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1.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 17(1): 424, 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shilajit has been widely used remedy for treating a numerous of illness such as bone defects in Iran traditional folk medicine since hundreds of years ago. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of Shilajit on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ASCs were seeded in 3D 1% alginate (Alg) hydrogel with or without Shilajit (500 µg/mL) and compared with 2D cultures. Then, characterization was done using electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and Raman confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Adding Shilajit had no impact on the Alg scaffold degradability. In the 3D hydrogel and in the presence of osteogenic medium (OM), Shilajit acted as enhancer to increase ALP activity and also showed osteoinductive property in the absence of OM compared to the 2D matched groups at all time points (days 7 and 21 both P = 0.0006, for 14 days P = 0.0006 and P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, calcium deposition was significantly increased in the cultures exposed to Shilajit compared to 2D matched groups on days 14 (P < 0.0001) and 21 (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.003, respectively). In both 3D and 2D conditions, Shilajit induced osteogenic differentiation, but Shilajit/Alg combination starts osteogenic differentiation in a short period of time. CONCLUSION: As Shilajit accelerates the differentiation of ASCs into the osteoblasts, without changing the physical properties of the Alg hydrogel, this combination may pave the way for more promising remedies considering bone defects.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Tecido Adiposo , Alginatos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina , Cálcio , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Minerais , Resinas Vegetais
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2209592119, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161935

RESUMO

Studying the earliest archaeological adhesives has implications for our understanding of human cognition. In southern Africa, the oldest adhesives were made by Homo sapiens in the Middle Stone Age. Chemical studies have shown that these adhesives were made from a local conifer of the Podocarpaceae family. However, Podocarpus does not exude resin, nor any other substance that could have been recognized as having adhesive properties. Therefore, it remains unknown how these adhesives were made. This study investigates how Podocarpus adhesives can be made, comparing their mechanical properties with other naturally available adhesives. We found that Podocarpus tar can only be made by dry distillation of leaves, requiring innovative potential, skill, and knowledge. This contrasts with our finding that the Middle Stone Age environment was rich in substances that can be used as adhesives without such transformation. The apparent preference for Podocarpus tar may be explained by its mechanical properties. We found it to be superior to all other substances in terms of its adhesive properties. In addition, the condensation method that allows producing it can be recognized accidentally, as the processes take place above ground and can be triggered accidentally. Our findings have implications for establishing a link between technology and cognition in the Middle Stone Age.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Arqueologia , Adesivos/química , Arqueologia/métodos , Cognição , Humanos , Resinas Vegetais , Tecnologia
3.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956815

RESUMO

Due to its carcinogenic properties, the presence of formaldehyde in resins and other industrial products has been a subject of great concern in recent years. The presented review focuses on modern alternatives for the production of wood-based panels; i.e., substitutes for formaldehyde in the production of amino and phenolic resins, as well as novel hardeners for formaldehyde-free wood adhesives. Solutions in which formaldehyde in completely replaced are presented in this review. Recent advances indicate that it is possible to develop new formaldehyde-free systems of resins with compatible hardeners. The formaldehyde substitutes that have primarily been tested are glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and dimethoxyethanal. The use of such substitutes eliminates the problem of free formaldehyde emission originating from the resin used in the production of wood-based panels. However, these alternatives are mostly characterized by worse reactivity, and, as a result, the use of formaldehyde-free resins may affect the mechanical and strength properties of wood-based panels. Nonetheless, there are still many substantial challenges for the complete replacement of formaldehyde and further research is needed, especially in the field of transferring the technology to industrial practice.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Madeira , Glioxal , Indústrias , Resinas Vegetais
4.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956832

RESUMO

Novel phosphorylated cardanol molecules based on phosphonate (PO3CR) and phosphate (PO4CR) functions were synthetized. Those molecules have two main actions which are described in this article: the reduction in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and the development of flame retardant (FR) properties conferred on alkyd resins used as coatings for wood specimen. Phosphorylated cardanol compounds have been successfully grafted by covalent bonds to alkyd resins thanks to an auto-oxidative reaction. The impact of the introduction of PO3CR and PO4CR on the film properties such as drying time and flexibility has been studied and the thermal and flame retardant properties through differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis and pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimeter. These studies underscored an increase in the thermal stability and FR properties of the alkyd resins. In the cone calorimeter test, the lowest pHRR was obtained with 3 wt% P of phosphate-cardanol and exhibited a value of 170 KW.m-2, which represented a decrease of almost 46% compared to the POxCR-free alkyd resins. Moreover, a difference in the mode of action between phosphonate and phosphate compounds has been highlighted. The most effective coating which combined excellent FR properties and good coating properties has been obtained with 2 wt% P of phosphate-cardanol. Indeed, the film properties were closed to the POxCR-free alkyd resin and the pHRR decreased by 41% compared to the reference alkyd resin.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Organofosfonatos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Resinas Epóxi/química , Fenóis , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Resinas Vegetais
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5791308, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978631

