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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078674

RESUMO

Traditionally, studies on learning have mainly focused on the acquisition and stabilization of only single movement tasks. In everyday life and in sports, however, several new skills often must be learned in parallel. The extent to which the similarity of the movements or the order in which they are learned influences success has only recently begun to attract increased interest. This study aimed to compare the effects of CI in random practice order (high CI) with differential learning (DL) in learning three volleyball skills in parallel. Thirty-two advanced beginners in volleyball (mean age = 24, SD = 2.7) voluntarily participated in the study. Within a pre-, post-, retention test design, an intervention of six weeks and one week retention phase, the effects of three practice protocols of a CI, DL, and control (CO) group were compared. Three different volleyball skills (underhand pass, overhand pass, and overhand serve) were trained with emphasis on accuracy. Results showed statistically significant higher rates of improvement in the acquisition and learning phases for the DL group compared to the CI and CO groups. The differences were associated with moderate to high effect sizes in all individual skills and in the combined skills. The findings show more agreement with DL than with CI theory.


Assuntos
Retenção Psicológica , Voleibol , Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora , Movimento
2.
Memory ; 30(9): 1087-1102, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35620853

RESUMO

The survival processing advantage is a mnemonic benefit resulting from processing items for their relevance to survival. One explanation of the survival processing advantage is the richness-of-encoding hypothesis: Survival processing enhances retention by generating ideas (elaborative and distinctive processing), increasing the number of retrieval cues. Without retrieval, encoding is futile. Hence, the present experiments varied retrieval conditions - via transfer appropriate processing (TAP) tasks - predicting that the survival processing advantage could be reversed. In Experiment 1a, reducing the transfer appropriateness of survival processing caused significantly lower recognition scores after survival processing than after processing of word associates. Experiment 1b replicated a survival processing advantage and found a survival processing disadvantage. In Experiment 2, survival processing was pitted against a gift desirability task and retrieval mode was varied. Survival processing yielded superior memory on a standard free recall test, but the survival processing advantage was eliminated when an unusual retrieval mode was encouraged. Results affirm the importance of context-dependent retrieval.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Retenção Psicológica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Memória , Reconhecimento Psicológico
3.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(9): 2782-2800, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274789

RESUMO

Scanning young children while they watch short, engaging, commercially-produced movies has emerged as a promising approach for increasing data retention and quality. Movie stimuli also evoke a richer variety of cognitive processes than traditional experiments, allowing the study of multiple aspects of brain development simultaneously. However, because these stimuli are uncontrolled, it is unclear how effectively distinct profiles of brain activity can be distinguished from the resulting data. Here we develop an approach for identifying multiple distinct subject-specific Regions of Interest (ssROIs) using fMRI data collected during movie-viewing. We focused on the test case of higher-level visual regions selective for faces, scenes, and objects. Adults (N = 13) were scanned while viewing a 5.6-min child-friendly movie, as well as a traditional localizer experiment with blocks of faces, scenes, and objects. We found that just 2.7 min of movie data could identify subject-specific face, scene, and object regions. While successful, movie-defined ssROIS still showed weaker domain selectivity than traditional ssROIs. Having validated our approach in adults, we then used the same methods on movie data collected from 3 to 12-year-old children (N = 122). Movie response timecourses in 3-year-old children's face, scene, and object regions were already significantly and specifically predicted by timecourses from the corresponding regions in adults. We also found evidence of continued developmental change, particularly in the face-selective posterior superior temporal sulcus. Taken together, our results reveal both early maturity and functional change in face, scene, and object regions, and more broadly highlight the promise of short, child-friendly movies for developmental cognitive neuroscience.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Filmes Cinematográficos , Retenção Psicológica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia
4.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 26: 100173, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303977

