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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4841, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404770

RESUMO

RAS proteins are GTPases that lie upstream of a signaling network impacting cell fate determination. How cells integrate RAS activity to balance proliferation and cellular senescence is still incompletely characterized. Here, we identify ZNF768 as a phosphoprotein destabilized upon RAS activation. We report that ZNF768 depletion impairs proliferation and induces senescence by modulating the expression of key cell cycle effectors and established p53 targets. ZNF768 levels decrease in response to replicative-, stress- and oncogene-induced senescence. Interestingly, ZNF768 overexpression contributes to bypass RAS-induced senescence by repressing the p53 pathway. Furthermore, we show that ZNF768 interacts with and represses p53 phosphorylation and activity. Cancer genomics and immunohistochemical analyses reveal that ZNF768 is often amplified and/or overexpressed in tumors, suggesting that cells could use ZNF768 to bypass senescence, sustain proliferation and promote malignant transformation. Thus, we identify ZNF768 as a protein linking oncogenic signaling to the control of cell fate decision and proliferation.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/genética , Genes ras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Ciclo Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Replicação do DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genômica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Oncogenes , Fenótipo , Fosfoproteínas , Fosforilação , Repressão Psicológica , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/genética
2.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(1): 176-203, ene.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251882

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) En este artículo analizamos la participación de los jóvenes en los movimientos alteractivistas de 2011 y los estallidos sociales de 2019, quienes, al parecer, han sido protagonistas de nuevas formas de acción colectiva y conectiva. Desde el enfoque cualitativo de investigación y el método de análisis documental, se revisó un corpus de 61 documentos que comprenden literatura académica e información mediática sobre estos hechos. En los resultados se destacan: la redefinición ontológica y sociopolítica de la condición juvenil a partir de la acción colectiva; el tránsito de prácticas políticas antiglobalización a repertorios de acción colectiva más radicales que buscan resistir a la precariedad y la violencia; y acciones conectivas que transitan de estrategias de replicación a intercambios entre gestores de contenidos y audiencias, por medio de textos multimodales-performativos.


Abstract (analytical) In this article we analyze the participation of young people in the alteractivist movements of 2011 and the social outbreaks of 2019, who, apparently, have been protagonists of new forms of collective and connective action. From the qualitative research approach and the documentary method, we check a corpus of 61 documents about academic literature and media information. The results show: the ontological and sociopolitical redefinition of the youth condition based on collective action; the transition from anti-globalization political practices to more radical repertoires of collective action that seek to resist precariousness and violence; and connective actions that go from replication strategies to exchanges between content managers and audiences, through multimodal-performative texts.


Resumo (analítico) Neste artigo, analisamos a participação dos jovens nos movimentos alterativistas de 2011 e os surtos sociais de 2019, que, aparentemente, foram protagonistas de novas formas de ação coletiva e conectiva. A partir da abordagem qualitativa da pesquisa e do método de análise documental, foi revisado um corpus de 61 documentos que compõem a literatura acadêmica e informações midiáticas sobre esses eventos. Destacam-se os resultados: a redefinição ontológica e sociopolítica da condição juvenil a partir da ação coletiva; a transição das práticas políticas antiglobalização para repertórios mais radicais de ação coletiva que buscam resistir à precariedade e à violência; e ações conectivas que vão desde estratégias de replicação até trocas entre gestores de conteúdo e públicos, por meio de textos multimodal-performativos.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Adolescente , Repressão Psicológica , Participação Social
3.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(11): 1924-1934, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840269

RESUMO

The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is widely used to study false memory in the laboratory. It tests memory for lists of semantically related words (correct list item memories) and their non-presented associates (false lure memories). Evidence suggests that early items in DRM lists could make an especially significant contribution to false memories of lures, as they may critically influence the underlying associative activation and/or gist extraction processes. The present study tested this suggestion by using two manipulations that were intended to affect processing of early DRM list items. The first was interpolation of a semantically unrelated distractor item among the list items (Experiments 1 and 2). The second was arranging for these items to be either the strongest or weakest associates of the lure (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, a distractor item reduced both list item and lure recall when presented early in a DRM list, but selectively disrupted list item recall when presented late in the list. In Experiment 2, arranging for the early list items to be the weakest associates of the lure reduced false recall of the lure but had no effect on list item recall. The findings are discussed with respect to theories that explain false memory in the DRM protocol, including fuzzy trace theory (FTT) and activation-monitoring theory (AMT). They are also discussed with respect to general theories of memory and the potential role of category/context information in generating false memories.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Humanos , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Repressão Psicológica , Sugestão
4.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(9): 1512-1524, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783279