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical excipients derived from natural sources like resins are nowadays meritoriously used in the formulation of drugs. Resins of natural origin have many advantages over chemically synthesized substances; they are safer, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable, and widely available. To our knowledge, resins from plants have been not sufficiently explored for application in pharmaceutical formulations. Thus, in the present study, a resin isolated from Boswellia rivae Engl was characterized for its potential use as a pharmaceutical excipient. Method. The resin was extracted from the oleo gum resin of Boswellia rivae Engl, which involved the removal of volatile oils, gum, and Boswellic acid contents. The dried resin powder was then characterized for its micromeritic properties, heavy metal contents, moisture content, moisture absorption power, pH, solubility, swelling property, and acute toxicity profile. Moreover, the crystal nature and the chemical functionality of the resin were evaluated by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, respectively. Results. The yield of the neutral resin was 13.17%, and the powder was pale yellow and had irregular surfaces. The resin was freely soluble in organic solvents but almost insoluble in water. The moisture content of the dried extract was 2.5% while its moisture absorption capacity was 2.5%, 4%, and 5.47% at 40%, 60%, and 75% RH, respectively. Besides, the maximum swelling capacities of the resin observed were 40%, 37%, and 30% at 350C, 300C, and 250C, respectively. The bulk powder exhibited a 1.21 Hausner ratio, 36.497 angles of repose, and 17.03% Carr's index, indicating the fair flowability of the powder. Heavy metals such as zinc, chromium, and cobalt were detected at a low level while elements like copper, manganese, lead, and cadmium were absent. The X-ray diffraction study revealed that the crystallinity index of the powder was 42.7% with a crystal size of 994.5A. The Boswellia resin could be safe in mice up to 3 g/kg of their body weight. In conclusion, the physicochemical properties of the resin powder investigated reveal its potential application as pharmaceutical additives in the formulation of modified release solid dosages forms like tablets and microcapsules.


Assuntos
Boswellia , Animais , Boswellia/química , Excipientes/química , Camundongos , Pós , Resinas Vegetais/química , Comprimidos/química
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9325973, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965682

RESUMO

Rosin derivatives such as dehydroabietic acid and dehydroabietic amine belonging to diterpenoids have similar structure with androgen that inhibited the occurrence and development of prostate cancer. In this study, the effects and possible mechanism of the rosin derivative IDOAMP on prostate cancer were investigated. Our results showed that IDOAMP effectively inhibited cell viabilities of LNCaP, PC3, and DU145 prostate cells. After the treatment with IDOAMP, the levels of cleaved-PARP, LC3BII/I, and HMGB1 were increased, whereas the expression of GPX4 was decreased. Interestingly, cell viability was reversed by the supplements of necrostatin-1 and necrosulfonamide. Meanwhile, the IDOAMP downregulated the expression of human Aurora kinase A that was overexpressed in prostate cancer. In addition, co-IP results showed that IDOAMP inhibited the binding of Aurora kinase A to the receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3. However, the binding of RIPK1 to FADD, RIPK3, or MLKL was significantly promoted. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation levels of RIPK1, RIPK, and MLKL were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. In in vivo model, IDOAMP reduced the tumor volumes and weights. In conclusion, IDOAMP directly inhibited Aurora kinase A and promoted the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL necrosome activation to inhibit the prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase A , Neoplasias da Próstata , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Resinas Vegetais , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Phytomedicine ; 105: 154334, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated bone loss associated with aging and estrogen withdrawal is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate dietary supplementation with a standardized aqueous extract of shilajit with clinically demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and collagen-promoting activity on attenuating bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. DESIGN: Sixty postmenopausal women aged 45 - 65 years with osteopenia were randomized to receive 1 of 3 treatments daily for 48 weeks: (1) placebo, (2) 250 mg shilajit extract, or (3) 500 mg shilajit extract. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) were measured at weeks 0, 24, and 48, and circulating markers of bone turnover (CTX-1, BALP, RANKL, OPG), oxidative stress (MDA, GSH), and inflammation (hsCRP) at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48. RESULTS: BMD of both the LS and FN progressively decreased in women receiving placebo but was dose-dependently attenuated with shilajit extract supplementation, resulting in significantly increased percentage changes from baseline in BMD at 24- and 48-weeks in both supplemented groups compared to placebo (p < 0.001). CTX-1, BALP, and RANKL decreased, whereas OPG increased, in both groups supplemented with the shilajit extract, but not in the placebo group, resulting in significantly decreased or increased percentage changes from baseline, respectively. MDA was significantly decreased (p < 0.001) and GSH was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in both supplemented groups compared to placebo from week 12 for the duration of the study. Progressive reductions in hsCRP were observed in both supplemented groups, resulting in significantly decreased percentage changes from baseline in supplemented women compared to placebo (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation with this shilajit extract supports BMD in postmenopausal women with osteopenia in part by attenuating the increased bone turnover, inflammation and oxidative stress that coincides with estrogen deficiency in this population at increased risk for osteoporosis and bone fractures.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Biomarcadores , Densidade Óssea , Proteína C-Reativa , Método Duplo-Cego , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Minerais , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós-Menopausa , Resinas Vegetais
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14382, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999378