RESUMO

Spaced learning produces better learning performance than extended learning periods without or with little interruptions. This "spacing effect" exists on different time scales, ranging from seconds to months. We recently found large spacing effects with a hitherto rarely investigated 12-hours spacing interval. The present study tested for potentially larger learning effects in the temporal vicinity of 12 h and analyzed spacing effects separately for learning and forgetting. 102 participants learned 40 German-Japanese vocabulary pairs in separate conditions with 7.5 min and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 24-hours spacing intervals. Two final tests were executed after retention intervals of 24 h and 7 days. The 7.5-min spacing interval produced a steeper initial learning curve than all other spacing intervals. 24 h after the last learning unit, we found almost no forgetting in the 4-, 8- and 12-hours spacing conditions, but about 9.3% and 3.6% forgetting in the 7.5 min and 24 h spacing conditions. After 7 days, forgetting was in the range of 13% for all conditions between 4 and 24 h. The 7.5 min condition produced 34% forgetting. Our results indicate that spacing intervals in the range of 8 h ± 4 h provide high learning performance and can be easily integrated in our daily schedules.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Retenção Psicológica , Humanos , Vocabulário
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2285, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145138

RESUMO

Disrupting memory reconsolidation provides an opportunity to abruptly reduce the behavioural expression of fear memories with long-lasting effects. The success of a reconsolidation intervention is, however, not guaranteed as it strongly depends on the destabilization of the memory. Identifying the necessary conditions to trigger destabilization remains one of the critical challenges in the field. We aimed to replicate a study from our lab, showing that the occurrence of a prediction error (PE) during reactivation is necessary but not sufficient for destabilization. We tested the effectiveness of a reactivation procedure consisting of a single PE, compared to two control groups receiving no or multiple PEs. All participants received propranolol immediately after reactivation and were tested for fear retention 24 h later. In contrast to the original results, we found no evidence for a reconsolidation effect in the single PE group, but a straightforward interpretation of these results is complicated by the lack of differential fear retention in the control groups. Our results corroborate other failed reconsolidation studies and exemplify the complexity of experimentally investigating this process in humans. Thorough investigation of the interaction between learning and memory reactivation is essential to understand the inconsistencies in the literature and to improve reconsolidation interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Propranolol/farmacologia , Retenção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mem Cognit ; 50(1): 45-58, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997479

RESUMO

The reliability of eyewitness memory continues to be an area of concern, particularly in situations that involve conflicting sources of information (e.g., the misinformation effect; Loftus et al., 1978, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4[1], 19-31). To mitigate the negative effects of misinformation, researchers have examined the efficacy of warnings that highlight the unreliability of postevent information. However, warnings have proven less effective for highly accessible misinformation (Eakin et al., 2003, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29[5], 813-825). In the present study, we examined the effects of different types of warnings for low accessibility misinformation in a standard single test misinformation paradigm, and highly accessible misinformation in a repeated testing misinformation paradigm (Chan et al., 2009, Psychological Science, 20[1], 66-73). We modeled these warnings after Eakin et al. (2003) to include both general warnings and specific question-by-question warnings. We found that warnings were effective in both types of misinformation paradigms. Additionally, memory accuracy in situations where participants were exposed to misleading information was improved when specific and general warnings were combined. We argue that both retrieval blocking of low accessibility items and enhanced contextual discrimination account for these findings.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Retenção Psicológica , Comunicação , Humanos , Memória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Surgery ; 171(3): 577-583, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obtaining a clear Critical View of Safety helps prevent bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which can be improved with a structured Safe Critical View of Safety curriculum. We aimed to determine whether the improvement in obtaining Critical View of Safety postcurriculum is retained long-term. METHODS: A safe Critical View of Safety curriculum was previously implemented for all surgeons who perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a regional health system. Recordings of laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases were collected 1 year after completion of the curriculum, deidentified and randomly ordered, and then graded by 2 blinded expert surgeons using a 6-point Critical View of Safety assessment tool. RESULTS: A total of 12 surgeons with average experience of 17.9 ± 6.3 years in practice participated in the study. The majority (83%) had performed >700 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, and 4 surgeons (33%) reported 2 or more bile duct injuries in their career. Controlling for gallbladder pathology, Critical View of Safety scores improved from 1.7 ± 0.4 to 4.0 ± 0.4 (P < .001) immediately after completion of the curriculum. However, there was a small decrease in Critical View of Safety score after 1 year (3.2 ± 0.3 from 4.0 ± 0.4, P = .055), while still significantly higher compared to precurriculum (3.2 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.4, P < .001). Acute care surgeons had lower Critical View of Safety retention scores compared to general surgeons (1.8 ± 0.5 vs 3.3 ± 0.4, P = .01) and minimally invasive surgeons (1.8 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5, P < .01). CONCLUSION: A structured curriculum helped improve practicing surgeons' attainment of obtaining the Critical View of Safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, this improvement decreased after 1 year, suggesting some decay in knowledge retention over time. Therefore, continued educational interventions on Critical View of Safety and safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be needed to enhance long-term retention.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/educação , Currículo , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Retenção Psicológica , Segurança , Adulto , Ductos Biliares/lesões , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1450, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087146

