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1.
Apuntes psicol ; 36(3): 145-154, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181185

RESUMO

Conducir un vehículo es una tarea compleja que reviste cierto riesgo; ha dejado de ser una actividad esporádica para convertirse en cotidiana, desencadenando en muchos conductores experiencias desfavorables. El objetivo del presente estudio fueinvestigar acerca del valor explicativo y predictivo de la sensibilidad a la ansiedad y sus factores, así como de otras dimensiones de la ansiedad, como son la ansiedad general y la ansiedad fóbica en el desarrollo del miedo a conducir y de la fobia derivada de dicho miedo: la amaxofobia. Para ello se realizó un estudio correlacional, mediante la aplicación online de diversos cuestionarios a una muestra compuesta por 300 conductores. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la sensibilidad a la ansiedad como los rasgos de ansiedad general y fóbica están implicados en el desarrollo de la amaxofobia, sin embargo, ninguno de ellos alcanza un valor determinante por separado, obteniendo valores moderados, tanto explicativos como predictivos


Driving a vehicle is a complex task that carries a certain risk; it has ceased to be a sporadic activity to become daily, causing unfavorable experiences in many drivers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the explanatory and predictive value of sensitivity to anxiety and its factors, as well as other dimensions of anxiety, such as general anxiety and phobic anxiety in the development of fear of driving and the phobia derived from such fear: Amaxophobia. For this, a correlational study was carried out by means of the online application of several questionnaires to a sample composed of 300 drivers. The results showed that both anxiety sensitivity and general and phobic anxiety traits are involved in the development of amaxophobia, however, none of them reach a determinant value separately, obtaining moderate values both explanatory and predictive


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Repressão-Sensibilização , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Epidemiologia Descritiva
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 17(2): 139-150, mayo-ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-163604

RESUMO

To adapt and validate the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised for evaluating cognitive reactivity to depressive mood to Spanish and validate this Spanish version. To find the scale's factor structure and psychometric properties. The sample consisted of 600 participants (103 patients and 497 subjects from the general population). A four-factor structure was found, a general factor evaluating cognitive reactivity was proposed and ten items were eliminated. A brief version of the (LEIDS-R24) scale is proposed. The factors and the overall scale have adequate internal consistency, and the results of validation show that all the factors on the scale predict depressive symptomatology (BDI-II) adequately, and are highly correlated with the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and BDI-II scales. The complete scale adequately discriminated depressive symptomatology in general population subjects and patients with anxiety and depressive disorders. No significant differences were found in the LEIDS-R24 measurement between subjects with anxiety and depressive disorder. The LEIDS-R24 scale may be a useful brief measure for evaluating cognitive reactivity to depressive mood and analyzing the vulnerability which could be common to persons with anxiety and depressive disorders (AU)


Adaptar y validar al español la escala Leiden de Sensibilidad para la Depresión Revisada para evaluar la reactividad cognitiva al humor depresivo. Conocer la estructura factorial de la escala y hallar las propiedades psicométricas. La muestra consistió en 600 participantes (103 pacientes y 497 sujetos de población general). Se obtuvo una estructura de cuatro factores, se propuso un factor general que evalúa la reactividad cognitiva y se eliminaron 10 ítems. Se propone una versión reducida de la escala (LEIDS-R24). Los factores y la escala global presentan una adecuada consistencia interna y los resultados de la validación muestran que todos los factores de la escala predicen adecuadamente la sintomatología depresiva (BDI-II) y muestran correlaciones elevadas con la Escala de Actitudes Disfuncionales y BDI-II. La escala completa discriminó adecuadamente en sintomatología depresiva entre sujetos de la población general y sujetos con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en la medida LEIDS-R24 entre sujetos con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos. La escala LEIDS-R24 puede ser una medida útil y breve para evaluar la reactividad cognitiva al humor depresivo y analizar la vulnerabilidad común que puede darse entre personas con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Depressão/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/tendências , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Repressão-Sensibilização , Análise de Dados/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Modelos Lineares
3.
Biol Psychol ; 94(2): 450-5, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24021713