RESUMO

Excessive absorption of osteoclasts will break the balance between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, leading to bone loss, decreased bone density, and increased bone fragility. We have shown that Loureirin B (LrB) can inhibit osteoclasts. In this study, we demonstrated the targeting-inhibitory mechanism of LrB acting on osteoclast precursor. Using SPR, HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS to capture and analyze the target protein of Loureirin B in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), we used this method to detect all target proteins that LrB acts on BMMs, and analyzed the distribution and enrichment rate of the target protein by DAVID enrichment analysis. Ledock molecular docking was used to detect the binding of LrB. We used Western Blot for verification. The target proteins of LrB acting on BMMs were Serpine1, Atp6ap1, Dvl1, Rhd, Fzd2, MAPK1, MAP2K2, MAPK3 and so on. MAPK1, MAP2K2 and MAPK3 were the most relevant. LrB treatment attenuated the expression of phosphorylated JNK and p38 kinases of the MAPK signaling pathway. Our research further confirmed that LrB affects the MAPK signaling pathway in BMMs, thereby inhibiting the differentiation of BMMs into osteoclasts. This discovery can confirm the mechanism by which LrB acts on BMMs.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Resinas Vegetais , Transdução de Sinais , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
9.
Food Res Int ; 159: 111552, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940778

RESUMO

Due to the considerable increase in the prevalence of obesity, there is an increased interest in developing safe and effective anti-obesity treatments from fruits and vegetables. In this study, Ipomoea aquatica, commonly known as Kang Kong in Southeast Asia was first reported to contain potent pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitors due to resin glycosides (RG). Ipomoea aquatica extract demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against PL with an Orlistat equivalent (OE) value of 6.86 ± 0.51 × 10-4. In vitro lipolysis study showed that consuming RG in tandem with high-fat food (butter & salad dressing) was effective in delaying enzymatic fat digestion by inhibiting PL. Pre-incubation of PL with RG extract before substrate addition also significantly enhanced their inhibitory activity. However, RG was unstable when subjected to high heat treatments (90 °C). Overall, these results provided useful knowledge of RG as PL inhibitors for body weight management.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Lipídeos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resinas Vegetais
10.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(36): 6939-6945, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040715