RESUMO

The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) suppresses fear memory retention in mice. Although intracerebroventricular administration of CGRP alters the fear memory processes, making it a promising therapeutic strategy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), direct brain injection into patients is not practical. Therefore, we propose that intranasal application may be an effective way to deliver CGRP to the brain. This study tested whether CGRP nasal administration exerts the same effect as intracerebroventricular administration using C57BL6J mice. The amount of CGRP in the cerebrospinal fluid and hippocampus 30 min after nasal administration of CGRP was significantly higher when compared with saline. Intranasal CGRP also elicited photophobic behaviors similar to intracerebroventricular injection. Moreover, intranasal CGRP decreased fear memory retention but did not affect reactivation and extinction of fear memory. We found intranasal CGRP significantly increased the expression of protein kinase D (PKD), phosphorylated histone deacetylase 5 (p-HDAC5) and neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) in the hippocampus. CGRP-mediated impairment of fear memory and Npas4 expression increases were attenuated significantly by the CGRP receptor antagonist BIBN4096. Together, our data demonstrate that intranasal CGRP delivery activates the PKD/p-HDAC5/Npas4 pathway, decreases fear memory retention.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/administração & dosagem , Medo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Retenção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 185: 107532, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592470

RESUMO

While the effects of rewards on memory appear well documented, the effects of punishments remain uncertain. Based on neuroimaging data, this study tested the hypothesis that, as compared to a neutral condition, a context allowing successful punishment avoidance would enhance memory to a similar extent as rewards. In a fully within-subject and counter-balanced design, participants (n = 18) took part in 3 distinct learning sessions during which the delivery of performance-contingent monetary punishments and rewards was manipulated. Specifically, participants had to reach towards visual targets while compensating for a gradually introduced visual deviation. Accuracy at achieving targets was either punished (Hit: "+0$"; Miss: "-0.5$), rewarded (Hit: "+0.5$"; Miss: "-0$"), or associated with neutral binary feedback (Hit: "Hit"; Miss: "Miss"). Retention was assessed through reach aftereffects both immediately and 24 h after initial acquisition. The results disconfirmed the hypothesis by showing that the punishment and reward learning sessions both impaired retention as compared to the neutral session, suggesting that both types of incentives similarly impaired memory formation and consolidation. Two alternative but complementary interpretations are discussed. One interpretation is that the presence of punishments and rewards induced a negative learning context, which - based on neurobiological data - could have been sufficient to interfere with memory formation and consolidation. Another interpretation is that punishments and rewards emphasized the disrupting effects of target hits on implicit learning processes, therefore yielding retention impairments. Altogether, these results suggest that incentives can have counter-productive effects on memory.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Punição , Retenção Psicológica , Recompensa , Estimulação Acústica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Masculino , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Punição/psicologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550983

