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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1409685, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38957795

RESUMO

Introduction: Wild rodents can serve as reservoirs or carriers of E. bieneusi, thereby enabling parasite transmission to domestic animals and humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of E. bieneusi in wild rodents from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region and Liaoning Province of China. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for zoonotic transmission at the genotype level, a genetic analysis of the isolates was performed. Methods: A total of 486 wild rodents were captured from two provinces in China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the vertebrate cytochrome b (cytb) gene in the fecal DNA of the rodents to detect their species. The genotype of E. bieneusi was determined via PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. The examination of genetic characteristics and zoonotic potential requires the application of similarity and phylogenetic analysis. Results: The infection rates of E. bieneusi in the four identified rodent species were 5.2% for Apodemus agrarius (n = 89), 4.5% for Cricetulus barabensis (n = 96), 11.3% for Mus musculus (n = 106), and 38.5% for Rattus norvegicus (n = 195). Infection was detected at an average rate of 17.4% among 486 rodents. Of the 11 identified genotypes, nine were known: SHR1 (detected in 32 samples), D (30 samples), EbpA (9 samples), PigEbITS7 (8 samples), HNR-IV (6 samples), Type IV (5 samples), HNR-VII (2 samples), HNH7 (1 sample), and HNPL-V (1 sample). Two novel genotypes were also discovered, NMR-I and NMR-II, each comprising one sample. The genotypes were classified into group 1 and group 13 via phylogenetic analysis. Discussion: Based on the initial report, E. bieneusi is highly prevalent and genetically diverse in wild rodents residing in the respective province and region. This indicates that these animals are crucial for the dissemination of E. bieneusi. Zoonotic E. bieneusi-carrying animals present a significant hazard to local inhabitants. Therefore, it is necessary to increase awareness regarding the dangers presented by these rodents and reduce their population to prevent environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Enterocytozoon , Fezes , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Microsporidiose , Filogenia , Roedores , Zoonoses , Animais , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Prevalência , Citocromos b/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Camundongos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , DNA Fúngico/genética , Ratos
2.
Parasite ; 31: 34, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949636

RESUMO

Wild rodents serve as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium and are overpopulated globally. However, genetic data regarding Cryptosporidium in these animals from China are limited. Here, we have determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium among 370 wild rodents captured from three distinct locations in the southern region of Zhejiang Province, China. Fresh feces were collected from the rectum of each rodent, and DNA was extracted from them. The rodent species was identified by PCR amplifying the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR amplification and amplicon sequencing the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene. Positive samples of C. viatorum and C. parvum were further subtyped by analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. A positive Cryptosporidium result was found in 7% (26/370) of samples, involving five rodent species: Apodemus agrarius (36), Niviventer niviventer (75), Rattus losea (18), R. norvegicus (155), and R. tanezumi (86). Their respective Cryptosporidium positive rates were 8.3%, 5.3%, 11.1%, 7.1%, and 7.0%. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of three Cryptosporidium species: C. parvum (4), C. viatorum (1), and C. muris (1), and two genotypes: Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV (16) and C. mortiferum-like (4). Additionally, two subtypes of C. parvum (IIdA15G1 and IIpA19) and one subtype of C. viatorum (XVdA3) were detected. These results demonstrate that various wild rodent species in Zhejiang were concurrently infected with rodent-adapted and zoonotic species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium, indicating that these rodents can play a role in maintaining and dispersing this parasite into the environment and other hosts, including humans.