RESUMO

The present study sought to examine the role of gender and Type D personality on cardiovascular reactivity to stress, by examining patterns of cardiovascular adaptation to recurrent laboratory-based stress. Cardiovascular data were collected from 76 students who, following an initial 10-min baseline period, underwent two cognitive stress tasks. Type D personality was assessed using the 16-item Type D scale. Adaptation of cardiovascular response to recurrent stress was examined by scrutinizing the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) across the procedure. Female participants and non-Type D males showed cardiovascular habituation to recurrent stress. For Type D males, however, cardiovascular sensitization was evident. The results implicate Type D personality in maladaptive cardiovascular responses, particularly in men, highlighting a possible direct mechanism of psychosomatic cardiovascular pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Personalidade Tipo D , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Repressão-Sensibilização , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
São Paulo; Roca; 2009. xxx,232 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-526681

RESUMO

Objetivo: verificar a relação entre o narcisismo, a melancolia e a ideologia da racionalidade tecnológica por meio de alguns conceitos mediadores, como indústria cultural e fenômenos de massa, que tendem a reproduzir a dominação social nas diversas instâncias da vida do indivíduo na sociedade atual. Trata-se de uma pesquisa teórica que procura orientar a reflexão sobre as tensões entre indivíduo, natureza, sociedade e cultura, utilizando-se principalmente das análises de Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse e Sigmund Freud. Como afirma o Prof. Dr. José Leon Crochík, um dos muitos méritos deste livro, da autora Dulce Regina dos Santos Pedrossian, é o de não deixar mais uma vez o indivíduo sozinho em sua dor, mas buscar o que a gera para além do indivíduo. Mais ainda: O mistério que nos leva a querer conhecer alguém se transforma em tédio quando decifrado e reduzido à origem psíquica. Nesse sentido, a própria prática psicanalítica, sem ter essa intenção, contribui com o narcisismo e com a melancolia. Por sua vez, o Prof. Dr. Odair Sass destaca que se uma tendência marcante dos tempos correntes assinala que os males dos séculos passado e atual são o narcisismo e a depressão, e que esta deve ser tratada preferencialmente por meio de medicamentos, o estudo apresentado traz implícita a oposição a tal tendência, ao propugnar que os males que afetam a esfera psíquica não podem ser dissociados da sociedade que os produz. No mínimo, isso equivale a dizer que a psicologia não deveria ser reduzida a simples instrumento de apoio ao tratamento médico, mas, ao contrário, os conhecimentos psicológicos, criticamente discutidos, poderiam ser mobilizados para atuar sobre as causas sociais desses males promotores do sofrimento dos indivíduos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Narcisismo , Psicologia Social/tendências , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Cultura , Dominação-Subordinação , Teoria Freudiana , Moral , Repressão-Sensibilização , Sociedades
5.
Alethéia ; (28): 21-31, jul.-dez. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-43761

RESUMO

The freudianism method sets out as an archaeological adventure of the subject and itsinterpretation go analogous to the attitude of the narrator of the fantastic story: the patient isnot free, has engraving his destiny. Although to Freud it interested to him to exclude a strictlyontogenetic perspective since - among other things the primitive fantasies are acquired hereditarily(for example, the Oedipus Complex). This imbrication with the filogenesis would allow to findthe traumatic experiences of the individual in the space and the time of the culture. The cultureanchor to the unconscious subject front to the interminable repression of the individual subject.The pulsion of death would recover the tragic dimension of its existence. The Freud´s theory ofthe culture marked the vicissitudes of the psychoanalytic thought until becoming the bestpatient of pullman bed(AU)