RESUMO

One important feature of episodic memory is that it contains fine-grained and vividly recollected details. How to improve and maintain detailed information over time has been one of the central issues in memory research. Previous studies have inconsistent findings on whether detailed memory is forgotten more rapidly than gist memory. In this study, we investigated to what extent different encoding tasks modulated forgetting of gist and detailed information. In three experiments, participants were presented pictures of common objects and were asked to name them (Experiment 1), describe the details about them (Experiment 2) or imagine scenes associated with them (Experiment 3). After intervals of 10 minutes, one day, one week and one month, gist and detailed memories of the pictures were tested and assessed using a remember/know/guess judgement. The results showed that after the naming task, gist and detailed memories were forgotten at a similar rate, but after the description and the imagination tasks, detailed memory was forgotten at a slower rate than gist memory. The forgetting rate of gist memory was the slowest after the naming task, while that of detailed memory was the slowest after the description task. In addition, when three experiments were compared, the naming task enhanced the contributions of recollection and familiarity for gist memory, while the description task enhanced the contribution of familiarity for detailed memory. These results reveal the importance of the encoding task in the forgetting of gist and detailed information, and suggest a possible way to maintain perceptual details of objects at longer intervals.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Julgamento/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
11.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 378-392, mayo-sept. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202561

RESUMO

El Retén Episódico (RE) está tomando un creciente papel central en las explicaciones sobre el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa. De hecho, los últimos estudios de Baddeley y sus colaboradores sitúan al RE en el corazón del sistema de memoria. Recientemente la discusión también atañe a si este componente de la memoria operativa presenta una naturaleza independiente respecto a los recursos del ejecutivo central. Algunos estudios muestran como en tareas automatizadas, la construcción y mantenimiento de elementos almacenados en el RE no requieren de recursos desde el ejecutivo central. El presente trabajo pretende analizar esta cuestión para lo que se toman diferentes variables y se ha diseñado un nuevo test para medir el EB. En este test de doble tarea, la tarea secundaria consiste en la lectura de textos sencillos que contienen palabras ocultas. Los resultados muestran como a pesar del aumento del procesamiento debido al incremento de la longitud de los textos, no se produce un aumento en la carga demandada por el ejecutivo central, ni en la creación de los agrupamientos de información ni en su mantenimiento. Es por ello, que pensamos que el RE bajo ciertas circunstancias es independiente del ejecutivo central


The Episodic Buffer (EB) is taking a growing central role in explanations regarding the functioning of working memory. In fact, in the most recent studies by Baddeley and his collaborators, the EB has situated itself at the core of this memory system. Recently, the discussion also concerns whether this component of working memory seems to demonstrate an independent nature with respect to central executive resourcing. Some studies show that in automatic tasks the creation and maintenance of elements stored in the episodic buffer do not require resources from the central executive. The current work attempts to evaluate this assumption for what different variables are taken and a new test has been developed to measure the EB. In this double task test, the processing task consists of reading short simple texts that contain missing words. The results show that further processing due to increasing the length of the texts does not correspond to higher load demands made on the central executive, nor in the creation of chunks or their maintenance. Thus, we think that the EB is under certain circumstances independent of the central executive


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Leitura , Fatores de Tempo , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445020

RESUMO

(1) Background: An age-related cognitive decline is commonly affecting the life of elderly with symptoms involved in progressive impairments to memory and learning. It has been proposed that probiotics could modulate age-related neurological disorders via the gut-brain axis. (2) Methods: To investigate the anti-aging effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum GKM3, both survival tests and cognitive experiments were conducted in the SAMP8 mice model. The six-month-old SAMP8 (n = 20 in each gender) were fed with probiotic GKM3 at a dosage of 5.1 × 109 and 1.0 × 109 cfu/ kg B.W./day until their natural death. Then, the life span was investigated. Three-month-old SAMP8 (n = 10 in each gender) were administered GKM3 for 14 weeks. Then, the behavior tests and oxidation parameters were recorded. (3) Results: GKM3 groups showed significantly increased latency in the passive avoidance test and time of successful avoidance in the active avoidance test. The TBARS and 8-OHdG from mice brains also showed a significant reduction in the groups treated with GKM3. In addition, lower accumulation of the amyloid-ß protein was found in SAMP8 mice brains with the supplement of GKM3. (4) Conclusions: These results indicated that L. plantarum GKM3 delayed the process of aging, alleviated age-related cognitive impairment, and reduced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Probióticos , Retenção Psicológica , Fatores Etários , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos
13.
Behav Brain Res ; 414: 113480, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302881