Title: Transmission interspécifique de Cryptosporidium chez les rongeurs sauvages de la région sud de la province chinoise du Zhejiang et son impact possible sur la santé publique. Abstract: Les rongeurs sauvages servent de réservoirs à Cryptosporidium et ont des grandes populations à l'échelle mondiale. Cependant, les données génétiques concernant Cryptosporidium chez ces animaux en Chine sont limitées. Ici, nous avons déterminé la prévalence et les caractéristiques génétiques de Cryptosporidium parmi 370 rongeurs sauvages capturés dans trois endroits distincts de la région sud de la province du Zhejiang, en Chine. Des excréments frais ont été collectés dans le rectum de chaque rongeur et l'ADN en a été extrait. L'espèce de rongeur a été identifiée par amplification par PCR du gène du cytochrome b des vertébrés. Cryptosporidium a été détecté par amplification PCR et séquençage d'amplicons de la petite sous-unité du gène de l'ARN ribosomal. Les échantillons positifs de C. viatorum et C. parvum ont ensuite été sous-typés en analysant le gène de la glycoprotéine de 60 kDa. Un résultat positif pour Cryptosporidium a été trouvé dans 7 % (26/370) des échantillons, impliquant cinq espèces de rongeurs : Apodemus agrarius (36), Niviventer niviventer (75), Rattus losea (18), R. norvegicus (155) et R. tanezumi (86). Leurs taux respectifs de positivité pour Cryptosporidium étaient de 8,3 %, 5,3 %, 11,1 %, 7,1 % et 7,0 %. L'analyse des séquences a confirmé la présence de trois espèces de Cryptosporidium : C. parvum (4), C. viatorum (1) et C. muris (1), et de deux génotypes : Cryptosporidium génotype IV de rat (16) et C. mortiferum-like (4). De plus, deux sous-types de C. parvum (IIdA15G1 et IIpA19) et un sous-type de C. viatorum (XVdA3) ont été détectés. Ces résultats démontrent que diverses espèces de rongeurs sauvages du Zhejiang sont simultanément infectées par des espèces/génotypes de Cryptosporidium zoonotiques et adaptés aux rongeurs, ce qui indique que ces rongeurs peuvent jouer un rôle dans le maintien et la dispersion de ce parasite dans l'environnement et d'autres hôtes, y compris les humains.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Fezes , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Filogenia , Humanos , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Genótipo
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16326, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009688

RESUMO

Government policy in England aims for the elimination of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). This policy includes culling of European badger (Meles meles) to reduce cattle TB incidence. The rationale is based on a field trial, the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) 1998-2005, which reported a substantial decrease in bTB herd incidence where badger culling had been implemented, in comparison to untreated control areas. The RBCT was undertaken because previous studies of reductions in badgers by culling, reported a possible association between bTB in badger and cattle, but none could directly show causation. The effect of intensive widespread (proactive) culling in the RBCT was reported in 2006 in the journal Nature. Analysis of an extensive badger removal programme in England since 2013 has raised concerns that culling has not reduced bTB herd incidence. The present study re-examined RBCT data using a range of statistical models. Most analytical options showed no evidence to support an effect of badger culling on bTB herd incidence 'confirmed' by visible lesions and/or bacterial culture post mortem following a comparative intradermal skin test (SICCT). However, the statistical model chosen by the RBCT study was one of the few models that showed an effect. Various criteria suggest that this was not an optimal model, compared to other analytical options available. The most likely explanation is that the RBCT proactive cull analysis over-fitted the data with a non-standard method to control for exposure giving it a poor predictive value. Fresh appraisal shows that there was insufficient evidence to conclude RBCT proactive badger culling affected bTB breakdown incidence. The RBCT found no evidence of an effect of culling on 'total' herd incidence rates. Total herd incidences include those confirmed as bTB at necropsy and those herds where there was at least one animal animal positive to the comparative intradermal skin test, the standard diagnostic test used for routine surveillance, but not confirmed at necropsy. This was also the case using the more suitable statistical models. Use only of 'confirmed' herd incidence data, together with a more recent (2013) published perception that RBCT data presented 'a strong evidence base….with appropriate detailed statistical or other quantitative analysis' should be reconsidered. The results of the present report are consistent with other analyses that were unable to detect any disease control benefits from badger culling in England (2013-2019). This study demonstrates one form of potential driver to the reproducibility crisis, in this case with disease control management in an increasingly intensified livestock industry.


