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3.
Nature ; 613(7942): 138-144, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600070

RESUMO

Theories of scientific and technological change view discovery and invention as endogenous processes1,2, wherein previous accumulated knowledge enables future progress by allowing researchers to, in Newton's words, 'stand on the shoulders of giants'3-7. Recent decades have witnessed exponential growth in the volume of new scientific and technological knowledge, thereby creating conditions that should be ripe for major advances8,9. Yet contrary to this view, studies suggest that progress is slowing in several major fields10,11. Here, we analyse these claims at scale across six decades, using data on 45 million papers and 3.9 million patents from six large-scale datasets, together with a new quantitative metric-the CD index12-that characterizes how papers and patents change networks of citations in science and technology. We find that papers and patents are increasingly less likely to break with the past in ways that push science and technology in new directions. This pattern holds universally across fields and is robust across multiple different citation- and text-based metrics1,13-17. Subsequently, we link this decline in disruptiveness to a narrowing in the use of previous knowledge, allowing us to reconcile the patterns we observe with the 'shoulders of giants' view. We find that the observed declines are unlikely to be driven by changes in the quality of published science, citation practices or field-specific factors. Overall, our results suggest that slowing rates of disruption may reflect a fundamental shift in the nature of science and technology.


Assuntos
Invenções , Patentes como Assunto , Relatório de Pesquisa , Tecnologia , Humanos , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções/tendências , Pesquisadores , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/tendências , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Editoração/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Difusão de Inovações
5.
Urogynecology (Hagerstown) ; 29(1S Suppl 1): S1-S19, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548636

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Overactive bladder (OAB) is prevalent in older adults in whom management is complicated by comorbidities and greater vulnerability to the cognitive effects of antimuscarinic medications. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive evidence-based summary of the 2021 State-of-the-Science (SOS) conference and a multidisciplinary expert literature review on OAB and cognitive impairment. STUDY DESIGN: The American Urogynecologic Society and the Pelvic Floor Disorders Research Foundation convened a 3-day collaborative conference. Experts from multidisciplinary fields examined cognitive function, higher neural control of the OAB patient, risk factors for cognitive impairment in older patients, cognitive effects of antimuscarinic medications for OAB treatment, OAB phenotyping, conservative and advanced OAB therapies, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach to person-centered treatment. Translational topics included the blood-brain barrier, purine metabolome, mechanotransduction, and gene therapy for OAB targets. RESULTS: Research surrounding OAB treatment efficacy in cognitively impaired individuals is limited. Short- and long-term outcomes regarding antimuscarinic effects on cognition are mixed; however, greater anticholinergic burden and duration of use influence risk. Oxybutynin is most consistently associated with negative cognitive effects in short-term, prospective studies. Although data are limited, beta-adrenergic agonists do not appear to confer the same cognitive risk. CONCLUSIONS: The 2021 SOS summary report provides a comprehensive review of the fundamental, translational, and clinical research on OAB with emphasis on cognitive impairment risks to antimuscarinic medications. Duration of use and antimuscarinic type, specifically oxybutynin when examining OAB treatments, appears to have the most cognitive impact; however, conclusions are limited by the primarily cognitively intact population studied. Given current evidence, it appears prudent to minimize anticholinergic burden by emphasizing nonantimuscarinic therapeutic regimens in the older population and/or those with cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/terapia , Relatório de Pesquisa , Mecanotransdução Celular , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol ; 27: 10-24, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36582079