RESUMO

Polyurethane (PU) prepared by blending rosin base and CO2-polyol already has good mechanical properties and hydrophobic effect and has powerful benefits in acid and alkali resistance and salt resistance. In this study, mussel bionic rosin-based benzoxazine (BZ) was synthesized using dehydroabietylamine, catechol, and paraformaldehyde. Mixing BZ into PU can endow the resulting PU/BZ with special effects such as zero curing shrinkage, excellent mechanical behavior, and flame retardancy through a 3D interpenetrating network system. From the results, the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of PU wood coatings are 97.04 and 2601.97 MPa, respectively; in contrast, the PU/BZ wood coatings exhibited higher values of MOR and MOE of 110.87 and 2738.11 MPa. PU/BZ wood coatings show higher flexural strength and elastic modulus. They are also stronger than PU coatings in terms of acid/alkali and aging resistance. At the same time, the coating is endowed with flame retardant properties, and the LOI is 30.2 due to the presence of BZ. Thus, PU/BZ can be a versatile and practical wood coating. The interpenetrating network system of PU/BZ has an innovative impact on the preparation of wood coatings.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Retardadores de Chama , Álcalis/análise , Animais , Benzoxazinas/análise , Biônica , Dióxido de Carbono , Catecóis/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Poliuretanos/química , Resinas Vegetais , Madeira/química
11.
Eur Endod J ; 7(2): 161-166, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolar teeth restored with flowable short fibre-reinforced resin composite (FSFRRC) at varying depths within the root canals. METHODS: Fifty freshly extracted human single-rooted premolars were divided into 5 Groups (n=10), Group I (IN) intact teeth, Group II (P) restored coronally with resin composite only, Group III, IV and V (FSFRRC2, FSFRRC4, FSFRRC6) based on post space preparation to the respective depths of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Root canal treatment was performed for all the samples of Group II, III, IV, V and the teeth were decoronated 2 mm above cementoenamel junction. Following decoronation, post space preparation was done to the depths of 2, 4, and 6 mm (Group III, IV, V). Teeth were restored with FSFRRC (Groups III-V) intra-radicularly and coronally sealed using resin composite. All the teeth were subjected to fracture strength test using Universal testing machine, and mode of failure was analysed. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn Post-hoc test was conducted for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: All FSFRRC groups showed higher fracture resistance than teeth restored only with resin composite. FSFRRC4 and FSFRRC6 showed significantly (P<0.05) higher fracture resistance than intact teeth and other experimental groups. CONCLUSION: Intra-radicular placement of FSFRRC increased the fractured resistance significantly and may serve as a promising alternative to conventional post systems to rehabilitate endodontically treated teeth.


Assuntos
Fraturas dos Dentes , Dente não Vital , Dente Pré-Molar , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Humanos , Resinas Vegetais , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Fraturas dos Dentes/prevenção & controle , Dente não Vital/terapia
12.
Bioorg Chem ; 127: 105986, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777232

RESUMO

Sinkianlignans A - D (1-4), four new sesquilignans with an unusual architectures was characterized with a rarely α-γ', ß-γ', and γ-γ' linkage pattern, and sinkianlignans E - F (5 and 6), two lignans, were isolated from the Ferula sinkiangensis. Hypothetic biosynthetic pathway of compound 3 contain a newly formed six-membered C-ring by Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The structures of isolates were established by spectroscopic techniques and computational methods. Biological evaluation of all the isolated compounds revealed that compounds 2a and 2b could inhibit IL-6 and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Ferula , Sesquiterpenos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ferula/química , Estrutura Molecular , Resinas Vegetais , Sesquiterpenos/química
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 218: 519-532, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902011

RESUMO

Enteromorpha prolifera belonging to the chlorophyta phylum is the main pollutant of "green tide", and propagates rapidly in recent years. However, there is almost no high-value enteromorpha treatment method at present. This study aimed to extract cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from enteromorpha and prepare the CNC reinforced films based on alginate, carrageenan and shellac for food packaging. The effects of alginate, κ-carrageenan, cellulose nanocrystals and glycerin on the CNC reinforced alginate/carrageenan films (AC films) properties were studied systematically in this work. The results showed that the mechanical properties, swelling properties, and barrier properties of the AC could be adjusted by the concentrations of the different components. In addition, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the formula of the AC used for food packaging according to the requirements of the practical application. Furthermore, in order to further improve the food packaging capacity of the composite films, shellac was added to the optimized alginate/carrageenan films (OAC films) to obtain the shellac optimized alginate/carrageenan films (SOAC films). Finally, the OAC films and SOAC films showed excellent properties to extend the storage time of chicken breast and cherry tomatoes in the food storage experiment.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanopartículas , Alginatos , Carragenina/química , Celulose/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nanopartículas/química , Permeabilidade , Resinas Vegetais
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11130, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778550

RESUMO

Biotin ligases have been developed as proximity biotinylation enzymes for analyses of the interactome. However, there has been no report on the application of proximity labeling for in-resin correlative light-electron microscopy of Epon-embedded cells. In this study, we established a proximity-labeled in-resin CLEM of Epon-embedded cells using miniTurbo, a biotin ligase. Biotinylation by miniTurbo was observed in cells within 10 min following the addition of biotin to the medium. Using fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin, intracellular biotinylated proteins were labeled after fixation of cells with a mixture of paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Fluorescence of these proteins was resistant to osmium tetroxide staining and was detected in 100-nm ultrathin sections of Epon-embedded cells. Ultrastructures of organelles were preserved well in the same sections. Fluorescence in sections was about 14-fold brighter than that in the sections of Epon-embedded cells expressing mCherry2 and was detectable for 14 days. When mitochondria-localized miniTurbo was expressed in the cells, mitochondria-like fluorescent signals were detected in the sections, and ultrastructures of mitochondria were observed as fluorescence-positive structures in the same sections by scanning electron microscopy. Proximity labeling using miniTurbo led to more stable and brighter fluorescent signals in the ultrathin sections of Epon-embedded cells, resulting in better performance of in-resin CLEM.