O método freudiano se propõe como uma aventura arqueológica do sujeito e suainterpretação é análoga à atitude do narrador do conto fantástico: o paciente não é livre, temgravado seu destino. Mesmo que para Freud interessasse excluir uma perspectiva estritamenteontogenética já que - entre outras coisas - as fantasias primitivas se adquirem hereditariamente(por exemplo, o complexo de Édipo). Esta imbricação com a filogênese permitiria encontrar asexperiências traumáticas do indivíduo no espaço e o tempo da cultura. A cultura ancora aosujeito inconsciente frente à interminável repressão do sujeito individual. A pulsão de morterestauraria a dimensão trágica de sua existência. A teoria freudiana da cultura marcou as vicissitudesdo pensamento psicanalítico até converter-se no melhor paciente do divã(AU)


El método freudiano se propone como una aventura arqueológica del sujeto y su interpretación va análoga a la actitud del narrador del cuento fantástico: el paciente no es libre, tiene grabado su destino. Aunque a Freud le interesaba excluir una perspectiva estrictamente ontogenética ya que –entre otras cosas– las fantasías primitivas se adquieren hereditariamente (por ejemplo, el complejo de Edipo). Esta imbricación con la filogénesis permitiría encontrar las experiencias traumáticas del individuo en el espacio y el tiempo de la cultura. La cultura ancla al sujeto inconsciente frente a la interminable represión del sujeto individual. La pulsión de la muerte restauraría la dimensión trágica de su existencia. La teoría freudiana de la cultura marcó las vicisitudes del pensamiento psicoanalítico hasta convertirse en el mejor paciente del diván(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicanálise , Arte , Cultura , Repressão Psicológica , Morte , Teoria Freudiana , Repressão-Sensibilização , Tanatologia
6.
Aletheia ; (28): 21-31, jul.-dez. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-527440

RESUMO

The freudianism method sets out as an archaeological adventure of the subject and itsinterpretation go analogous to the attitude of the narrator of the fantastic story: the patient isnot free, has engraving his destiny. Although to Freud it interested to him to exclude a strictlyontogenetic perspective since - among other things the primitive fantasies are acquired hereditarily(for example, the Oedipus Complex). This imbrication with the filogenesis would allow to findthe traumatic experiences of the individual in the space and the time of the culture. The cultureanchor to the unconscious subject front to the interminable repression of the individual subject.The pulsion of death would recover the tragic dimension of its existence. The Freud´s theory ofthe culture marked the vicissitudes of the psychoanalytic thought until becoming the bestpatient of pullman bed.


O método freudiano se propõe como uma aventura arqueológica do sujeito e suainterpretação é análoga à atitude do narrador do conto fantástico: o paciente não é livre, temgravado seu destino. Mesmo que para Freud interessasse excluir uma perspectiva estritamenteontogenética já que - entre outras coisas - as fantasias primitivas se adquirem hereditariamente(por exemplo, o complexo de Édipo). Esta imbricação com a filogênese permitiria encontrar asexperiências traumáticas do indivíduo no espaço e o tempo da cultura. A cultura ancora aosujeito inconsciente frente à interminável repressão do sujeito individual. A pulsão de morterestauraria a dimensão trágica de sua existência. A teoria freudiana da cultura marcou as vicissitudesdo pensamento psicanalítico até converter-se no melhor paciente do divã.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arte , Cultura , Morte , Teoria Freudiana , Psicanálise , Repressão Psicológica , Repressão-Sensibilização , Tanatologia
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 20(1): 31-6, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18376328