RESUMO

Memory is considered to be a flexible and reconstructive system. However, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating how associations are falsely constructed in memory, and even less is known about the role of the self in memory construction. We investigated whether false associations involving non-presented stimuli can be constructed in episodic memory and whether the self plays a role in such memory construction. In two experiments, we paired participants' own names (i.e., self-reference) or the name "Adele" (i.e., other-reference) with words and pictures from Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists. We found that (1) participants not only falsely remembered the non-presented lure words and pictures as having been presented, but also misremembered that they were paired with their own name or "Adele," depending on the referenced person of related DRM lists; and (2) there were more critical lure-self associations constructed in the self-reference condition than critical lure-other associations in the other-reference condition for word but not for picture stimuli. These results suggest a self-enhanced constructive effect that might be driven by both relational and item-specific processing. Our results support the spreading-activation account for constructive episodic memory.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Nomes , Humanos , Repressão Psicológica
5.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(2): 454-460, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709851

RESUMO

On the basis of converging research, we concluded that the controversial topic of unconscious blockage of psychological trauma (i.e., repressed memory) remains very much alive in clinical, legal, and academic contexts. In his commentary, Brewin (this issue, p. 443) conducted a cocitation analysis and concluded that scholars do not adhere to the concept of unconscious repression. Furthermore, he argued that previous survey research did not specifically assess unconscious repression. Here, we present critical evidence that runs counter to his claims. First, we inspected his cocitation analysis and found that some scholars support notions that are closely related to unconscious repression. Furthermore, we conducted another analysis on the basis of articles' similarity. Again, we found examples of scholars specifically endorsing unconscious repressed memories. Second, as opposed to what Brewin reports, recent survey research now exists that bears directly on people's beliefs regarding unconscious repression. This work reveals that large percentages of people (e.g., students and eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing [EMDR] clinicians) endorse the concept of unconscious repressed memories. The belief in unconscious repressed memory can continue to contribute to harmful consequences in clinical, legal, and academic domains (e.g., false accusations of abuse).


Assuntos
Trauma Psicológico , Repressão Psicológica , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória
6.
Am J Psychoanal ; 81(1): 27-50, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686163

RESUMO

It is argued that, in the course of the history of psychoanalysis since 1914 or thereabouts, the clinical and theoretical interests of psychotherapy have occluded our comprehension of the radicality of the free-associative method that is special to psychoanalysis. Setting aside the entirety of the range of endeavors that we might call "psychotherapy," this essay defines critically the practices of "psychoanalytically-informed therapies" and distinguishes them from Sigmund Freud's "analysis" that is tied to the unique method by which he discovered the inherent repressiveness of self-consciousness. This thesis implies that the human psyche can neither be properly understood nor healed by theory-driven techniques that prioritize epistemological considerations. Rather the liberatory potential of psychoanalytic praxis must be grasped as an "onto-ethical discipline," by which the ideological commitments of therapy might be subverted.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoterapia , Repressão Psicológica
7.
Am J Psychoanal ; 81(1): 82-111, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637834

RESUMO

Recent research on trauma, attachment and neuroscience point at a clear divide in psychopathology between disorders based on repression, (as in Freud's repression model) and psychopathologies structured on dissociative mechanisms, a response to severe interpersonal trauma. Pathologies based on repression are typical of a neurotic structure, (with better developmental outcome), while pathologies based on dissociation are of more severe, often borderline nature, as in Otto Kernberg's borderline organization (1975). Neurobiology of attachment and affect regulation theory (Allan Schore), developmental psychopathology (Giovanni Liotti) and contemporary relational psychoanalysis (Philip Bromberg), all provide clinical evidence that the most severe psychopathology is of dissociative structure. This paper clarifies the after-effects of first level of traumatization of human agency (i.e., lack of attunement) and of the second level as in cases with actual abuse, maltreatment or incest (Mucci, 2013), with the internalization of a dyad victim/persecutor within the self of the survivor, as seen in borderline psychopathology (Mucci, 2018).