Assuntos
Biotina , Tetróxido de Ósmio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Resinas Vegetais , Coloração e Rotulagem
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 213: 751-767, 2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679958

RESUMO

Prolyl endopeptidase or prolyl oligopeptidase (PEP or POP) is highly expressed in brain, and associated with autism spectrum disorders, dementia, aging and various psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia, mania, and neurodegeneration. To design highly potent and novel POP inhibitors, structure-based virtual screening was carried out using pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking studies. The docking based active compounds [incensole (1), incensole acetate (2), incensone (3), incensfuran (4), and epi-incensole acetate (5)] were selected and their dynamic behavior was studied through molecular dynamic simulation. Later, the top-ranked [predicted active, (1-5)] and lower-ranked [predicted in-active, (6-10)] compounds were tested by in-vitro assay. The in-vitro results showed that all top-ranked compounds (1-5) found significantly active against POP enzyme with IC50 values in range of 3.1 ± 0.45 to 24.4 ± 1.16 µM, while lower-ranked (6-10) were inactive, indicated accuracy of docking results. Kinetics studies on all active compounds 1-5 were carried out to investigate their mode of inhibition and dissociation constants Ki. All compounds showed competitive behaviors with Ki values in the range of 0.92-8.12 µM. The study resulted in the identification of five (1-5) diterpene based molecules from natural sources that significantly inhibit the activity of POP by competitive mode of inhibition.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos , Prolil Oligopeptidases , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Resinas Vegetais
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7205692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769675

RESUMO

Background: Deep fissures are highly unprotected from the development of caries. Resin-based materials and glass-ionomer cements for sealing fissures are useful in caries control through physical barrier formation, which prohibits metabolic exchange between fissure microorganisms. Retention is one of the most critical properties of fissure sealants. This in vivo study is aimed at comparing and evaluating the clinical efficacy of resin and glass ionomer-based fissure sealants on first permanent molars with follow-ups at 6-, 12-, and 18-month intervals. Methods: A randomized split-mouth design clinical study was conducted after obtaining the ethical committee approval. A total of 50 patients, aged between 7 and 12 years, were randomized and enrolled in the study to perform a total of 200 sealant placements on all four caries-free and hypoplasia-free first permanent molars having deep fissures, which are susceptible to caries, were included in this study. The four permanent molars were divided into the following four groups: group A (control), B (Grandioseal, Voco, Germany), C (Smartseal & Loc, Detax Gmbh & Co, Germany), and D (Fuji triage capsule, GC, Belgium). The sealed molars were clinically evaluated at intervals of 6, 12, and 18 months to assess sealant retention, surface roughness, marginal coloration, and caries status through visual evaluation of the sealant by two evaluators. Results: Concerning retention, there were statistically significant differences between the sealants in terms of the survival of partial and fully retained sealants as well as in the survival of caries-free teeth. Two resin-based (Smartseal & Loc) and glass-ionomer cement (Fuji triage) sealants showed significantly similar performances in permanent molars for up to 18 months. In terms of retention, one of the resin-based (Grandioseal) sealants performed better as compared to the others and showed better caries prevention in deep fissures. Conclusion: It is concluded that both the sealants had comparable retention and caries-preventive effects in 7 to 12-year-old children and can be considered as suitable sealants for a period of at least 18 months in moderate caries risk patients.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras , Resinas Acrílicas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Resinas Vegetais , Dióxido de Silício/uso terapêutico
17.
Biomacromolecules ; 23(7): 2856-2866, 2022 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694860