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies showed that sensitization could be important in cardiovascular disease subjects. The main aim of our study was to investigate further the relationship between sensitization of emotion on one side, and main risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and some psychological variables on the other. METHODS: A total of 374 patients with (187) or without (187) ischemic heart disease took part in our study. Owing to the lower percentage of women with IHD only men were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: repressors (those who report low subjective disturbance but react relatively strongly objectively; psychometrically, they have a high defensiveness score - L-EPQ and low trait anxiety score - EPQ-N), sensitizers (they have the opposite results: high N and low L score) and all the remaining subjects (the remaining two combinations of the N and L scores). Altogether, 12 exploratory variables (presence of IHD and main IHD risk factors; personality traits and coping styles) were explored in relation to sensitization of emotion. RESULTS: As predicted, sensitization of emotion was significantly more frequent in the group of patients with IHD (chi2=23.2; df=2; p<0.0001). We also showed some additional correlates of sensitization trait that could explain the association between this trait and IHD more in detail. In the group of IHD patients, the highest scores of psychoticism (F=12.14; df=2; p<0.001) and emotional coping styles (F=19.36; df=2; p<0.001) were shown in sensitizers, and the highest scores of detached emotional coping styles in the middle group of patients (F=7.58; df=2; p=0.001). Also, sensitizers were the youngest group (F=8.28; df=2; p<0.001) and had the highest frequency of smoking history (chi2=6.73; df=2; p=0.035). Some of these associations were in the same direction also significant in the group free of IHD, namely for psychoticism (F=9.15; df=2; p<0.001), emotional coping (F=11.07; df=2; p<0.001) and age (F=5.83; df=2; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Among some other characteristics, sensitization of emotion also relates to more emotional and less detached ways of coping with stress, and more smoking on the other, which in turn increases the overall behavioral risk of developing this chronic disease.


Assuntos
Emoções , Isquemia Miocárdica/psicologia , Repressão-Sensibilização , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 7: 70, 2007 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18067686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive model of panic disorder have proposed that panic attacks result from the catastrophic misinterpretation of certain bodily sensations. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for panic disorder aims to change these catastrophic cognitions. CBT intervention successfully caused reduction of catastrophic cognitions and symptomatic improvement in the majority of cases. However there are some patients who fail to modify their catastrophic cognitions or rather experience an increase in them during CBT treatment. It is clinically and theoretically important to understand about cognitive sensitization of panic disorder during CBT sessions. The purpose of the present study is 1) to clarify the baseline characteristics of panic patients who would experience sensitization of their catastrophic cognitions through the CBT treatment, and 2) to examine the course of symptomatic changes for them. METHODS: Of ninety-five outpatients with panic disorder started the group CBT program for treatment of panic disorder, seventy-nine completer were classified as "cognitively sensitized (CS)" or "cognitive responding (CR)" or "no-responder" according to the difference of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire score across treatment. We compared the CS and CR patients in terms of their baseline clinical characteristics. Then we assessed the symptomatic and functional changes for both groups. RESULTS: At the start of the CBT program, despite of the same degree of panic disorder severity, CS scored significantly lower on ACQ score than CR. CS also showed significantly lower score on anticipatory anxiety compared to CR. At the end of treatment CS showed significant improvement in severity of panic disorder, although the degree of improvement was smaller than that for CR. Then CS would progressively reduce their agoraphobic fear and avoidance, and would improve their functional impairment up to three month of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Panic patients who would experience sensitization of their catastrophic cognitions through the CBT treatment could nonetheless gradually improve. They showed a relatively low level of catastrophic cognition and anticipatory anxiety before starting the CBT program. We might conclude that temporary sensitization of catastrophic cognition may be necessary before improvement especially among those with initially low catastrophic body sensation fears and that we need not be concerned too much with temporary increase in catastrophic cognition in the process of CBT for panic disorder.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agorafobia/terapia , Nível de Alerta , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Cultura , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Repressão-Sensibilização , Adulto , Agorafobia/diagnóstico , Agorafobia/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann Behav Med ; 34(2): 166-76, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17927555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender differences in coronary heart disease are mirrored by gender differences both in cardiovascular reactivity to stress and in the nature and content of social support networks. However, little research has examined the association between cardiovascular reactivity in the laboratory and social support outside; and none has established whether gender differences in such associations can elucidate relevant psychosomatic mechanisms. In addition, in general, studies of cardiovascular reactivity fail to take adequate account of cardiovascular response habituation. PURPOSE: The present study sought to examine gender differences in associations between psychometrically assessed social support and cardiovascular reactivity and, in particular, response habituation patterns. METHOD: Ninety-two undergraduate men and women underwent two consecutive cardiovascular reactivity assessments, after having provided psychometric assessments of quantity and quality of social support in ordinary life. RESULTS: Inverse associations between social support and cardiovascular reactivity during the second assessment suggested that highly-supported women exhibited cardiovascular response habituation. For men, the opposite trend-that of support-related cardiovascular sensitization-was found. Results were unaffected by performance of the task used to elicit reactivity or by participant ratings of task dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that men and women differ in the degree to which social support in ordinary life moderates cardiovascular stress responses in laboratories. This difference is highlighted when looking at how cardiovascular responses fluctuate over repeated testing. Habituation-sensitization patterns suggest that, when dealing with difficult tasks, women may derive benefit from background social relationships whereas men may find that such background relationships bring additional pressures.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Pressão Sanguínea , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Frequência Cardíaca , Repressão-Sensibilização , Caracteres Sexuais , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento , Inventário de Personalidade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Neurosci Behav Physiol ; 37(6): 607-12, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17657432