Assuntos
Transtornos Dissociativos , Psicanálise , Mecanismos de Defesa , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Repressão Psicológica
8.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 28(5): 1194-1209, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586291

RESUMO

Psychological interventions often use guided discovery and other techniques for diagnostic exploration and intervention planning. This way, memories may arise in the person, which may be true or false. False memories of earlier events can be harmful and result in real suffering, similar to actual traumatic memories. Based on cognitive psychological and psycho-traumatological findings, there is pronounced dissent in the academic disciplines regarding the conceptualization, relevance and research of false memories. This review contributes to the basic question of how often false beliefs and false memories may be induced within the frame of different interactional techniques. A systematic review has been conducted of 59 articles from (quasi-)experimental studies and two qualitative sources from 30 data bases. Three main methods of memory induction provide the basis for reporting: imagination inflation, false feedback, and memory implantation. Due to the conceptual and methodological diversity of the studies, the results appear to be heterogeneous. Free and guided imagery, as well as suggestive statements, could induce false beliefs or false memories in, on average, 20%-50% of the participants who underwent experimental manipulation concerning false past events. A false belief induction may occur after dream interpretation or hypnosis in more than 50% of participants. Personalized suggestion is more effective in inducing memory than the general plausibility of the suggested events. Further research questions are which therapeutic actions seem appropriate in cases of harmful false memories. This depends not only on whether there are veridical elements in the false memory but also on the quality and meaning of the memory for the person's life and ability to cope with burdens.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Repressão Psicológica , Humanos , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Sugestão
9.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 150(5): 828-850, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090824

RESUMO

It is still debated whether suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories causes forgetting and whether this constitutes a beneficial mechanism. To shed light on these 2 questions, we scrutinize the evidence for such suppression-induced forgetting (SIF) and examine whether it is deficient in psychological disorders characterized by intrusive thoughts. Specifically, we performed a focused meta-analysis of studies that have used the think/no-think procedure to test SIF in individuals either affected by psychological disorders or exhibiting high scores on related traits. Overall, across 96 effects from 25 studies, we found that avoiding retrieval leads to significant forgetting in healthy individuals, with a small to moderate effect size (0.28, 95% CI [0.14, 0.43]). Importantly, this effect was indeed larger than for more anxious (-0.21, 95% CI [-0.41, -0.02]) or depressed individuals (0.05, 95% CI [-0.19, 0.29])-though estimates for the healthy may be inflated by publication bias. In contrast, individuals with a stronger repressive coping style showed greater SIF (0.42, 95% CI [0.32, 0.52]). Furthermore, moderator analyses revealed that SIF varied with the exact suppression mechanism that participants were instructed to engage. For healthy individuals, the effect sizes were considerably larger when instructions induced specific mechanisms of direct retrieval suppression or thought substitution than when they were unspecific. These results suggest that intact suppression-induced forgetting is a hallmark of psychological well-being, and that inducing more specific suppression mechanisms fosters voluntary forgetting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Behav Res Methods ; 53(1): 96-112, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572846

RESUMO

False memory has been a flourishing research area for decades, and recently there has been considerable interest in how emotional content affects it. Literature reviews have noted a lack of normed materials that vary in emotional valence and arousal as a factor that contributes to the mixed findings on emotion-false memory effects. We report a pool of normed materials of this sort, the Cornell/Cortland Emotional Lists (CEL). This is a Deese/Roediger/McDermott (DRM) type list pool in which words' mean valence and arousal ratings are factorially manipulated across 32 lists. These lists' levels of mean backward associative strength (MBAS) are all high enough to induce significant levels of false memory. The lists were normed by administering them to 228 subjects at three different universities, all of whom responded to recall and recognition tests for the lists. The norming data revealed that false recall and false recognition were higher for negative lists than for positive lists, whereas true recall and true recognition were higher for positive lists than for negative lists. In addition, high arousal strengthened the valence effects on both true and false recall. These results indicate that the CEL lists are useful tozols for emotion-false memory research.


