified by activated autoregulation. Methods: Video recordings of the diameter of retinal arterioles previously obtained from 55 normal persons were subjected to Fourier analysis to characterize the frequencies and propagation of spontaneous diameter changes in retinal arterioles. The analyses were performed on peripapillary temporal retinal arterioles, on arteriolar branches toward the macular area and the retinal periphery, and were performed during rest, during an increase in the arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise, and during increased retinal metabolism induced by flickering light. Results: There was no propagation of diameter changes along the studied vascular segments. Isometric exercise constricted the arterioles significantly by (mean ± SD) 1.76% ± 3.56% (P = 0.02) and increased the power of diameter oscillations at very low frequencies (0.1-1.4 c/min). Flicker stimulation dilated the arterioles significantly by (mean ± SD) 5.10% ± 2.91% (P < 0.0001) and reduced the power of diameter oscillations at all but the very low frequencies (P < 0.006 for all comparisons). Flicker-induced dilation and changes in hydraulic conductance were lower in peripheral than in macular arterioles. Conclusions: Retinal vasomotion in normal persons increases during increased arterial blood pressure and decreases during flicker stimulation. The findings may act as a basis for the study of vasomotion in retinal vascular disease.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Doenças Vasculares , Humanos , Descanso
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501942

RESUMO

Recent studies, using high resolution magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electrogastrography (EGG), have shown that during resting state, rhythmic gastric physiological signals are linked with cortical brain oscillations. Yet, gut-brain coupling has not been investigated with electroencephalography (EEG) during cognitive brain engagement or during hunger-related gut engagement. In this study in 14 young adults (7 females, mean ± SD age 25.71 ± 8.32 years), we study gut-brain coupling using simultaneous EEG and EGG during hunger and satiety states measured in separate visits, and compare responses both while resting as well as during a cognitively demanding working memory task. We find that EGG-EEG phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) differs based on both satiety state and cognitive effort, with greater PAC modulation observed in the resting state relative to working memory. We find a significant interaction between gut satiation levels and cognitive states in the left fronto-central brain region, with larger cognitive demand based differences in the hunger state. Furthermore, strength of PAC correlated with behavioral performance during the working memory task. Altogether, these results highlight the role of gut-brain interactions in cognition and demonstrate the feasibility of these recordings using scalable sensors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502255

RESUMO

In this paper, a horn-shaped strip antenna exponentially tapered carved on a multilayer dielectric substrate for an indoor body position tracking system is proposed. The performance of the proposed antenna was verified by testing it as a tracking state of an indoor resting body position. Among different feeding techniques, the uniplanar T-junction power divider approach is used. The performance verification of the proposed antenna is explained through its compact size and 3D shape, along with a performance comparison of the return loss radiation pattern and the realized gain. The suggested antenna has an 88.88% fractional bandwidth and a return loss between 6 and 15.6 GHz, with a maximum gain of 9.46 dBi in the 9.5 GHz region. Within the intended band, the radiation pattern had an excellent directivity characteristics. The proposed antenna was connected to an NVA-R661 module of Xethru Inc. for sleeping body position tracking. The performance of the antenna is measured through microwave imagining of the state of the resting body in various sleeping positions on the bed using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The predicted outcomes clearly define the antenna's performance and could be used for sensing and prediction purposes.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Postura , Redes Neurais de Computação , Descanso , Sono
12.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0276314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36490259

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the capacity for repeated maximal effort (RME) of soccer players in the thermo-natural conditions (NC) and in simulated conditions for the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar (QSC). Twenty-four semi-professional soccer players participated in the study. The exercise test consisted of ten 6-second maximal efforts on a cycloergometer. A 90-second passive rest interval was used. The test was performed in a Weiss Technik WK-26 climate test chamber in two different conditions: 1) thermo-neutral conditions (NC-20.5°C; 58.7% humidity); and 2) simulated conditions for the 2022 World Cup in Qatar (QSC-28.5 ± 1.92°C; 58.7 ± 8.64% humidity). Power-related, physiological, psychomotor, blood, and electrolyte variables were recorded. Results showed that (1) players achieved higher peak power (max 1607,46 ± 192,70 [W] - 3rd rep), needed less time to peak power (min 0,95 ± 0,27 [s] - 3rd rep), and had a higher fatigue slope (max 218,67 ± 59,64 [W/sek] - 7th rep) in QSC than in NC (in each repetition of study protocol); (2) between the 1st repetition and subsequent repetitions a number of significants in among physiological, blood-related, and electrolyte variables were noted, but their direction was similar in both simulated conditions (e.g. V'O2/kg 37,59 ± 3,96 vs 37,95 ± 3,17 [ml/min/kg] - 3rd rep, LAC 13,16 ± 2,61 vs 14,18 ± 3,13 [mg/dl] - 10th rep or K 4,54 ± 0,29 vs 4,79 ± 0,36 [mmol/l] - 2nd rep when compare QCS and NC respectively); (3) an 8°C of temperature difference between the climatic conditions did not significantly affect the soccer players' physical and physiological responses in RME. The study results can be used in the design of training programs aimed to increase players' physiological adaptations by simulating soccer-specific conditions of play in terms of anaerobic capacity, in particular, repetitive maximal efforts. These findings will be useful during the upcoming 2022 World Cup in Qatar and in locations where high ambient temperatures are customary.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Umidade , Fadiga , Descanso , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278669, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477489