RESUMO

Learning complex motor skills is an essential process in our daily lives. Moreover, it is an important aspect for the development of therapeutic strategies that refer to rehabilitation processes since motor skills previously acquired can be transferred to similar tasks (motor skill transfer) or recovered without further practice after longer delays (motor skill retention). Different acrobatic exercise training (AE) protocols induce plastic changes in areas involved in motor control and improvement in motor performance. However, the plastic mechanisms involved in the retention of a complex motor skill, essential for motor learning, are not well described. Thus, our objective was to analyze the brain plasticity mechanisms involved in motor skill retention in AE . Motor behavior tests, and the expression of synaptophysin (SYP), synapsin-I (SYS), and early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) in brain areas involved in motor learning were evaluated. Young male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary (SED), AE, and AE with retention period (AER). AE was performed three times a week for 8 weeks, with 5 rounds in the circuit. After a fifteen-day retention interval, the AER animals was again exposed to the acrobatic circuit. Our results revealed motor performance improvement in the AE and AER groups. In the elevated beam test, the AER group presented a lower time and greater distance, suggesting retention period is important for optimizing motor learning consolidation. Moreover, AE promoted significant plastic changes in the expression of proteins in important areas involved in control and motor learning, some of which were maintained in the AER group. In summary, these data contribute to the understanding of neural mechanisms involved in motor learning in an animal model, and can be useful to the construction of therapeutics strategies that optimize motor learning in a rehabilitative context.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Sedentário
14.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 88: 136-139, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144879

RESUMO

Extensive work on movement-related beta oscillations (~13-30 Hz) over the sensorimotor areas in both humans and animals has demonstrated that sensorimotor beta power decreases during movement and transiently increases after movement. This beta power modulation has been interpreted as reflecting interactions between sensory and motor cortical areas with attenuation of sensory afferents during movement and their subsequent re-activation for internal models updating. More recent studies in neurologically normal subjects have demonstrated that this movement-related modulation as well as mean beta power at rest increase with practice and that previous motor learning enhances such increases. Conversely, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) do not show such practice-related increases. Interestingly, a 2-h inactivity period without sleep can restore beta power values to baseline in normal subjects. Based on these results and on those of biochemical and electrophysiological studies in animals, we expand the current interpretation of beta activity and propose that the practice-related increases of beta power over sensorimotor areas are local indices of energy used for engaging plasticity-related activity. This paper provides some preliminary evidence in this respect linking findings of biochemical and electrophysiological studies in both humans and animals. This novel interpretation may explain the high level of beta power at rest, the deficient modulation during movement as well as the decreased skill formation in PD as resulting from deficiency in energy consumption, availability and regulation that are altered in this disease.


Assuntos
Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Hipocinesia/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Prática Psicológica , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiopatologia , Humanos
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 83-88, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The European Resuscitation Council Newborn Life Support Course (ERC- NLS) aims at training healthcare professionals, involved in perinatal care, in order to intervene efficiently and promptly to assist transition or resuscitate neonates who require help at birth. However, limited data exists for the retention of the theoretical knowledge and practical skills provided by the course. This study aims to evaluate the degree of knowledge and skill retention 3 and 6 months after the ERC-NLS provider course. METHODS: This is a prospective study. Theoretical knowledge was evaluated using the ERC-approved NLS written test (50 True/False questions). Evaluation of technical skills included performance, on an Advanced Life Support neonatal maniquin (LAERDAL), of airway management, ventilation and support of circulation (21 detailed skills). The effect of certain factors on theoretical skill retention was also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen (n = 116) participants were initially recruited in the study (12 males and 104 females). Theoretical knowledge was evaluated in 113 participants (3 participants missed follow-up appointments) and technical skills in 80 participants. The mean score for theoretical knowledge was 86.24% ± 5.3, 80.88% ± 7.43 and 80.04% ± 7.04 at baseline, at 3 and 6 months, respectively. This difference was significant among the three time points (baseline vs 3 months: p < 0.001; baseline vs 6 months: p < 0.001; 3 month's vs 6 months: p = 0.034). Although gender did not have an effect, doctors and participants of higher education yielded higher score of success. Regarding technical skills, 9 skills showed a continuous decline of performance from baseline to 6 months, while no difference existed for 12 skills. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals after the NLS provider course retain satisfactory levels of theoretical knowledge and technical skills even at 6 months post-training, although, there is a decline compared to baseline. Further research is needed in order to establish the proper time and type of refreshment course in order to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/educação , Retenção Psicológica , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido/fisiologia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 31(7): 820-828, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944585