RESUMO

Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2021 at the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine¼ (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. The report presents the results of fundamental and applied research works of the study of radiation effectsand health effects of the Chornobyl accident.The report also shows the results of scientific-organizational and health care work, staff training. The Scientific Council meeting of NAMS approved the NRCRM Annual Report.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Lesões por Radiação , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Humanos , Ucrânia , Relatório de Pesquisa
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e066564, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reporting guidelines can improve dissemination and application of findings and help avoid research waste. Recent studies reveal opportunities to improve primary care (PC) reporting. Despite increasing numbers of guidelines, none exists for PC research. This study aims to prioritise candidate reporting items to inform a reporting guideline for PC research. DESIGN: Delphi study conducted by the Consensus Reporting Items for Studies in Primary Care (CRISP) Working Group. SETTING: International online survey. PARTICIPANTS: Interdisciplinary PC researchers and research users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We drew potential reporting items from literature review and a series of international, interdisciplinary surveys. Using an anonymous, online survey, we asked participants to vote on and whether each candidate item should be included, required or recommended in a PC research reporting guideline. Items advanced to the next Delphi round if they received>50% votes to include. Analysis used descriptive statistics plus synthesis of free-text responses. RESULTS: 98/116 respondents completed round 1 (84% response rate) and 89/98 completed round 2 (91%). Respondents included a variety of healthcare professions, research roles, levels of experience and all five world regions. Round 1 presented 29 potential items, and 25 moved into round 2 after rewording and combining items and adding 2 new items. A majority of round 2 respondents voted to include 23 items (90%-100% for 11 items, 80%-89% for 3 items, 70%-79% for 3 items, 60%-69% for 3 items and 50%-59% for 3 items). CONCLUSION: Our Delphi study identified items to guide the reporting of PC research that has broad endorsement from the community of producers and users of PC research. We will now use these results to inform the final development of the CRISP guidance for reporting PC research.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Relatório de Pesquisa , Humanos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278389, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580455

RESUMO

Scientific progress, or scientific change, has been an important topic in the philosophy and history of science. Previous work has developed quantitative approaches to characterize the progression of science in different fields, but how individual scientists make progress through their careers is not well understood at a comprehensive scale. We characterize the regularity in the temporal dynamics of scientists' publishing behavior with computational algorithms that predict the historical emerging order of publications from individual scientists. We discover that scientists publish in ways following the processes of chaining that mirror those observed in historical word meaning extension, whereby novel ideas emerge by connecting to existing ideas that are proximal in semantic space. We report findings for predominant exemplar-based chaining that reconstructs the emerging order in the publications of 1,164 award-winning and random-sampled scientists from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Economics, and Computer Science over the past century. Our work provides large-scale evidence that scientists across different fields tend to share similar publishing behavior over time by taking incremental steps that build on their past research outputs.


Assuntos
Física , Editoração , Física/história , Semântica , Relatório de Pesquisa
9.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226694, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1393022

RESUMO

Scientific research and publication play an important role during the training of dentists, but one of the most outstanding barriers is the authorship conditions of the journals. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the accessibility to student publication in dental journals in the world. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out. 208 journals indexed in Scimago Journal & Country Rank that met inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The instructions for the authors were reviewed, an email was subsequently sent to the journal contact and articles with student affiliation were searched in the database of each journal. For the analysis of the descriptive statistical data of frequencies and percentage, the IBM SPPS Statistics Standard Edition 22 program was used. Results: 208 journals were included, 77.67% accepted the student publication without condition. The United States, United Kingdom and India were the countries with the highest number of journals with student participation. Likewise, the journals of Q4 (85.70%), Q3 (85.40%) and Basic Sciences (100%), Dental Education (100%), Endodontic (100%), Geriatrics and Gerontology (100%) and Public Dental Health (100%), mostly accepted student authorship. Conclusion: It is concluded that 167 (77.67%) of the dental journals accept the publication of dental students without condition, being more frequent in journals positioned in Q4 (85.70%). Also, journals with thematic areas on Basic Sciences, Dental Education, Endodontic, Geriatrics and Gerontology and Public Dental Health


Assuntos
Estudantes de Odontologia , Artigo de Revista , Publicação Periódica , Relatório de Pesquisa , Comunicação Acadêmica
10.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226351, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1355010

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to assess the reporting characteristics of systematic review abstracts published in the proceedings of the Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Odontológica (SBPqO) meeting. Methods: We selected abstracts published in the SBPqO meeting proceedings of 2019 and 2020, mentioning that a systematic review was conducted in the title, objective or methods sections. One researcher performed the screening and the data extraction after a pilot test training. The following data were extracted: affiliation of the primary author, dental specialization, the term "systematic review" mentioned in the title, reporting of the objective, reporting of eligibility criteria, reporting of information sources, reporting of the number of included studies and if a meta-analysis was performed. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed with data summarized as frequencies. Results: We included 235 abstracts. A total of 20 studies were from the Universidade de Uberlândia (8.5%), and the main specialization was Restorative and Esthetic Dentistry, with 47 studies (20%). Most of the studies mentioned the term "systematic review" in the title (n=219; 93.2%) and reported the objective (n=231; 98.3%). A great majority of studies did not report the eligibility criteria (n=97; 41.3%) or it was classified as unclear (n=96; 40.8%). The great majority of studies only reported the databases searched (n=103; 43.8%) or databases and date of search (n=74; 31.5%). Most of the studies reported the number of included studies (n=204; 86.8%). Conclusion: Based on this study, the reporting characteristics of systematic review abstracts published in the proceedings of the SBPqO meeting are satisfactory. However, there is room for improvement