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of three production systems on growth performance, behavior, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. A total of 30 lambs (n = 10 lambs/treatment) were randomly assigned to three production systems that included rotational grazing (NG) and two different levels of concentrate (CON), one with medium (roughage/concentrate ratio 50:50% based on DM, MC) and one with high concentrate (roughage/concentrate ratio 30:70% based on DM, HC) during the 90-day fattening period. At the start of the experiment, all lambs averaged 90 ± 4 days of age (mean ± SD) and were slaughtered at an average of 180 ± 3 days (mean ± SD). CON-fed lambs had higher average daily gain and loin thickness than NG-fed lambs. The NG lambs spent more time eating, drinking, and standing, but less time resting and rumination than the CON-fed lambs. In addition, plasma lipid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, and urea levels were higher, while phosphorus levels were lower in NG-fed lambs than in CON-fed lambs. CON-fed lambs had better carcass yield, but gastrointestinal tract and rumen weights were lower than NG lambs. CON-fed lambs had higher pH values 0 h post mortem than the NG lambs; however, there was no effect of treatment on pH 24 h post mortem. The post-mortem color of the LD muscle of NG lambs had a higher lightness and yellowness index and a lower redness index than that of the LD muscle of CON-fed lambs. The results of this study showed that lambs fed CON had better carcass yield than lambs fed NG, although feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of lambs fed MC and HC were similar.


Assuntos
Descanso , Posição Ortostática , Ovinos , Animais , Autopsia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(48): e31766, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482615

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is observed in 12% to 56% of stroke patients, and screening for cognitive impairment is often complex and time-consuming, with results dependent on patient compliance. Therefore, there is a need for an objective method to assess cognitive impairment regardless of patient compliance. Objective evaluation methods include electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP). This study was conducted to assess intra-tester reliability of resting EEG-based spectral features and auditory/visual P300 latency/amplitude in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. Twenty patients with subacute ischemic stroke were included in the study. The resting EEG and P300 wave using an auditory and visual oddball paradigm were measured at baseline and once again in 24 hours. The following electrode positions (10-20 system) were constantly recorded: F3 (Frontal), Fz, F4, C3 (Central), Cz, C4, P3 (Parietal), Pz, P4. DAR (delta/alpha ratio) and BSI (brain symmetry index) were determined using EEG data. F3 and F4, C3 and C4 and P3 and P4 were switched according to the stroke side and classified as affected hemisphere (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) after the evaluation. In ERP, the amplitude and latency of P300 were obtained. In reliability analysis of EEG-based spectral characteristics, significant reliability was observed for DAR (ICC = 0.447), BSldir (ICC = 0.713) and BSIdirtheta (ICC = 0.724) (Table 4). DAR was showed a poor ICC level, and BSIdir and BSIdirtheta had a moderate ICC level. Visual P300 latency showed excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in several montages (PUH = 0.972, Pz = 0.945). In 6 montages, auditory P300 latency was reliable, while in 9 montages, visual P300 latency was reliable. In 4 montages, auditory P300 amplitude was reliable, while visual P300 amplitude was reliable in 7. The visual P300 was more reliable than the auditory P300. The ICC values for P300 latency were greater than those for amplitude. Therefore, when ERP is performed on subacute stroke patients, visual has higher reliability than auditory.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Descanso , Potenciais Evocados , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 824, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is an emerging problem. Rarely, media reports about people, who have died during playing video games, but thus far no systematic, scientific study is available about the topic. We investigated such cases, looking for common characteristics, connection between gaming and death, and the possible reasons leading to death. METHODS: Cases were collected through internet search with general keywords, with ones specific to identified cases, and by working along cross references. RESULTS: 24 cases were found: one from 1982, the others between 2002 and 2021. Twenty-three of the victims were male, age ranged from 11 to 40 years. More than half of the cases originated from Southeast Asia, and 12 deaths happened in internet cafes. Gamers played action-rich multiplayer games. In 18 cases the gaming session before death was extremely long (around a day or even several days) with minimal rest. The cause of death was pulmonary embolism in 5 cases, cerebral hemorrhage in 2 cases, most of the rest was presumably due to fatal cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION: Long sedentary position and dehydration may precipitate thromboembolism, acute blood pressure elevation during gaming may promote cerebral hemorrhage, and several factors (including acute and chronic sleep deprivation, exhaustion, stress) can lead to acute autonomic dysfunction and fatal arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: Incidence of non-violent death cases linked to playing video games is presumably very low. It mostly occurs in young males and it is often characterized by extremely long gaming time.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos , Descanso , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Internet
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21187, 2022 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476806

