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1.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 1861009, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899018

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a main health problem associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality. Recent studies shown that the progression of CKD may be related to the change of intestinal flora. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that can act as a substrate for microbial fermentation. Some studies have found that the supplementation of RS can improve the intestinal flora disorder in CKD patients. However, the specific effect of RS on CKD patients remains controversial. Objective: We designed this meta-analysis to identify and assess the effects of RS on patients with CKD. Methods: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane systematic review databases was conducted in January 2020, and all new trials were updated in August 2021. Randomized trials were collected to assess the effects of RS on patients with CKD. The weighted average effect size of the net change was calculated by using the random-effects model. Results: The meta-analysis included 8 studies involving 301 participants. RS intake significantly reduced serum indolephenol sulfate (IS), blood phosphorus, IL-6, and uric acid levels in dialysis patients. The mean difference (MD) of serum IS (P = 0.0002) in the dialysis subgroup was -12.57 µmol/L (95% CI: -19.28, -5.86 µmol/L). The MD of blood phosphorus (P = 0.03) was -0.39 mg/dl (95% CI: -0.78, -0.01 mg/dl). The MD of serum uric acid (P = 0.004) between the dialysis subgroup and the nondialysis subgroup was -31.58 mmol/L (95% CI: -52.99, -10.17 mmol/L). The mean difference (MD) of IL-6 (P = 0.02) in the dialysis subgroup was -1.16 µmol/L (95% CI: -2.16, -0.16 µmol/L). However, there was no significant change of RS on hs-CRP, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood paracresol sulfate, and blood lipid. Conclusions: The intake of RS reduced the serum IS, serum phosphorus, IL-6, and uric acid levels significantly in dialysis patients, while hs-CRP, serum creatinine, BUN, serum paracresol sulfate, and blood lipid showed no significant changes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Amido Resistente , Proteína C-Reativa , Creatinina , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Fósforo , Sulfatos , Ácido Úrico
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 294: 119842, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868781

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) has emerged as a promising functional food ingredient. To improve the textural and sensory characteristics of RS, there need to be an effective approach to produce RS with well-defined size and shape. Here, we present a facile approach for the synthesis of highly uniform resistant starch nanoparticles (RSNP) based on recrystallization of short-chain glucan (SCG) originated from debranched starch. We found that the ratio of SCG to partially debranched amylopectin was a key parameter in regulating the morphology, size, and crystallinity of the nanoparticles, which enable us to prepare highly uniform RSNP with an average diameter of around 150 nm, while showing a good colloidal stability over a broad range of pH (2-10). Moreover, the in-vitro digestibility and RS content of RSNP was not affected over the ten successive cycles of assembly and disassembly, which would provide useful insights for the development of RS-based functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Amido Resistente , Glucanos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Amido/química , Difração de Raios X , Zea mays/química
3.
Food Chem ; 393: 133376, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661608

RESUMO

This research aimed to develop a healthy cookie formulation containing different types of resistant starch, through the application of TOPSIS approach, as a potent feature of MCDM methodologies. Physicochemical investigations reveled that a harder, denser and less sticky dough was produced by the addition of both types of RS. The baking of these doughs resulted in the production of crumblier cookies of less spread ratio, lower porous crumb and whiter surface/crumb. Moreover, in-vitro digestibility of the cookies demonstrated that the baking process can adversely reduce the resistance of RS4 to the enzymolysis reactions. This phenomenon was further corroborated by in-vivo studies where the RS4 enriched cookies were less capable in reducing the postprandial blood glucose. TOPSIS, through successful solving of the multiple criteria decision 9 (alternatives) × 15 (evaluated attributes) matrix suggested that the cookie containing 15% RS is the best alternative in all aspects, possessing acceptable physicochemical/organoleptic attributes, and in-vivo/in-vitro dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Amido Resistente , Amido , Fibras na Dieta , Período Pós-Prandial , Sensação
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10710, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739179