RESUMO

Acquisition of nociceptive sensitization in common snails was accompanied by long-term facilitation of the responses of defensive behavior command neuron LPl1 to sensory stimulation of chemoreceptors on the head and mechanoreceptors on the head and foot. Acquisition of sensitization during intracellular administration of antisense oligonucleotides to mRNA encoding the early gene zif268 showed suppression of synaptic facilitation in the responses of neuron LPl1 to tactile and chemical stimulation of the snail's head. Synaptic facilitation in the responses to tactile stimulation of the foot developed as in neurons of control sensitized animals. These results suggest that the early gene zif268 is selectively involved in the mechanisms of the specific regulation of the synaptic inputs of neuron LPl1 from sensory receptors on the snail's head.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/antagonistas & inibidores , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/fisiologia , Cabeça/inervação , Cabeça/fisiologia , Caracois Helix , Relaxantes Musculares Centrais/farmacologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Quinina/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , Repressão-Sensibilização , Sinapses/fisiologia
11.
Eat Behav ; 8(3): 423-8, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17606241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between approach-avoidance motivational processes and unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours was investigated. METHOD: Self-reported sensitivity to rewards (SR) and sensitivity to punishments (SP) were measured for a convenience sample of 130 women, aged 18 to 40 years, along with measures of disordered eating symptomatology and exercise dependence. RESULTS: Together, SR and SP significantly predicted variance in drive for thinness (21%), bulimia (17%), and obligatory exercise (7%). These relationships were partly mediated by internalization of the thin ideal, body comparison, and subjective importance of achieving one's 'ideal' body and of avoiding one's 'worst possible' body. Interestingly, body dissatisfaction partly mediated the relationships involving SP but not SR. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that an underlying sensitivity to punishments, but not rewards, can manifest as a 'fear of fatness'. Both of these motivational traits can increase the salience of self evaluations, and thus indirectly contribute to unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviours.


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Imagem Corporal , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Cultura , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Inventário de Personalidade , Punição , Repressão-Sensibilização , Recompensa , Autoimagem
12.
Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova ; 56(4): 499-505, 2006.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17025194

RESUMO

It was found that nociceptive sensitization was followed by long-term facilitation of synaptic responses evoked by chemical sensory stimulation of the snail "head", tactile stimulation of the snail "head" and foot in LP11 command neuron of defence behavior in snail Helix lucorum. Sensitizing stimulation during the intracellular injection of antisense olygonucleotide immediate early gene zif268 resulted in a selective suppression of synaptic facilitation in LP11 neuron responses evoked by tactile and chemical stimulation of the snail "head". At the same time, development of synaptic facilitation of responses in the LP11 neuron evoked by tactile stimulation of the foot was the same as in control sensitized snails. The results suggest that immediate early gene zif268 is selectively involved in the mechanisms of specific regulation of plasticity of the synaptic "input" of LP11 neuron from sensory receptors of the snail "head".