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Pesquisa em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Indexação e Redação de Resumos , Relatório de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
Campo Grande; s.n; dez; dezembro 2022. 13 p. tabelas, gráficos.(Boletim informativo 4).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-MS | ID: biblio-1412597

RESUMO

O boletim informativo tem por objetivo reforçar a transparência e acessibilidade das informações à comunidade externa, sobre as pesquisas submetidas à aprovação da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde de Mato Grosso do Sul (SES/MS).


Assuntos
Relatório de Pesquisa
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1021104, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388333

RESUMO

Background and aims: Along with an aging population, exploring the impact of oral health on holistic health and determining exact outcomes in elderly individuals are important in both scientific research and clinical practice. Significant increase in the number of systematic reviews shows that oral health can directly or indirectly affect the overall health of elderly people physically, mentally and socially. To systematically collate, appraise, and synthesize the current evidence, we carried out an umbrella review of the impacts of oral health on holistic health in elderly individuals. Methods: A systematic reviews and meta-analyses search was performed in the major databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library from inception to February 1, 2022, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses was referred to assess methodological quality, and the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, assessment, Development, and Evaluation working group classification) was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome included in the umbrella review. Results: Out of 1,067 records, a total of 35 systematic reviews were included. Respiratory diseases, malnutrition, age-related oral changes, frailty, cognitive impairment, depression and poor quality of life were identified as seven key outcomes that affect the physical, mental and social health of elderly individuals. Meanwhile, three intervention measures of oral health were summarized as (i) more rigorous and universal scales, (ii) dental cleaning and denture installation, and (iii) improving self-awareness regarding oral care. Conclusions: Evidence showed that oral health can significantly affect holistic health, and the diverse oral diseases directly lead to multiple health outcomes in elderly individuals. Clear high-quality evidence revealed that oral health is strongly associated with seven health outcomes covering physical, mental, and social levels, which directly corresponds to holistic health, and impacts the quality of life of elderly individuals. Such the results remind the importance of oral care in public health, and further studies need to be conducted to verity more specific association between oral health and other chronic diseases. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/#recordDetails, identifier: CRD42022315315.


Assuntos
Saúde Holística , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Qualidade de Vida , Relatório de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2242805, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399344