RESUMO

High amylose rice (HAR) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are the preferred choices for enhancement of resistant starch content and lowering of glycemic index in dairy desserts. The effects of different levels of skimmed milk powder (SMP): HAR flour (45:55 to 75:25) and CMC (0.1 to 1%) were investigated on physical characteristics of dry-mix and on texture profile parameters, resistant starch (RS), predicted glycemic index (pGI), glycemic load (GL) and overall acceptability of phirni (a traditional milk pudding). Design expert predicted SMP (70): HAR (30) and CMC (0.8%) as optimum levels for reducing the pGI and maximizing the RS content and other quality characteristics in phirni. RS content of phirni (4.38%) prepared from optimized dry-mix (ODM) was higher while pGI (48.12) and GL (7.50) were lower as compared to phirni prepared from market dry-mix (MDM). The visco-thermal properties of ODM and MDM also showed significant variations. Storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G'') indicated that ODM phirni was less solid than MDM phirni. Scanning electron micrographs showed fused structures in ODM, while coarse sheet like structures were observed across the surface of MDM. Thus, ODM can be a promising substitute for the available milk desserts for diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Índice Glicêmico , Oryza , Amilose/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Farinha , Humanos , Oryza/química , Amido Resistente , Amido/química
5.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684467

RESUMO

Starch is the most abundant carbohydrate in legumes (22-45 g/100 g), with distinctive properties such as high amylose and resistant starch content, longer branch chains of amylopectin, and a C-type pattern arrangement in the granules. The present study concentrated on the investigation of hydrolyzed faba bean starch using acid, assisted by microwave energy, to obtain a possible food-grade coating material. For evaluation, the physicochemical, morphological, pasting, and structural properties were analyzed. Hydrolyzed starches developed by microwave energy in an acid medium had low viscosity, high solubility indexes, diverse amylose contents, resistant starch, and desirable thermal and structural properties to be used as a coating material. The severe conditions (moisture, 40%; pure hydrochloric acid, 4 mL/100 mL; time, 60 s; and power level, 6) of microwave-treated starches resulted in low viscosity values, high amylose content and high solubility, as well as high absorption indexes, and reducing sugars. These hydrolyzed starches have the potential to produce matrices with thermo-protectants to formulate prebiotic/probiotic (symbiotic) combinations and amylose-based inclusion complexes for functional compound delivery. This emergent technology, a dry hydrolysis route, uses much less energy consumption in a shorter reaction time and without effluents to the environment compared to conventional hydrolysis.


Assuntos
Amido , Vicia faba , Amilose/química , Hidrólise , Micro-Ondas , Amido Resistente , Amido/química , Viscosidade
6.
Food Chem ; 394: 133478, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716500

RESUMO

The in vitro digestion of a mixed gel (MS) of pork muscle and resistant starch (RS) was investigated and the role of the salt-soluble protein (SSP) in the function promotion of the mixed gel was clarified. The results showed that the mixed muscle gel (MS) and the addition of RS to muscle gel (M + S) presented an improved protein digestion, as indicated by a reduced particle size of the hydrolysates, more degradation of proteins with large molecular weight and more generation of free amino acids compared with the RS-free muscle gel (M). Meanwhile, the hydrolysates of the M + S and MS showed intensified DPPH radical scavenging activities. Specifically, the MS exerted preferable properties in protein digestion and antioxidant activity. Similar digestion characteristics were noticed in mixed SSP gels.The current study revealed that the reinforced functionality of the mixed muscle gel was associated with the binding relationships between SSP and RS during cooking.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Digestão , Géis , Músculos/metabolismo , Amido Resistente , Amido/química , Suínos
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 215: 79-91, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718147

RESUMO

We investigated the potential efficacy and underlying mechanisms of Lotus seed Resistant Starch (LRS) for regulating hyperlipidemia in mice fed a High-fat Diet (HFD). Mouse were fed a normal diet (Normal Control group, NC group), HFD alone (MC group), HFD plus lovastatin (PC group), or HFD with low/medium/high LRS (LLRS, MLRS, and HLRS groups, respectively) for 4 weeks. LRS supplementation significantly decreased body weight and significantly reduced serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipopro-tein cholesterol compared with the MC group. LRS also significantly alleviated hepatic steatosis, especially in the MLRS group, which also showed a significantly reduced visceral fat index. LLRS supplementation significantly regulated genes associated with glycerolipid metabolism and steroid hormone biosynthesis (Lpin1 and Ugt2b38), MLRS significantly regulated genes related to fatty acid degradation, fatty acid elongation, and glycerolipid metabolism (Lpin1, Hadha, Aldh3a2, and Acox1), whereas HLRS significantly regulated genes related to fatty acid elongation and glycerolipid metabolism (Lpin1, Elovl3, Elovol5, and Agpat3). The fatty acid-degradation pathway regulated by MLRS thus exerts better control of serum lipid levels, body weight, visceral fat index, and liver steatosis in mice compared with LLRS- and HLRS-regulated pathways.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/metabolismo , Amido Resistente
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 210: 614-621, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513097