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare in rats the cardiometabolic and cellular adaptative responses to 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in a single (1xHIIT) or three shorter daily sessions (3xHIIT). Male Wistar rats were assigned to untrained (n = 10), 1xHIIT (n = 10), and 3xHIIT (n = 10) groups. Both HIIT groups performed 15 min of a treadmill run five times per week for 8 weeks. The 1xHIIT performed single daily sessions of 15 min, and the 3xHIIT performed three daily sessions of 5 min with an interval of 4 h between sessions. Resting VO2 and VO2max were measured using a metabolic chamber; blood pressure and heart rate were measured by plethysmography; body composition was estimated by DEXA; Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed; after euthanasia, hearts, gastrocnemius, and visceral fat were harvested for analysis of cardiac function, histology, and morphology. Mitochondrial densities of the gastrocnemius and left ventricle muscles were determined by electron microscopy. 3xHIIT induced similar positive adaptative responses to 1xHIIT on resting VO2 and VO2max, cardiac function, and mitochondria density. 3xHIIT was superior to 1xHIIT in reducing visceral fat weight and adipocyte size and improving insulin tolerance. Multiple short daily bouts of HIIT may be superior to single HIIT daily sessions in improving cardiometabolic and cellular adaptations in rats.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Insulina , Ratos Wistar , Descanso
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497808

RESUMO

Identifying subjects with epileptic seizures or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures from healthy subjects via interictal EEG analysis can be a very challenging issue. Indeed, at visual inspection, EEG can be normal in both cases. This paper proposes an automatic diagnosis approach based on deep learning to differentiate three classes: subjects with epileptic seizures (ES), subjects with non-epileptic psychogenic seizures (PNES) and control subjects (CS), analyzed by non-invasive low-density interictal scalp EEG recordings. The EEGs of 42 patients with new-onset ES, 42 patients with PNES video recorded and 19 patients with CS all with normal interictal EEG on visual inspection, were analyzed in the study; none of them was taking psychotropic drugs before registration. The processing pipeline applies empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to 5s EEG segments of 19 channels in order to extract enhanced features learned automatically from the customized convolutional neural network (CNN). The resulting CNN has been shown to perform well during classification, with an accuracy of 85.7%; these results encourage the use of deep processing systems to assist clinicians in difficult clinical settings.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Convulsões , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Descanso
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277416, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383619