Assuntos
Abate de Animais , Mustelidae , Tuberculose Bovina , Animais , Mustelidae/microbiologia , Bovinos , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Incidência , Mycobacterium bovis , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(7): e0012286, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Habitat modification and land use changes impact ecological interactions and alter the relationships between humans and nature. Mexico has experienced significant landscape modifications at the local and regional scales, with negative effects on forest cover and biological biodiversity, especially in the Yucatan peninsula in southeastern Mexico. Given the close relationship between landscape modification and the transmission of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases, it is essential to develop criteria for identifying priority zoonoses in the south of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed 165 published studies on zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in the region (2015-2024). We identified the most frequent vectors, reservoirs, and hosts, the most prevalent infections, and the factors associated with transmission risk and the anthropogenic landscape modification in urban, rural, ecotone, and sylvatic habitats. The most relevant pathogens of zoonotic risk included Trypanosoma cruzi, arboviruses, Leishmania, Rickettsia, Leptospira, and Toxoplasma gondii. Trypanosoma cruzi was the vector-borne agent with the largest number of infected vertebrate species across habitats, while Leishmania and arboviruses were the ones that affected the greatest number of people. Dogs, cats, backyard animals, and their hematophagous ectoparasites are the most likely species maintaining the transmission cycles in human settlements, while rodents, opossums, bats, and other synanthropic animals facilitate connection and transmission cycles between forested habitats with human-modified landscapes. Pathogens displayed different prevalences between the landscapes, T. cruzi, arbovirus, and Leptospira infections were the most prevalent in urban and rural settlements, whereas Leishmania and Rickettsia had similar prevalence across habitats, likely due to the diversity and abundance of the infected vectors involved. The prevalence of T. gondii and Leptospira spp. may reflect poor hygiene conditions. Additionally, results suggest that prevalence of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases is higher in deforested areas and agricultural aggregates, and in sites with precarious health and infrastructure services. CONCLUSIONS: Some hosts, vectors, and transmission trends of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in the YP are well known but others remain poorly recognized. It is imperative to reinforce practices aimed at increasing the knowledge, monitoring, prevention, and control of these diseases at the regional level. We also emphasize the need to perform studies on a larger spatio-temporal scale under the socio-ecosystem perspective, to better elucidate the interactions between pathogens, hosts, vectors, environment, and sociocultural and economic aspects in this and many other tropical regions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Prevalência , México/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Vetores de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/classificação , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma , Arbovírus/fisiologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia
5.
Vopr Virusol ; 69(3): 255-265, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38996374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bats are natural reservoirs of coronaviruses (Coronaviridae), which have caused three outbreaks of human disease SARS, MERS and COVID-19 or SARS-2 over the past decade. The purpose of the work is to study the diversity of coronaviruses among bats inhabiting the foothills and mountainous areas of the Republics of Dagestan, Altai and the Kemerovo region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of bat oral swabs and feces were tested for the presence of coronavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: It has been shown that the greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), inhabiting the Republic of Dagestan, are carriers of two different coronaviruses. One of the two coronaviruses is a member of the Sarbecovius subgenus of the Betacoronavirus genus, which includes the causative agents of SARS and COVID-19. The second coronavirus is assigned to the Decacovirus subgenus of the Alphacoronavirus genus and is most similar to viruses identified among Rhinolophus spp. from European and Middle Eastern countries. In the Altai Republic and Kemerovo region, coronaviruses belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus, subgenus Pedacovirus, were found in the smooth-nosed bats: Ikonnikov`s bat (Myotis ikonnikovi) and the eastern bat (Myotis petax). The virus from the Altai Republic from M. ikonnikovi is close to viruses from Japan and Korea, as well as viruses from Myotis spp. from European countries. The virus from the Kemerovo region from M. petax groups with coronaviruses from Myotis spp. from Asian countries and is significantly different from coronaviruses previously discovered in the same natural host.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Sibéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/classificação , Humanos , Fezes/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 176: 105341, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963992