Assuntos
Emoções , Memória , Nível de Alerta , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Repressão Psicológica
11.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 16(2): 443-453, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780670

RESUMO

In the November 2019 issue of Perspectives, Otgaar et al. argued that the "memory wars" persist and that "the controversial issue of repressed memories is alive and well and may even be on the rise" (p. 1072). Their thesis overlooked the well-established consensus that recovered memories of trauma may be genuine, false, or a mixture of the two and instead focused on a disputed mechanism: unconscious repression. A formal cocitation analysis identified the major publications mentioning repressed memories, but none endorsed a theory of unconscious repression. Studies of beliefs about repressed memories by the general public and other groups do not support Otgaar et al.'s thesis either because these studies did not adequately assess the key ideas defining the theory of repression. Clinical evidence is consistent with recovered memories occurring in many different forms of therapy, including ones that do not use suggestive techniques or rely on the concept of repression. Thus, Otgaar et al. have proposed the existence of a problem for which little objective evidence can be found. Continuing theoretical uncertainties about the mechanisms responsible for forgetting are less important than the general recognition since the 1990s that suggestive therapy and attempts to exhume memories are hazardous and generally inappropriate.


Assuntos
Memória , Repressão Psicológica , Humanos
12.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 63, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275199

RESUMO

Exposure to 'fake news' can result in false memories, with possible consequences for downstream behaviour. Given the sharp rise in online misinformation during the coronavirus pandemic, it is important to understand the factors that influence the development of false memories. The present study measured susceptibility to false memories following exposure to fabricated news stories about the pandemic in a sample of 3746 participants. We investigated the effect of individual differences in (1) knowledge about COVID-19, (2) engagement with media or discussion about the coronavirus, (3) anxiety about COVID-19 and (4) analytical reasoning. Notably, objectively and subjectively assessed knowledge about COVID-19 were not significantly correlated. Objectively assessed knowledge was associated with fewer false memories but more true memories, suggesting a true discrimination between true and fake news. In contrast, participants who merely believed themselves to be very knowledgeable were more likely to report a memory for true stories, but showed no reduction in false memories. Similarly, individuals who reported high levels of media engagement or anxiety about COVID-19 reported an increase in true (but not false) memories. Finally, higher levels of analytical reasoning were associated with fewer memories for both true and fabricated stories, suggesting a stricter threshold for reporting a memory for any story. These data indicate that false memories can form in response to fake COVID-19 news and that susceptibility to this misinformation is affected by the individual's knowledge about and interaction with COVID-19 information, as well as their tendency to think critically.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Irlanda , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Psychoanal Assoc ; 68(5): 839-874, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307745

RESUMO

Psychoanalytic treatment is often indicated when trauma and its psyche/soma companion, dissociation, severely disrupt symbolic functioning and associative linking. After Freud's initial thinking on these matters, repression replaced rather than supplemented dissociation (which occasions segregating units of experience) as the primary defensive response to severe trauma. Because psychoanalysis had "repressed" the salience of dissociation as actively motivated (though passively experienced), an unnecessary schism has occurred between trauma theories and mainstream North American psychoanalysis, and within psychoanalysis itself. To fully restore dissociation's role in primitive mental states and provide a more integrated approach to technique, it is necessary to comprehend the triadic nature of trauma, which entails economic/drive, structural conflict and deficit, and object-relational factors. For a treatment model that addresses defensive dissociation in the here and now, primary and secondary dissociation must be distinguished, with each differentiated from splitting and repression. Technique requires addressing unconscious, repressed fantasies associated with the "trauma," object-relational patterns that interfere with linking, and psycho-economic issues that have disrupted ego functioning. A clinical example illustrates both the analyst's persistence in suffering the dead, eerie space of dissociated trauma and efforts to find language that helps structure the patient's somatic and enacted expressions (and accompanying dissociative and repressive processes) by which traumatic experiences are registered and conveyed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dissociativos/terapia , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Repressão Psicológica , Contratransferência , Humanos , Apego ao Objeto , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Teoria Psicanalítica , Transferência Psicológica , Inconsciente Psicológico
17.
Rev. psicanal ; 27(3): 697-713, Dezembro 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252807