RESUMO

The effects of microwave alone (MA) and microwave-assisted L-malic acid (MLA) on the physicochemical properties, structural and digestibility of sweet potato starch were investigated. The results showed that the swelling power, lightness (L⁎) and whiteness index (WI), gelatinization enthalpy of starch decreased by MA and MLA treatment. The starch treated by MLA showed a new characteristic absorption peak at near 1735 cm-1 in the measurement of FT-IR, while the starch treated with MA showed no new characteristic peak. The relative crystallinity of starch modified by MSE and MA decreased, but it still retained A-type crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface destruction of MSE-modified starch was greater than that of starch modified by MA. MLA increased the content of resistant starch (RS), while MA reduced the content of resistant starch (RS). The relative crystallinity and gelatinization enthalpy of continuous 60 s treatment were lower than those of discontinuous 60 s treatment. These results indicated that MLA had a greater effect on the physicochemical properties, structural and digestibility of starch than MA. Starch modified by MLA can be added to foods as a low-carbohydrate ingredient, and the starch treated by MA is suitable for foods with low swelling, such as noodles.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Amido , Ipomoea batatas/química , Malatos , Micro-Ondas , Amido Resistente , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt B): 1943-1955, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500776

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of chemical modifications such as oxidation, esterification and crosslinking was investigated alone and in combination with microwave irradiation on a non-conventional starch with 76% starch yield acquired from the trunk of matured talipot palm. The single- and dual-modifications imparted significant changes in the morphological, crystalline, pasting and rheological properties and digestibility of talipot starch. Characteristic peaks were observed in single- and dual-oxidized, esterified and crosslinked starches indicating their respective functional groups. All modifications significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) the relative crystallinity (RC) of talipot starches except for crosslinking, and the least RC (11.33%) was observed in microwave irradiated esterified starch. Microwave irradiation prior to chemical modifications showed a significant impact in the swelling and solubility of talipot starches. The decreased setback viscosity and increased light transmittance in single- and dual-microwave irradiated talipot starches showed their lowered retrogradation tendency, suitable for frozen foods. The resistant starch (RS) content was majorly improved in all heterogeneously dual modified talipot starches by incorporating more functional groups owed to structural and crystalline destruction in starch granules upon microwave irradiation. The highest RS content (45.02%) was observed in microwave irradiated esterified uncooked talipot starch.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Amido , Fenômenos Químicos , Amido Resistente , Solubilidade , Amido/química , Viscosidade
10.
Food Chem ; 389: 133107, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526287

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop novel gluten-free snacks from rice flour, cowpea and whey protein concentrate (WPC) enriched with bioactive and antioxidant properties. The effects of extrusion on bioactive compounds (sucrose-galactosyl oligosaccharides, insoluble dietary fibre, resistant starch, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitory activity), protein digestibility, amino acid composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant properties were evaluated by comparing raw formulations and extruded snacks. Rice flour (100%) was used as a control. Extrusion increased the oligosaccharides (2-3 fold) and resistant starch (1-3 fold), whereas the insoluble fibre content was not significantly affected. Extrusion increased in vitro protein digestibility (p < 0.05) and amino acid composition in snacks. Extruded and raw samples enriched with cowpea and WPC had an increase in total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Extrusion significantly reduced the TPC and antioxidant properties of extruded snacks compared to their raw counterparts. The results obtained in this study respond to the growing interest of the food industry to cater to consumer demand for healthy novel gluten-free expanded snacks with bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Oryza , Vigna , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Fenóis/análise , Amido Resistente , Lanches , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
11.
Plant Commun ; 3(3): 100329, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576157