RESUMO

Importance: The usefulness of computed tomography of the head (CTH) in patients with acute-onset atraumatic altered mental status (AMS) is poorly understood, but use in these patients remains high. Objective: To evaluate the use of CTH (event rate) in patients with AMS and the positive outcome event rate of the performed CTH studies. Data Sources: The PubMed/MEDLINE, PubMed Central, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched using predefined Boolean parameters. All studies that met inclusion criteria until January 31, 2022, were included. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials and observational, cohort, and case-control studies were included. Conference abstracts, reviews, letters, case reports, case series, systematic literature, and meta-analyses were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The systematic literature review was performed per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Data were independently extracted by 2 authors. Data were pooled using a random-effects method. Main Outcomes and Measures: Event rate of CTH use in patients with acute atraumatic AMS. The CTH event rates and positive CTH event rates were calculated with 95% CIs. Results: Of 9338 studies identified, 26 qualified for the systematic review and 25 for the meta-analysis. The 25 studies in the meta-analysis included a total of 79 201 patients. The CTH event rate was 94% (proportion, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.76-1.00), and the positive CTH event rate was 11% (proportion, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.07-0.15). There was significant heterogeneity among the studies included (I2 > 50%, P < .001), for which a random-effects model was used. There was significant publication bias, as evident by an asymmetric funnel plot. There was no fluctuation of the results during the sensitivity analysis, which reassured the reliability of the data. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, CTH use among patients with acute-onset atraumatic AMS was very high with a low yield. Large-scale studies are needed to guide clinical decision-making in such a situation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Viés de Publicação , Relatório de Pesquisa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(46): e31847, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To provide evidence, this review evaluated the methodological quality, risk of bias, and reporting quality of SRs/MAs in the treatment of shoulder-hand syndrome after stroke with acupuncture. METHODS: Systematic reviews and Meta analyses (SRs/MAs) of acupuncture for shoulder and hand syndromes after stroke were retrieved from 6 databases from inception to May 1, 2022. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and extracted the data, then used Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews-2 (AMSTAR-2), Bias Risk in Systematic Review (ROBIS), and Preferred Report Item for Systematic review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA), Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess methodological quality, risk of bias, quality of reporting, and quality of evidence. RESULTS: We included 7 SRs/MAs, of which all SRs/MAs had very low AMSTAR-2 assessment quality and one study had a very low assessment bias risk. According to the PRISMA checklist, Protocol and registration, Synthesis of results, Summary of evidence, Conclusions and Funding were the main reporting limitations. GRADE evaluation showed a total of 37 results, but no high-quality evidence results, 6 results (16.22%) of the evidence quality were moderate, and supported acupuncture combined with exercise rehabilitation and drug therapy was better than exercise joint drug rehabilitation and rehabilitation, we also found that the result of limitations were the main factors that influence the evidence of low quality, followed by imprecision, inconsistency, and publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture is a relatively safe and effective adjuvant therapy for shoulder and hand syndromes after stroke. However, because of the low quality of SRs/MAs evidence supporting these findings, high-quality randomized controlled trials should be conducted, and the quality of relevant SRs should be improved to provide evidence for clinical application.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Distrofia Simpática Reflexa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Relatório de Pesquisa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
16.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 244, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians usually conduct diagnostic assessments in order to establish a diagnosis or to evaluate the effect of treatment. Two meta-analyses suggest that diagnostic assessment administered in collaboration with the patient and personalized feedback might have a therapeutic effect. METHODS: We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect on symptomatology when using assessment as a therapeutic intervention for patients with psychiatric illnesses. We will search in five relevant electronic databases. Two reviewers will independently select papers following pre-defined eligibility criteria, extract data, and assess the quality of included studies. Randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of psychological assessment with other psychotherapeutic interventions in populations of patients will be included in the meta-analysis. We will extract data on symptom-related outcomes, quality of life, dropout, and re-diagnosis and use meta-analysis techniques to compute the effect size of interventions using assessment as a psychotherapeutic intervention. The review will be conducted and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Risk of bias will be assessed by using the Risk of Bias tool RoB 2.0 of the Cochrane Collaboration, and the certainty of the body of evidence will be assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. DISCUSSION: THE RESULTS WILL BE ABLE TO INFORM CLINICIANS AND POLICYMAKERS ON THE EFFECT OF ASSESSMENT AND, DEPENDING ON THE RESULTS, COULD LEAD TO A RECOMMENDATION FOR MODIFIED ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES AND APPROACHES IN MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES. ULTIMATELY, IT MIGHT IMPROVE THE TREATMENT OUTCOME IN MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES.: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021270567.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Relatório de Pesquisa , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
20.
Health Info Libr J ; 39(4): 312-322, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify and assess the main characteristics and the potential risk of bias of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in nursing conducted by Spanish research teams. METHODS: Scoping review of an electronic search in three major databases (date of search: October 2021). For the eligible studies, both descriptive data, and data to assess the potential risk of bias, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Of 3391 references retrieved, 199 were eligible. These RCTs were published in 122 journals, most of them in English (101, 82.1%) and were included in the Journal Citation Report (JCR) (107, 87.7%). Moreover, 32 (26.2%) of those included in the JCR were classified under nursing. Two thirds (81, 66.4%) of the journals followed the CONSORT guidelines. A total of 65 RCTs (33.7%) had a high overall risk of bias. DISCUSSION: Most of the identified RCTs were published in journals not specific to nursing and in English language. Also, shortcomings in RCT design and reporting were observed despite recommendations to adhere the CONSORT guidelines. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive identification of RCTs in nursing may require searching in journals other than nursing-related. RCTs from Spanish research teams are more likely to be published in international journals published in English. CONSORT should be strongly advised to encourage proper design and reporting of RCTs.


Assuntos
Idioma , Relatório de Pesquisa , Humanos , Publicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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