RESUMO

Recently, an increased number of reports have described pathogens of animal origin that cause a variety of infections and a rise in their transmission to humans. Streptococcus gallolyticus, a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is one of these pathogens and infects a wide range of hosts from mammals to poultry and has a broad functionality ranging from pathogenicity to food fermentation. As S. gallolyticus causes complications including bacteremia, infective endocarditis, and colorectal malignancy in humans, it is important to investigate its occurrence in various hosts, including geese, to prevent potential zoonotic transmissions. This study aimed to investigate the presence of S. gallolyticus in the droppings of clinically healthy and diarrheic geese, which were raised intensively and semi-intensively, by the in vitro culture method, characterize the isolates recovered by PCR and sequence-based molecular methods and determine their antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion and gradient test methods. For this purpose, 150 samples of fresh goose droppings were used. Culture positivity for S. gallolyticus was determined as 8% (12/150). PCR analysis identified 54.55% (n = 6) of the isolates as S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and 45.45% (n = 5) as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Following the 16S rRNA sequence and ERIC-PCR analyses, S. gallolyticus subspecies exhibited identical cluster and band profiles that could be easily distinguished from each other and were clonally identified. High rates of susceptibility to florfenicol, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin were detected among the isolates, regardless of the subspecies diversity. Both subspecies showed high levels of resistance to bacitracin, clindamycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin and multiple MDR profiles, indicating their potential to become superbugs. This first report from Türkiye demonstrates the occurrence of the S. gallolyticus subspecies in geese. In view of the recent increase of geese production and the consumption of goose meat in Türkiye, the occurrence of S. gallolyticus in geese should not be ignored to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus gallolyticus , Animais , Gansos/microbiologia , Streptococcus gallolyticus/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Neoplasias do Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/veterinária , Humanos , Fezes/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13537, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866918

RESUMO

The development of interventions targeting reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto with acaricide to reduce the density of infected ticks faces numerous challenges imposed by ecological and operational limits. In this study, the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicology of fluralaner were investigated in Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus mice, the main reservoir of B. burgdorferi in North America. Fluralaner showed rapid distribution and elimination, leading to fast plasma concentration (Cp) depletion in the first hours after administration followed by a slow elimination rate for several weeks, resulting in a long terminal half-life. Efficacy fell below 100% while Cp (± standard deviation) decreased from 196 ± 54 to 119 ± 62 ng/mL. These experimental results were then used in simulations of fluralaner treatment for a duration equivalent to the active period of Ixodes scapularis larvae and nymphs. Simulations showed that doses as low as 10 mg/kg have the potential to protect P. leucopus against infestation for a full I. scapularis active season if administered at least once every 7 days. This study shows that investigating the pharmacology of candidate acaricides in combination with pharmacokinetic simulations can provide important information to support the development of effective interventions targeting ecological reservoirs of Lyme disease. It therefore represents a critical step that may help surpass limits inherent to the development of these interventions.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Borrelia burgdorferi , Reservatórios de Doenças , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Peromyscus , Animais , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Peromyscus/microbiologia , Acaricidas/farmacocinética , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoxazóis/farmacocinética , Feminino
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(7): 1447-1449, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916636

RESUMO

We report the effect of a rodent control program on the incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of Iran. A 1-year interruption in rodent control led to 2 years of increased incidence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Restarting rodent control led to a decline of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Zoonoses , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Animais , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Roedores/métodos , Roedores/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(7): 1454-1458, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916725

RESUMO

Few cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in northeastern Argentina. However, neighboring areas show a higher incidence, suggesting underreporting. We evaluated the presence of antibodies against orthohantavirus in small rodents throughout Misiones province. Infected Akodon affinis montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes native rodents were found in protected areas of Misiones.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Orthohantavírus , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Orthohantavírus/imunologia , Orthohantavírus/classificação , Orthohantavírus/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Humanos , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 40, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opisthorchiid flukes, particularly Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metorchis spp. are the most common fish-borne zoonotic human liver flukes (hLFs). Liver fluke infections are more prevalent in resource-deprived and underprivileged areas. We herein estimated the prevalence of the metacercariae (MC) of major hLFs in common large freshwater fishes (lFWF) marketed for human consumption from some selected areas of Bangladesh along with detection of their molluscan vectors and reservoirs. METHODS: The current status of fish-borne zoonotic hLF infections in lFWF was investigated along with their molluscan vectors and mammalian reservoir hosts in Mymensingh and Kishoreganj in Bangladesh from July 2018-June 2022 using conventional and multiple molecular techniques, such as PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), sequencing, and bioinformatic analyses. The infection rate of fishes was analyzed using the Z-test and the loads of MC were compared using the chi-squared (χ2) test. RESULTS: The MC of C. sinensis, Opisthorchis spp., and Metorchis spp. were detected in 11 species of common and popular lFWF. In lFWF, the estimated prevalence was 18.7% and the mean load was 137.4 ± 149.8 MC per 100 g of fish. The prevalence was the highest (P < 0.05) in spotted snakehead fishes (Channa punctata, 63.6%). The highest rate of infection (P < 0.05) was observed with the MC of C. sinensis (11.8%). Metacercariae were almost equally (P > 0.05) distributed between the head and body of fishes. The infection rate was slightly higher in cultured (19.6%) fishes. The MC of C. sinensis, O. felineus, O. viverrini, and Metorchis orientalis in fishes were confirmed using PCR, PCR-RFLP and bioinformatics. The cercariae of opisthorchiid (Pleurolophocercus cercariae) flukes were only recovered from Bithynia spp. (3.9%, 42 out of 1089). The ova of hLFs from dogs (4.3%, 5 out of 116) and cats (6.0%, 6 out of 100), and adult flukes (M. orientalis) from ducks (41.1% 113 out of 275) were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The MC of hLFs are highly prevalent in fresh water fishes in Bangladesh. Reservoir hosts, such as street dogs, cats, and ducks carried the patent infection, and residents of Bangladesh are at risk.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Água Doce , Zoonoses , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Prevalência , Opisthorchis/genética , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Metacercárias/genética , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Clonorchis sinensis/isolamento & purificação , Moluscos/parasitologia
11.
Virol J ; 21(1): 146, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918816