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS), a healthy dietary fiber, is a particular type of starch that has attracted much research attention in recent years. RS has important roles in reducing glycemic index, postprandial blood glucose levels, and serum cholesterol levels, thereby improving and preventing many diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The formation of RS is influenced by intrinsic properties of starch (e.g., starch granule structure, starch crystal structure, and amylose-to-amylopectin ratio) and non-starch components (e.g., proteins, lipids, and sugars), as well as storage and processing conditions. Recent studies have revealed that several starch-synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) are crucial for the formation of RS during seed development. Several transcription factors and mRNA splicing factors have been shown to affect the expression or splicing of SSRGs that regulate RS content, suggesting their potential roles in RS formation. This review focuses mainly on recent research progress on the genetic regulation of RS content and discusses the emerging genetic and molecular mechanisms of RS formation in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amilopectina/química , Amilose/química , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Amido Resistente , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267318, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576192

RESUMO

The increase in consumer demand for high-quality food products has led to growth in the use of new technologies and ingredients. Resistant starch (RS) is a recently recognised source of fibre and has received much attention for its potential health benefits and functional properties. However, knowledge about the fate of RS in modulating complex intestinal communities, the microbial members involved in its degradation, enhancement of microbial metabolites, and its functional role in body physiology is still limited. For this purpose, the current study was designed to ratify the physiological and functional health benefits of enzymatically prepared resistant starch (EM-RSIII) from maize flour. To approve the beneficial health effects as prebiotic, EM-RSIII was supplemented in rat diets. After 21 days of the experiment, EM-RSIII fed rats showed a significant reduction in body weight gain, fecal pH, glycemic response, serum lipid profile, insulin level and reshaping gut microbiota, and enhancing short-chain fatty acid compared to control. The count of butyrate-producing and starch utilizing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus genus in rat's gut, elevated after the consumption of medium and high doses of EM-RSIII, while the E. coli completely suppressed in high EM-RSIII fed rats. Short-chain fatty acids precisely increased in feces of EM-RSIII feed rats. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the effect of butyrate on functional and physiological alteration on the body had been investigated during the current study. Conclusively, the present study demonstrated the unprecedented effect of utilising EM-RSIII as a diet on body physiology and redesigning gut microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Amido Resistente , Animais , Butiratos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Prebióticos/análise , Ratos , Amido/metabolismo
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0220221, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532355

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is a foodborne pathogen of concern because many isolates are multidrug-resistant (resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes) and metal tolerant. In this study, three in-feed additives were individually tested for their ability to reduce Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- shedding in swine: resistant potato starch (RPS), high amylose corn starch, and a fatty acid blend, compared with a standard control diet over 21 days. Only RPS-fed pigs exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding, different bacterial community compositions, and different cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles relative to control animals. Within the RPS treatment group, pigs shedding the least Salmonella tended to have greater cecal concentrations of butyrate, valerate, caproate, and succinate. Additionally, among RPS-fed pigs, several bacterial taxa (Prevotella_7, Olsenella, and Bifidobacterium, and others) exhibited negative relationships between their abundances of and the amount of Salmonella in the feces of their hosts. Many of these same taxa also had significant positive associations with cecal concentrations of butyrate, valerate, caproate, even though they are not known to produce these SCFAs. Together, these data suggest the RPS-associated reduction in Salmonella shedding may be dependent on the establishment of bacterial cross feeding interactions that result in the production of certain SCFAs. However, directly feeding a fatty acid mix did not replicate the effect. RPS supplementation could be an effective means to reduce multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine, provided appropriate bacterial communities are present in the gut. IMPORTANCE Prebiotics, such as resistant potato starch (RPS), are types of food that help to support beneficial bacteria and their activities in the intestines. Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is a foodborne pathogen that commonly resides in the intestines of pigs without disease, but can make humans sick if unintentionally consumed. Here we show that in Salmonella inoculated pigs, feeding them a diet containing RPS altered the colonization and activity of certain beneficial bacteria in a way that reduced the amount of Salmonella in their feces. Additionally, within those fed RPS, swine with higher abundance of these types of beneficial bacteria had less Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- in their feces. This work illustrates likely synergy between the prebiotic RPS and the presence of certain gut microorganisms to reduce the amount of Salmonella in the feces of pigs and therefore reduce the risk that humans will become ill with MDR Salmonella serovar I 4,[5],12:i:-.