Assuntos
Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/fisiologia , Caracois Helix/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Repressão-Sensibilização , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracois Helix/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracois Helix/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Affect Disord ; 83(2-3): 249-52, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15555722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from a sample of suicidal young adults were used to examine the relevance of the kindling and behavioral sensitization models to suicide attempts. Three predictions derived from the kindling and sensitization models were tested: a higher number of suicide attempts would be associated with (a) lower levels of pre-attempt stress; (b) higher suicidal intent; and (c) greater lethality of the current attempt. METHODS: Measures of life stress and suicidal intent were collected among 123 young adults who attempted suicide just prior to entering treatment. Data on the total number of suicide attempts and the lethality of the current attempt were also collected. RESULTS: Number of suicide attempts was significantly and positively associated with pre-suicidal crisis life stress and suicidal ideation, but was not significantly associated with lethality of the most recent attempt. LIMITATIONS: The young sample drawn from a military medical setting may not accurately represent suicide attempters in the general population. Only total negative life events in the year preceding suicide attempt were examined, not the increase in negative life events immediately prior to suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The kindling and sensitization models may not accurately describe the progression of recurrent suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Excitação Neurológica , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Militares/psicologia , Repressão-Sensibilização , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais Militares , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Recidiva , Fatores Sexuais , Estatística como Assunto , Tentativa de Suicídio/classificação , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 27(1-2): 163-78, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12732232

RESUMO

The present review deals mainly with the ontogenesis of two important phenomena involved in vulnerability to several neuropsychiatric disorders, namely with drug-induced sensitization (both contextual and non-contextual) and with conditioned place preference. The term 'infancy' covers the first three postnatal weeks during development in rats and mice. Conversely, the term 'adolescence' may cover the whole postnatal period ranging from weaning (PND 21) to adulthood (at least PND 60) or specifically the period around the onset of puberty (animals aged 33-44 days). Recent studies in rats demonstrated that the establishment of a context-dependent sensitization appears during the first (for repeated drug administration) or during the second (for a single drug administration) postnatal week. However, the memory of drug-context association is transient in developing pups (lasting one or two days following the drug pretreatment). The long-term retention of drug-context associations matures progressively, and is complete by the third week of postnatal life. Finally, those mechanisms responsible for an adult-like profile of context-independent pharmacological sensitization appear later during ontogenesis, being mature by the fourth week of postnatal life. Another set of experiments extended this ontogenetic characterization by comparing adolescent and adult mice. When compared to the latter, the former subjects exhibit a greater amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, almost no sensitization of aversive stereotyped behaviors, and a less marked place conditioning. The strength of the drug-induced place conditioning was also directly compared with the unconditioned novelty-seeking drive. In conclusion, neonatal rats are able to show a relatively short-lasting retention of sensitized drug effects (short-term sensitization), whereas the ability to exhibit relatively long-lasting sensitized effects matures progressively during infancy (long-term sensitization). On the other hand, adolescent mice show a reduced sensitization of drug-induced psychotic symptoms, together with a more marked sensitization of arousing and euphorigenic properties of the drug and a reduced incentive memory of its hedonic effects. These age-related changes do imply very different degrees of vulnerability to drug addiction and several other neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Retenção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Camundongos , Ratos , Repressão-Sensibilização
17.
Psiquis (Madr.) ; 23(6): 249-251, nov. 2002.
Artigo em Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-18464