RESUMO

The genus Jeilongvirus comprises non-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses that are classified within the Paramyxoviridae family by phylogeny. Jeilongviruses are found in various reservoirs, including rodents and bats. Rodents are typical viral reservoirs with diverse spectra and zoonotic potential. Little is currently known about jeilongviruses in rodents from central China. The study utilized high-throughput and Sanger sequencing to obtain jeilongvirus genomes, including those of two novel strains (HBJZ120/CHN/2021 (17,468 nt) and HBJZ157/CHN/2021 (19,143 nt)) and three known viruses (HBXN18/CHN/2021 (19,212 nt), HBJZ10/CHN/2021 (19,700 nt), HBJM106/CHN/2021 (18,871 nt)), which were characterized by genome structure, identity matrix, and phylogenetic analysis. Jeilongviruses were classified into three subclades based on their topology, phylogeny, and hosts. Based on the amino acid sequence identities and phylogenetic analysis of the L protein, HBJZ120/CHN/2021 and HBJZ157/CHN/2021 were found to be strains rather than novel species. Additionally, according to specific polymerase chain reaction screening, the positive percentage of Beilong virus in Hubei was 6.38%, suggesting that Beilong virus, belonging to the Jeilongvirus genus, is likely to be widespread in wild rodents. The identification of novel strains further elucidated the genomic diversity of jeilongviruses. Additionally, the prevalence of jeilongviruses in Hubei, China, was profiled, establishing a foundation for the surveillance and early warning of emerging paramyxoviruses.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Roedores , Animais , China , Roedores/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Paramyxovirinae/genética , Paramyxovirinae/classificação , Paramyxovirinae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 229: 106228, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850871

RESUMO

To prevent foodborne infections from pigs and cattle, the whole food chain must act to minimize the contamination of products, including biosecurity measures which prevent infections via feed and the environment in production farms. Rodents and other small mammals can be reservoirs of and key vectors for transmitting zoonotic bacteria and viruses to farm animals, through direct contact but more often through environmental contamination. In line with One Health concept, we integrated results from a sampling study of small mammals in farm environments and data from a capture-recapture experiment into a probabilistic model which quantifies the degree of environmental exposure of zoonotic bacteria by small mammals to farm premises. We investigated more than 1200 small mammals trapped in and around 38 swine and cattle farm premises in Finland in 2017/2018. Regardless of the farm type, the most common species caught were the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), and house mouse (Mus musculus). Of 554 intestine samples (each pooled from 1 to 10 individuals), 33% were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected in 8% of the pooled samples, on 21/38 farm premises. Findings of Salmonella and the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were rare: the pathogens were detected in only single samples from four and six farm premises, respectively. The prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia and STEC in small mammal populations was estimated as 26%/13%, 1%/0%, 2%/3%, 1%/1%, respectively, in 2017/2018. The exposure probability within the experimental period of four weeks on farms was 17-60% for Campylobacter and 0-3% for Salmonella. The quantitative model is readily applicable to similar integrative studies. Our results indicate that small mammals increase the risk of exposure to zoonotic bacteria in animal production farms, thus increasing risks also for livestock and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , Prevalência , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Roedores/microbiologia , Zoonoses Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Bacterianas/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Fazendas
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 176: 105339, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941712