Assuntos
Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella enterica , Solanum tuberosum , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Butiratos , Caproatos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes/microbiologia , Prebióticos , Amido Resistente , Salmonella , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Sorogrupo , Amido , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Valeratos
14.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565693

RESUMO

Dietary pulses, including dry beans, lentils, chickpeas, and dry peas, have the highest proportion of fiber among different legume cultivars and are inexpensive, easily accessible, and have a long shelf-life. The inclusion of pulses in regular dietary patterns is an easy and effective solution for achieving recommended fiber intake and maintaining a healthier gut and overall health. Dietary pulses-derived resistant starch (RS) is a relatively less explored prebiotic ingredient. Several in vitro and preclinical studies have elucidated the crucial role of RS in fostering and shaping the gut microbiota composition towards homeostasis thereby improving host metabolic health. However, in humans and aged animal models, the effect of only the cereals and tubers derived RS has been studied. In this context, this review collates literature pertaining to the beneficial effects of dietary pulses and their RS on gut microbiome-metabolome signatures in preclinical and clinical studies while contemplating their potential and prospects for better aging-associated gut health. In a nutshell, the incorporation of dietary pulses and their RS in diet fosters the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and significantly enhances the production of short-chain fatty acids in the colon.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Amido Resistente , Envelhecimento , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Amido/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566136

RESUMO

Accumulating attention has been focused on resistant starch (RS) due to its blood-lipid-lowering activities. However, reports on the potential bioactivities of RS for preventing hyperlipidemia acute pancreatitis (HLAP) are limited. Therefore, in this study, an acute pancreatitis model was set up by feeding a hyperlipidemia diet to rats, and subsequently evaluating the anti-HLAP effect of RS in kidney beans. The results show that the IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α of serum in each RS group were decreased by 18.67-50.00%, 7.92-22.89%, and 8.06-34.04%, respectively, compared with the model group (MOD). In addition, the mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1, occludin, and antibacterial peptides CRAMP and DEFB1 of rats in each RS group increased by 26.43-60.07%, 229.98-279.90%, 75.80-111.20%, and 77.86-109.07%, respectively. The height of the villi in the small intestine and the thickness of the muscle layer of rats were also increased, while the depth of the crypt decreased. The present study indicates that RS relieves intestinal inflammation, inhibits oxidative stress, and prevents related intestinal barrier damage. These results support the supplementation of RS as an effective nutritional intervention for HLAP and associated intestinal injury.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias , Pancreatite , Phaseolus , Doença Aguda , Animais , Defensinas/farmacologia , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite/etiologia , Ratos , Amido Resistente
16.
ISME J ; 16(8): 2040-2055, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597888

RESUMO

Dietary fibers are generally thought to benefit intestinal health. Their impacts on the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiome, however, vary greatly across individuals. Previous research showed that each individual's response to fibers depends on their baseline gut microbiome, but the ecology driving microbiota remodeling during fiber intake remained unclear. Here, we studied the long-term dynamics of the gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in isogenic mice with distinct microbiota baselines fed with the fermentable fiber inulin and resistant starch compared to the non-fermentable fiber cellulose. We found that inulin produced a generally rapid response followed by gradual stabilization to new equilibria, and those dynamics were baseline-dependent. We parameterized an ecology model from the time-series data, which revealed a group of bacteria whose growth significantly increased in response to inulin and whose baseline abundance and interspecies competition explained the baseline dependence of microbiome density and community composition dynamics. Fecal levels of SCFAs, such as propionate, were associated with the abundance of inulin responders, yet inter-individual variation of gut microbiome impeded the prediction of SCFAs by machine learning models. We showed that our methods and major findings were generalizable to dietary resistant starch. Finally, we analyzed time-series data of synthetic and natural human gut microbiome in response to dietary fiber and validated the inferred interspecies interactions in vitro. This study emphasizes the importance of ecological modeling to understand microbiome responses to dietary changes and the need for personalized interventions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Inulina , Camundongos , Amido Resistente
17.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 168(4)2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471195