RESUMO

Low-k dielectrics are urgently needed in modern integrated circuits. The introduction of free volume instead of porous structures has become a powerful strategy to reduce the k value. According to this strategy, the biomass resource rosin-containing hydrogenated phenanthrene ring was introduced into benzocyclobutene (BCB) resin to reduce the k value; then a rosin-based BCB monomer was successfully synthesized. Meanwhile, the BCB monomer without a rosin skeleton was prepared. After converting the monomers into thermo-crosslinked materials, notably that the rosin skeleton has a great influence on the free volume and k value of the material. The fractional free volume and k value of the former are 26% and 2.44, respectively, and those of the latter are 14% and 2.84, respectively. In addition, the distances between molecular chains and the density of the former are 0.60 nm and 1.06 g cm-3, respectively; those of the latter are 0.56 nm and 1.28 g cm-3, respectively. These data show that introducing hydrogenated phenanthrene rings occupies part of the space and hinders the packing of molecular chains, which increases the distance between molecular chains and reduces the density of the polymer, resulting in an increasing free volume and a reducing k value. Notably that introducing hydrogenated phenanthrene rings cannot affect other properties of the material. Therefore, this research indicates that introducing rosin skeletons can prepare high-performance materials, which provide some promising low-k materials for the development of electronics and microelectronics.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos , Resinas Vegetais , Fenantrenos/química , Polímeros , Resinas Vegetais/química
18.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(9): e5430, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727297

RESUMO

The analgesic effect of the resin of Boswellia carterii (BC) is well known; however, the constituents that contribute to the analgesic effect remain elusive. The current study integrates ultrasonic-assisted extraction, quantitative determination, analgesic evaluation in rats, and gray relationship analysis for tracing analgesic constituents from the resin of BC. First, a robust and precise ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry approach with multiple reaction monitoring mode was developed for the simultaneous quantification of seven major constituents in crude and vinegar-processed resin of BC. Glycyrrhetinic acid was chosen as the internal standard. The approach showed good linearity. The intra- and inter-day precisions of each constituent were within 3.0%. The recoveries of each constituent were in the range of 96.4-102.7%. The approach was then applied to determine the seven constituents in 10 batches of crude and vinegar-processed resin of BC. Second, the analgesic effects of crude and vinegar-processed resin of BC were assessed in mice. Third, chemometrics methods, gray relationship analysis, and partial least squares regression were employed for determining the relationship between the contents of seven constituents and their analgesic effects. 11-Keto-ß-boswellic acid, 3-acetyl-ß-boswellic acid, 3-acetyl-α-boswellic acid, 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid, and ß-sitosterol were identified as the key analgesic constituents of BC.


Assuntos
Boswellia , Triterpenos , Ácido Acético , Analgésicos , Animais , Boswellia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Resinas Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triterpenos/química
19.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684324

RESUMO

Agarwood, popularly known as oudh or gaharu, is a fragrant resinous wood of high commercial value, traded worldwide and primarily used for its distinctive fragrance in incense, perfumes, and medicine. This fragrant wood is created when Aquilaria trees are wounded and infected by fungi, producing resin as a defense mechanism. The depletion of natural agarwood caused by overharvesting amidst increasing demand has caused this fragrant defensive resin of endangered Aquilaria to become a rare and valuable commodity. Given that instances of natural infection are quite low, artificial induction, including biological inoculation, is being conducted to induce agarwood formation. A long-term investigation could unravel insights contributing toward Aquilaria being sustainably cultivated. This review will look at the different methods of induction, including physical, chemical, and biological, and compare the production, yield, and quality of such treatments with naturally formed agarwood. Pharmaceutical properties and medicinal benefits of fragrance-associated compounds such as chromones and terpenoids are also discussed.


Assuntos
Perfumes , Thymelaeaceae , Odorantes , Perfumes/análise , Resinas Vegetais/análise , Thymelaeaceae/química , Árvores , Madeira/química
20.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684574

RESUMO

This work aimed to develop and evaluate a post-acquisition data processing strategy, referred to as a mass defect filter (MDF), for rapid target the resin glycosides in root of Convolvulus scammonia by setting mass rang and mass defect range from high-resolution MS data. The full-scan mass data were acquired by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q Exactive Plus hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer that featured high resolution, mass accuracy, and sensitivity. To screen resin glycosides, three parent filter m/z 871, m/z 853, and m/z 869 combined with diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) approach were applied to remove the interference from complex herbal extract. The targeted components were characterized based on detailed fragment ions. Using this approach, 80 targeted components, including 22 glycosidic acids and 58 resin glycosides were tentatively identified. The present results suggested that the proposed MDF strategy would be adaptable to the analysis of complex system in relevant filed.


Assuntos
Convolvulus , Glicosídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Íons , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Resinas Vegetais
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