RESUMO

Brucellosis, caused by various Brucella species, poses a significant threat to global public health and livestock industries. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap concerning the presence of Brucella spp. in rodents on livestock farms in Iran. Both bacteriological and molecular surveys were conducted to assess the prevalence of Brucella spp. in these rodent populations. A total of 16 rodents were captured in four seropositive dairy cattle farms (n = 7) and two seropositive sheep farms (n = 9) and were then examined for the presence of the Brucella-infection. Five cow milk samples and 53 bovine lymph node samples from these farms were also tested for Brucella spp. Lymph node samples from dairy cattle farms contained 32 B. abortus biovar 3 isolates and one B. melitensis Rev1 vaccine isolate. The bacterial culture of rodents identified 12.5% of them (Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) harboring Brucella strains in dairy cattle farms. The rodents had B. abortus biovar 3 and B. melitensis biovar 1, suggesting a reservoir for these bacteria. A two-step molecular assay, utilizing the Omp28 sequences in tissue samples of rodents, demonstrated that 68.75% (n = 11) of the tested rodents yielded positive results. Bruce-ladder PCR and wboA typing on isolated bacteria revealed a close relationship to field strain of Brucella species. The study reveals that rodents on seropositive livestock farms in Iran harbor Brucella spp., indicating a potential reservoir for these bacteria. This highlights the importance of monitoring rodent populations through the molecular and bacterial methods to manage and control brucellosis in livestock.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Bovinos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Ratos , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/classificação , Ovinos , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Camundongos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Brucella abortus/isolamento & purificação , Brucella abortus/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Feminino
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 159-164, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trends in Oncomelania hupensis distribution in Wuhan City, Hubei Province from 2003 to 2022, so as to provide insights into precision schistosomiasis control. METHODS: Data pertaining to O. hupensis snail survey in Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 were collected. The trends in the proportion of areas with snail habitats, actual area with snail habitats, mean density of living snails and prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in snails were evaluated in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 with the slope of trend curve (ß), annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) using a Joinpoint regression model. RESULTS: During the period from 2003 through 2022, there were two turning points for the proportion of areas with snail habitats in Wuhan City in 2005 and 2015, with a rise during the period from 2003 to 2005 (ß1 = 5.93, t = 1.280, P > 0.05), a decline from 2005 to 2015 (ß2 = -0.88, t = -2.074, P > 0.05) and a rise from 2015 to 2022 (ß3 = 1.46, t = -2.356, P < 0.05). During the period from 2003 through 2022, there were two turning points for the proportion of areas with snail habitats in islet endemic areas of Wuhan City in 2006 and 2015, with no significant differences in the trends from 2003 to 2006 (ß1 = 4.64, t = 1.888, P > 0.05) or from 2006 to 2015 (ß2 = -1.45, t = -2.143, P > 0.05), and with a tendency towards a rise from 2015 to 2022 (ß3 = 2.04, t = -3.100, P < 0.05). During the period from 2003 through 2022, there were two turning points for the proportion of areas with snail habitats in inner embankment endemic areas of Wuhan City in 2012 and 2020, with a tendency towards a decline from 2003 to 2012 (ß1 = -0.39, t = -4.608, P < 0.05) and with no significant differences in the trends from 2012 to 2020 (ß2 = 0.03, t = 0.245, P > 0.05) and from 2020 to 2022 (ß3 = 1.38, t = 1.479, P > 0.05). During the period from 2003 to 2022, the actual area with snail habitats all appeared a tendency towards a decline in Wuhan City, and in islet and inner embankment endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (AAPC = -2.39%, -5.75% and -2.35%, all P values < 0.05). The mean density of living snails reduced from 0.087 snails/0.1 m2 in 2003 to 0.027 snails/0.1 m2 in 2022 in Wuhan City, with a significant difference in the tendency towards the decline (APC = AAPC = -11.47%, P < 0.05). The annual mean decline rate of the mean density of living snails was 17.36% in outside embankment endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (APC = AAPC = -17.36%, P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in the trends in the mean density of living snails in islet endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (APC = AAPC = -0.97%, P > 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in snails appeared a tendency towards a decline in Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (APC = AAPC = -12.45%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of areas with snail habitats, actual area with snail habitats, mean density of living snails and prevalence of S. japonicum infection in snails all appeared a tendency towards a decline in Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022. Intensified snail control, modification of snail habitats, shrinking of areas with snails and implementation of grazing prohibition in snail-infested settings are required, in order to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Wuhan City.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Caramujos , China/epidemiologia , Animais , Caramujos/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Humanos , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia
15.
Med Mycol ; 62(7)2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816207