RESUMO

El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar los conceptos freudianos de sublimación y de felicidad adaptándolos a nuestra época. La civilizadon, según Freud, está montada sobre la base de la represión y sublimación de los instintos sexuales y agresivos. En su lugar ofrece satisfacciones más elevadas y espirituales, así como identificaciones que refuerzan los vínculos sociales. Sin embargo, en la actualidad observamos que la cultura ya no exige que se sacrifiquen las pulsiones al bien cultural, ni se ve obligada a sustraer parte de la energía a los instintos, sino que es el mismo individuo quien se ve en la necesidad de sublimar parte de sus pulsiones y de observar una necesaria economía pulsional si quiere conseguir importantes logros. Por otra parte, la cultura ofrece poca felicidad y constituye un problema de economía de la líbido. El resultado final es que la civilización creada para suprimir el dolor y los sufrimientos, acaba por ser fuente de nuevos dolores y desgracias, es al mismo tiempo medicina y veneno (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Humanos , Sublimação Psicológica , Felicidade , Teoria Freudiana , Repressão Psicológica , Repressão-Sensibilização , Agressão/psicologia , Instinto , Libido/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Identificação Psicológica , Natureza , Civilização , Fixação Psicológica Instintiva/fisiologia
18.
Schizophr Res ; 55(1-2): 187-95, 2002 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11955978

RESUMO

The possible coexistence of supersensitivity and overinhibition (Schizophrenia: Origins, Processes, Treatment and Outcome (1993) 335-350) in schizophrenia was studied using the Adult Sensory Profile as a measure of Dunn's (Infants Young Children 9 (1997) 23-25) model of sensory processing. The quadrant model describes sensory sensitivity, sensation avoiding, low registration and sensation seeking as behavioral responses to sensation. Individuals with schizophrenia (N = 27), bipolar disorder (N = 30) and mentally healthy controls (N = 29) were compared using the Adult Sensory Profile. When compared to the mentally healthy group, the results indicated that both the schizophrenia group and the bipolar disorder group had higher scores on sensation avoiding. The schizophrenia group also had higher scores on low registration and lower scores on sensation seeking than the mentally health group. There were no differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. According to the findings of this study, individuals with schizophrenia tend to miss available sensory stimuli. When stimuli are indeed detected, they are often avoided.


Assuntos
Atenção , Repressão-Sensibilização , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Sensação
19.
Emotion ; 2(3): 215-32, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12899355

RESUMO

This research tests a model of repression (M. Mendolia, 1999; M. Mendolia, J. Moore, & A. Tesser, 1996) which specifies that the interaction of individual differences in emotional responsiveness and situational threats to self-concept contributes to one's tendency to regulate emotional responsiveness. This research demonstrates that (a) individuals regulate their autonomic activity, facial muscle activity, cognitive attention, and subjective experience during isolated and repeated exposures to self-threatening negative and positive emotional events and (b) repressive behavior can be predicted by the Index of Self-Regulation of Emotion, which complements and extends conventional categorical measures of dispositional repression. This model provides a more detailed understanding of basic mechanisms in emotion by identifying how individual differences in emotionality and particular social contexts contribute to self-regulation of emotion.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Controle Interno-Externo , Repressão Psicológica , Autoimagem , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Distância Psicológica , Psicometria , Repressão-Sensibilização , Meio Social , Estudantes/psicologia
20.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 55(3): 157-61, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11827609

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to investigate some personality factors among groups of 43 physically injured inpatients and 43 non-injured hospital-based controls. The participants completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ). Logistic regression was used to compare the two groups on six psychological risk factors. The univariate regression models suggested three possible risk factors: extraversion, sensitization, and avoidance coping style. The multivariate regression model supported only extraversion and sensitization of emotion. Next, patients in the experimental group were questioned about whether they had considered preventive measures before the accident and whether they felt responsible for their injuries. Correlation analysis showed that introverted subjects felt more responsible for the sustained injuries than their extraverted counterparts. Sensitizers and subjects who scored high on psychoticism, neuroticism, and emotional coping had not considered preventive measures as often as others. Finally, the principal component analysis of risk factors was used to extract two correlates of injury-prone behaviour: extraversion and sensitized avoidance. It was concluded that psychological factors play an important role in predicting injury that is significant enough to require inpatient treatment. Two potential mechanisms of psychological impact have been suggested, notably distraction in extraverted subjects and overestimation in sensitizing avoiders.


Assuntos
Propensão a Acidentes , Inventário de Personalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Extroversão Psicológica , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Introversão Psicológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repressão-Sensibilização , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia
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