RESUMO

O artigo pretende ampliar a ideia freudiana de que os elementos do sentimento da inquietante estranheza são resultantes do trabalho do recalque. Pretendemos esboçar um possível entrelaçamento entre o que Freud propõe pensarmos como O estranho, a sexualidade infantil e o sexual primordial, relacionando estes aspectos com as nossas dificuldades, como psicanalistas, de pensar e debater temas cada vez mais presentes na realidade do homem do século XXI: as pluralidades e as diversidades da sexualidade (AU)


The article intends to expand the Freudian idea that the elements of the feeling of uncanny strangeness result from the work of repression. We intend to outline a possible weaving between what Freud proposes to think of as The stranger, child sexuality and primordial sexual, relating these aspects to our difficulties, as psychoanalysts, to think and debate themes increasingly present in the reality of the 21st century people: the pluralities and diversities of sexuality (AU)


El artículo pretende ampliar la idea freudiana de que los elementos del sentimiento de inquietante extrañeza son el resultado del trabajo de represión. Pretendemos esbozar un posible vínculo entre lo que Freud propone pensar como El extraño, la sexualidad infantil y la sexualidad primordial, relacionando estos aspectos con nuestras dificultades, como psicoanalistas, de pensar y debatir temas cada vez más presentes en la realidad del hombre del siglo XXI: las pluralidades y diversidades de la sexualidad (AU)


Assuntos
Repressão Psicológica , Sexualidade , Transtornos Neuróticos
18.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(10): 1996-2000, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017163

RESUMO

What does believing in repressed memory mean? In a recent article in this journal, Brewin, Li, Ntarantana, Unsworth, and McNeilis (2019, Study 3) argued that when people are asked to indicate their belief in repressed memory, they might actually think of deliberate memory suppression rather than unconscious repressed memory. They further argued that in contrast to belief in unconscious repressed memory, belief in deliberate memory suppression is not scientifically controversial. In this commentary, we show that they are incorrect on both counts. Although Brewin and colleagues surveyed people to indicate their belief in deliberate memory suppression, they neglected to ask their participants whether they (also) believed in unconscious repressed memory. We asked people from the general population whether they believed that traumatic experiences can be unconsciously repressed for many years and then recovered. In 2 studies of the general population, we found high endorsement rates (Study 1 [N = 230]: 59.2% [n = 45]; Study 2 [N = 79]: 67.1% [n = 53]) of the belief in unconscious repressed memory. These endorsement rates did not statistically differ from endorsement rates to statements on repressed memory and deliberate memory suppression. In contrast to what Brewin et al. argued, belief in unconscious repressed memory among lay people is alive and well. Finally, we contend that Brewin et al. overstated the scientific evidence bearing on deliberate repression (suppression). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória , Repressão Psicológica , Humanos
19.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(10): 2001-2004, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017164

RESUMO

In this response to Otgaar et al. (2020), we point out that their concern with the notion of unconscious repression is a classic example of a red herring, as it has never been endorsed as an explanation of recovered memories. We also note that Otgaar et al. have misunderstood the purpose of our article (Brewin, Li, Ntarantana, Unsworth, & McNeilis, 2019). Its aim was to demonstrate that many of the claims made by psychologists about the public's views on memory do not rest on sound methodology. Beliefs about repression featured as one example, but it was not our objective to establish what the public do think about repression. We welcome Otgaar et al.'s additional data but regret that they have repeated the basic error we highlighted, the reliance on a single questionnaire item to assess beliefs about highly complex topics. Nevertheless, their and our findings clearly indicate that understanding of the public's views on repression remains extremely limited, and insufficient to meaningfully contribute to legal processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória , Repressão Psicológica , Emoções , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(10): 2005-2006, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017165

RESUMO

We show that, in contrast to Brewin, Li, Ntarantana, Unsowrth, and McNeilis (2019), large proportions of laypersons believe in the scientifically controversial phenomenon of unconscious repressed memories. We provide new survey data showing that when participants are asked specific questions about what they mean when they report that traumatic memories can be repressed, most provide answers strongly consistent with unconscious repression. Our findings continue to show that researchers, legal professionals, and clinicians should be wary of invoking unconscious repression in their work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Repressão Psicológica , Humanos
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