RESUMO

Candida auris represents one of the most urgent threats to public health, although its ecology remains largely unknown. Because amphibians and reptiles may present favorable conditions for C. auris colonization, cloacal and blood samples (n = 68), from several snake species, were cultured and molecularly screened for C. auris using molecular amplification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol protein-encoding genes and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Candida auris was isolated from the cloacal swab of one Egyptian cobra (Naja haje legionis) and molecularly identified in its cloaca and blood. The isolation of C. auris from wild animals is herein reported for the first time, thus suggesting the role that these animals could play as reservoirs of this emerging pathogen. The occurrence of C. auris in blood requires further investigation, although the presence of cationic antimicrobial peptides in the plasma of reptiles could play a role in reducing the vitality of the fungus.


Candida auris represents one of the most urgent threats to public health. In this study, we reported for the first time the isolation of C. auris from snake thus suggesting the role of these animals as reservoirs of this emerging pathogen.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidíase , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Reservatórios de Doenças , Animais , Candida/genética , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/veterinária , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Cloaca/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Fúngico/genética , Sangue/microbiologia , Serpentes/microbiologia , Elapidae , Egito , Filogenia
16.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 71(5): 584-590, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We contribute to the understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania infantum suggesting the involvement of rabbits as wild reservoirs. RESULTS: The prevalence of infection was 86.0% (270/314 wild rabbits) ranging from 18.2% to 100% in natural geographical regions. The estimated average parasite load was 324.8 [CI 95% 95.3-554.3] parasites per mg of ear lobe ranging from 0 to 91,597 parasites/mg per tissue section. CONCLUSIONS: A positive correlation was found between skin parasite load in wild rabbits and human incidence with evidence of the presence of the same L. infantum genotypes in rabbits and humans, providing new epidemiological and biological basis for the consideration of wild rabbits as a relevant L. infantum wild reservoir. Molecular parasite surveillance reflects the great genotypic variability of the parasite population in wild rabbits. Most of these genotypes have also been found to infect humans, dogs and sandflies in the region. Our findings also highlight that direct genotyping of the parasite in host tissues should be used for molecular surveillance of the parasite instead of cultured isolates.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos/parasitologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Humanos , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Prevalência , Genótipo
17.
J Math Biol ; 89(1): 7, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772937

RESUMO

Malaria is a vector-borne disease that exacts a grave toll in the Global South. The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax, the most geographically expansive agent of human malaria, is characterised by the accrual of a reservoir of dormant parasites known as hypnozoites. Relapses, arising from hypnozoite activation events, comprise the majority of the blood-stage infection burden, with implications for the acquisition of immunity and the distribution of superinfection. Here, we construct a novel model for the transmission of P. vivax that concurrently accounts for the accrual of the hypnozoite reservoir, (blood-stage) superinfection and the acquisition of immunity. We begin by using an infinite-server queueing network model to characterise the within-host dynamics as a function of mosquito-to-human transmission intensity, extending our previous model to capture a discretised immunity level. To model transmission-blocking and antidisease immunity, we allow for geometric decay in the respective probabilities of successful human-to-mosquito transmission and symptomatic blood-stage infection as a function of this immunity level. Under a hybrid approximation-whereby probabilistic within-host distributions are cast as expected population-level proportions-we couple host and vector dynamics to recover a deterministic compartmental model in line with Ross-Macdonald theory. We then perform a steady-state analysis for this compartmental model, informed by the (analytic) distributions derived at the within-host level. To characterise transient dynamics, we derive a reduced system of integrodifferential equations, likewise informed by our within-host queueing network, allowing us to recover population-level distributions for various quantities of epidemiological interest. In capturing the interplay between hypnozoite accrual, superinfection and acquired immunity-and providing, to the best of our knowledge, the most complete population-level distributions for a range of epidemiological values-our model provides insights into important, but poorly understood, epidemiological features of P. vivax.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax , Conceitos Matemáticos , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium vivax , Superinfecção , Humanos , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Superinfecção/imunologia , Superinfecção/transmissão , Superinfecção/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/imunologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação por Computador , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/imunologia
18.
Acta Trop ; 256: 107257, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761833