RESUMO

Sleep duration, quality, and rest-activity pattern-a measure for inferring circadian rhythm-are influenced by multiple factors including access to electricity. Recent findings suggest that the safety and comfort afforded by technology may improve sleep but negatively impact rest-activity stability. According to the circadian entrainment hypothesis, increased access to electric lighting should lead to weaker and less uniform circadian rhythms, measured by stability of rest-activity patterns. Here, we investigate sleep in a Maya community in Guatemala who are in a transitional stage of industrialization. We predicted that (i) sleep will be shorter and less efficient in this population than in industrial settings, and that (ii) rest-activity patterns will be weaker and less stable than in contexts with greater exposure to the natural environment and stronger and more stable than in settings more buffered by technologic infrastructure. Our results were mixed. Compared to more industrialized settings, in our study population sleep was 4.87% less efficient (78.39% vs 83.26%). We found no significant difference in sleep duration. Rest-activity patterns were more uniform and less variable than in industrial settings (interdaily stability = 0.58 vs 0.43; intradaily variability = 0.53 vs 0.60). Our results suggest that industrialization does not inherently reduce characteristics of sleep quality; instead, the safety and comfort afforded by technological development may improve sleep, and an intermediate degree of environmental exposure and technological buffering may support circadian rhythm strength and stability.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Sono , Humanos , Ritmo Circadiano , Descanso , Polissonografia , Tecnologia , Actigrafia
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277432, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects of a flywheel eccentric overload (FEOL) exercise and barbell half squats (BHS) on countermovement jump (CMJ) and 30 m sprint performance. METHODS: Twelve male collegiate competitive basketball players were enrolled in this study and they implemented two training protocols: barbell half squat (BHS) and flywheel eccentric overload (FEOL) training. The BHS protocol included three intensities of load: low (40% 1RM), medium (60% 1RM), and high (80% 1RM), with each intensity consisting of 5 sets of 3 repetitions. The FEOL protocol included three inertia intensities: low (0. 015 kg∙m2), medium (0.035 kg∙m2), and high (0.075 kg∙m2), with each intensity consisting of 3 sets of 6 repetitions. The measurement time points were before training (baseline) and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after training. A two-stage (stage-I and stage-II) randomized crossover design was used to determine the acute effects of both protocols on CMJ and sprint performance. RESULTS: At each training intensity, the jump height, jump peak power output (PPO), jump impulse and 30m sprint speed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes after BHS and FEOL training did not change significantly compared to the baseline. A 2-way ANOVA analysis indicated significant main effects of rest intervals on jump height, jump PPO, and jump impulse, as well as 30m sprint speed. The interaction of the Time × protocol showed a significant effect on jump height between BHS and FEOL groups at high intensity in stage-I (F = 3.809, p = 0.016, df = 4) and stage-II (F = 3.044, p = 0.037, df = 4). And in high training intensity, the jump height at 3 (7.78 ± 9.90% increase, ES = 0.561), 6 (8.96 ± 12.15% increase, ES = 0.579), and 9 min (8.78 ± 11.23% increase, ES = 0.608) were enhanced in I-FEOL group compared with I-BHS group (F = 3.044, p = 0.037, df = 4). In stage-II, the impulse and sprint speed of the FEOL group were significantly higher than those of the BHS group at 6, 9, and 12 min under low (FEOL = 0.015kg∙m2, BHS = 40%1RM), medium(FEOL = 0.035kg∙m2, BHS = 60%1RM), and high (FEOL = 0.075kg∙m2, BHS = 80%1RM) intensities. Furthermore, the sprint speed of the two training protocols did not change at different time points. The interaction of Time × training intensity showed lower sprint speeds in the II-BHS group at a high intensity (BHS = 80%1RM) compared to low (BHS = 40%1RM) and medium (BHS = 60%1RM) training intensities, especially at 9 min and 12 min rest intervals. CONCLUSION: Although barbell half squat training and flywheel eccentric overload training did not provide a significant PAPE effect on explosive power (CMJ and sprint) in male basketball players, FEOL training showed a better potential effect on enhanced CMJ jump performance at the high training intensity.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Postura , Descanso , Estudos Cross-Over
20.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 19(1): 638-649, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419615

RESUMO

Background: The demands of typical daily activities require a constant level of alertness and attention. Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing supplements have been shown to improve measures of cognitive performance. As many of these supplements become readily available, efficacy of each should be evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the 4D dietary supplement on cognition, reaction time, and reactive agility. Methods: Seventeen healthy males (n = 8) and females (n = 9) between the ages of 18-40 years old (22.8 ± 2.9 years; 167.3 ± 9.6 cm; 65.4 ± 10.9 kg) participated in this double-blind, randomized crossover study. Participants completed three baseline reaction time assessments on the Dynavision and one baseline multiple object tracking assessment on the Neurotracker. Participants then consumed the oral multi-ingredient supplement containing 150 mg of caffeine or non-caffeinated placebo, mixed with 24 ounces of water, and rested for 45 minutes. Following the rest period, participants completed an additional three reaction time assessments and one multiple object tracking (MOT) assessment, as well as 6-12 trials of the Y-reactive agility test. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate YRA performance and change values for Dynavision RT, Dynavision score, and MOT speed with either 4D dietary supplement or placebo. Results: A significant time × supplement interaction was shown for MOT speed (p = .040, d = .543). Change scores in MOT speed were significantly different from zero following 4D (mean: 0.224 au; 95% confidence interval: 0.050 to 0.398 au) but not placebo supplementation (mean: -0.046 au; 95% confidence interval: -0.220 to 0.127 au). No time × supplement interaction was shown for Dynavision RT (p = .056, d = -.499) or Dynavision score (p = .093, d = .434). No differences were shown for YRA scores following supplementation for the right side (p = .241, d = -.295) or left side (p = .378, d = -.220). Conclusion: The 4D dietary supplement appears to improve measures of cognition, specifically attention/spatial awareness, but not reaction time or reactive agility. Future research should examine the effects of this supplement with a larger, less heterogeneous sample and/or in conjunction with an exercise intervention.


Assuntos
Cafeína , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cafeína/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Tempo de Reação , Descanso
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