RESUMO

Complex carbohydrates shape the gut microbiota, and the collective fermentation of resistant starch by gut microbes positively affects human health through enhanced butyrate production. The keystone species Ruminococcus bromii (Rb) is a specialist in degrading resistant starch; its degradation products are used by other bacteria including Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt). We analysed the metabolic and spatial relationships between Rb and Bt during potato starch degradation and found that Bt utilizes glucose that is released from Rb upon degradation of resistant potato starch and soluble potato amylopectin. Additionally, we found that Rb produces a halo of glucose around it when grown on solid media containing potato amylopectin and that Bt cells deficient for growth on potato amylopectin (∆sus Bt) can grow within the halo. Furthermore, when these ∆sus Bt cells grow within this glucose halo, they have an elongated cell morphology. This long-cell phenotype depends on the glucose concentration in the solid media: longer Bt cells are formed at higher glucose concentrations. Together, our results indicate that starch degradation by Rb cross-feeds other bacteria in the surrounding region by releasing glucose. Our results also elucidate the adaptive morphology of Bt cells under different nutrient and physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , Amilopectina , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron/metabolismo , Glucose , Amido Resistente , Ruminococcus , Amido/metabolismo
18.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 21(3): 2930-2955, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478262

RESUMO

Dietary fiber intakes in Western societies are concerningly low and do not reflect global recommended dietary fiber intakes for chronic disease prevention. Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable dietary fiber that has attracted research interest. As an isolated ingredient, its fine particle size, relatively bland flavor, and white appearance may offer an appealing fiber source to the Western palate, accustomed to highly refined, processed grains. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the current knowledge (classification, production methods, and characterization methods), health benefits, applications, and acceptability of RS. It further discusses the present market for commercially available RS ingredients and products containing ingredients high in RS. The literature currently highlights beneficial effects for dietary RS supplementation with respect to glucose metabolism, satiety, blood lipid profiles, and colonic health. An exploration of the market for commercial RS ingredients indicates a diverse range of products (from isolated RS2, RS3, and RS4) with numerous potential applications as partial or whole substitutes for traditional flour sources. They may increase the nutritional profile of a food product (e.g., by increasing the fiber content and lowering energy values) without significantly compromising its sensory and functional properties. Incorporating RS ingredients into staple food products (such as bread, pasta, and sweet baked goods) may thus offer an array of nutritional benefits to the consumer and a highly accessible functional ingredient to be greater exploited by the food industry.


Assuntos
Amido Resistente , Amido , Pão , Fibras na Dieta , Palato/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 387: 132895, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413551

RESUMO

Resistant starches (RS), which are considered as one of the dietary fibers, could exert widely beneficial impacts, reduce fat accumulation, show significant effects on regulating blood glucose metabolism and insulin levels, and have protective effects on the gut. Five types of RS have different responses to chronic disease by modulating gut microbiota. Short-chain fatty acids are the linkage between gut microbiota and RS, and RS could improve the metabolism of gut microbiota as well as increase the abundance of beneficial microbes in the gut. The composition of gut microbiota is associated with RS properties, which is reflected by the changes of butyrate-producing bacteria primarily influenced by consumption of RS with various fine structures and types of crystallinities. RS with different fine structures and properties is consumed to varying degrees by gut microbiota, which can be applied to produce functional foods for gut health in future.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Amido Resistente , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo
20.
Food Funct ; 13(9): 5135-5152, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416192

RESUMO

Chickpea starches were isolated from both untreated (UC-S) and conventionally cooked seeds (CC-S), and their multi-scale structural characteristics and in vivo physiological effects on controlling hyperlipidemia in high fat diet induced obese mice were compared with their corresponding resistant starch (RS) fractions obtained by an in vitro enzymatic isolation method (UC-RS and CC-RS). The degree of order/degree of double helix in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was in the following order: CC-RS > UC-RS > CC-S > UC-S, which was consistent with the trend observed for relative crystallinity and double helix contents monitored by X-ray diffractometer and solid-state 13C cross-polarization and magic angle spinning NMR analyses. The influence of different types of chickpea starch and their corresponding resistant starch fractions on regulating the serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, and histopathological changes in liver, colon and cecal tissues, and gene expressions associated with lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, as well as short-chain fatty acid metabolites in mice with high fat diet induced obesity was investigated. The results showed that the chickpea RS diet group exhibited overall better anti-hyperlipidemic and ameliorative effects than those of the starch group, and such effects were most pronounced in the CC-RS intervention group. After a six-week period of administration with chickpea starch and RS diets, mice in the UC-RS and CC-RS groups tended to have relatively significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of butyric acid in their fecal contents. The 16S rRNA sequencing results revealed that mice fed with CC-RS showed the greatest abundance of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus compared with the other groups.


Assuntos
Cicer , Amido Resistente , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Amido/química
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