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious-contagious disease with worldwide distribution, caused by the zoonotic pathogen Mycobacterium bovis. It is believed that the existence of wild cycles may hamper the success of bTB control strategies worldwide, where wildlife species could be reservoirs of this bacterial agent across their native (e.g., European badgers, wild boars) or non-indigenous (e.g., brushtail possum in New Zealand) ranges. However, further studies are required to understand the potential risk posed by non-native wildlife in becoming carriers of M. bovis in other neglected latitudes, such as the Southern Cone of South America. In this study, we performed a specific M. bovis-RD4 real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to detect bacterial DNA in tissues from the invasive American mink (Neogale vison) in Los Ríos region, Chile. We detected M. bovis DNA in blood samples collected from 13 out of 186 (7 %) minks with known sex and age. We did not find any significant differences in bacterial DNA detection according to mink sex and age. We found that 92 % (12/13) of specimens were positive in lung, 39 % (5/13) in mediastinal lymph node, and 15 % (2/13) in mesenteric lymph node, which suggest that both respiratory and digestive pathways as possible routes of transmission between infected hosts and minks. Our study is the first report on M. bovis molecular detection in invasive minks in an area where the largest cattle population in the country is located. Furthermore, this area is characterized by a low within-herd prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle, with a relatively low number of infected herds, and so far, no attempts at eradicating the disease have been successful.


Assuntos
Vison , Mycobacterium bovis , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tuberculose , Animais , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Vison/microbiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Tuberculose/veterinária , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(3): 605-614, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725305

RESUMO

Surveillance data collected in the period 2017-20 for Brucella spp. in wildlife of the Lombardy Region in northern Italy were used to describe the exposure of the wildlife species to Brucella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa), European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), fallow deer (Dama dama), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among the tested species, wild boar (n=6,440) showed the highest percentage of seropositive samples (5.9%). Notably, wild boars of perifluvial area of the Po River showed higher percentages of positivity than those of the pre-Alpine district. In addition, during the hunting season in 2018, 95 organs (uterus or testes, spleen, and submandibular lymph nodes) from wild boar of the perifluvial area of the Po River were collected for bacteriological examination. Brucella suis was isolated in culture from 18.9% of tested lymph nodes. These serological and microbiological results highlight the presence of B. suis in wild boar and suggest the importance of wild boar as a reservoir for B. suis. Comparison of the spatial distribution of Brucella-seropositive wild boars with the location of backyard swine farms revealed a higher chance of contact between the two populations only in the areas where the lower percentage of seropositive samples was observed. Conversely, the high percentage of seropositive samples observed in the Po River area coupled with positive microbiological cultures suggest a greater risk of infection for the humans directly or indirectly involved in wild boar hunting activity. These results may serve as a basis to establish sound wildlife management and to adopt education campaigns aimed at reducing the risk of human infection in people involved in wild boar hunting related activities.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Brucella , Brucelose , Cervos , Lebres , Sus scrofa , Animais , Itália/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Lebres/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Suínos , Brucella suis/isolamento & purificação
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2807: 93-110, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743223

RESUMO

Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) has evolved in the last decades, especially after significant developments in sample preparation, imaging acquisition, software, spatial resolution, and equipment, including confocal, live-cell, super-resolution, and electron microscopy (scanning, transmission, focused ion beam, and cryo-electron microscopy). However, the recent evolution of different laser-related techniques, such as mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and laser capture microdissection, could further expand spatial imaging capabilities into high-resolution OMIC approaches such as proteomic, lipidomics, small molecule, and drug discovery. Here, we will describe a protocol to integrate the detection of rare viral reservoirs with imaging mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia
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