RESUMO

Background: Current training programs for complex pediatric minimal invasive surgery (MIS) are usually bulk training, consisting of 1- or 2-day courses. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bulk training versus interval training on the preservation of high-complex, low-volume MIS skills. Materials and Methods: Medical students, without prior surgical experience, were randomly assigned to either a bulk or interval training program for complex MIS (congenital diaphragmatic hernia [CDH] and esophageal atresia [EA] repair). Both groups trained for 5 hours; the bulk group twice within 3 days and the interval groups five times in 3 weeks. Skills retention was assessed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months posttraining, using a composite score (0%-100%) based on the objective parameters tracked by SurgTrac. Results: Seventeen students completed the training sessions (bulk n = 9, interval n = 8) and were assessed accordingly. Retention of the skills for EA repair was significantly better for the interval training group than for the bulk group at 6 weeks (P = .004). However, at 6 months, both groups scored significantly worse than after the training sessions for EA repair (bulk 60 versus 67, P = .176; interval 63 versus 74, P = .028) and CDH repair (bulk 32 versus 67, P = .018; interval 47 versus 62, P = .176). Conclusion: This pilot study suggests superior retention of complex pediatric MIS skills after interval training, during a longer period of time, than bulk training. However, after 6 months, both groups scored significantly worse than after their training, indicating the need for continuous training.


Assuntos
Esofagoplastia/educação , Herniorrafia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ensino , Adulto , Criança , Competência Clínica , Atresia Esofágica/cirurgia , Esofagoplastia/métodos , Esofagoplastia/psicologia , Feminino , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Herniorrafia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Retenção Psicológica
17.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 182: 107448, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915298

RESUMO

Recent research has demonstrated that individual differences in infant fear memory positively predict adulthood anxiety-like behavior and conditioned fear expression. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this relationship and the effect of environmental (e.g., social) influences on the stability of this relationship have not been explored. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in infant fear memory predict levels of endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2; a biomarker of fear/anxiety) in adulthood, and whether the mean memory retention of a rat's cagemates predicts conditioned fear expression and FGF2 in adulthood. We conditioned infant rats to associate a white noise with shock, and tested their memory of the association 1 week later. They were then weaned and randomly assigned to cage/cagemates. In adulthood, rats received weak context conditioning (i.e., a single shock) and were tested for fear of the context the following day. Rats were then euthanized and their brains extracted to measure levels of hippocampal FGF2 protein. Across 2 experiments, an individual rat's fear memory during infancy positively predicted their own fear expression in adulthood, but the mean memory retention of their cagemates did not predict fear expression. In contrast, the mean memory retention of a rat's cagemates during infancy negatively predicted hippocampal FGF2 protein in adulthood, but an individual rat's memory retention did not predict their own levels of FGF2. These data support the idea that variations in the fearfulness of a rat's cagemates predict individual differences on physiological measures in adulthood.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Meio Social , Animais , Memória/fisiologia , Ratos
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9327, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927251

RESUMO

Incentives can be used to increase motivation, leading to better learning and performance on skilled motor tasks. Prior work has shown that monetary punishments enhance on-line performance while equivalent monetary rewards enhance off-line skill retention. However, a large body of literature on loss aversion has shown that losses are treated as larger than equivalent gains. The divergence between the effects of punishments and reward on motor learning could be due to perceived differences in incentive value rather than valence per se. We test this hypothesis by manipulating incentive value and valence while participants trained to perform motor sequences. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that large reward enhanced on-line performance but impaired the ability to retain the level of performance achieved during training. However, we also found that on-line performance was better with reward than punishment and that the effect of increasing incentive value was more linear with reward (small, medium, large) while the effect of value was more binary with punishment (large vs not large). These results suggest that there are differential effects of punishment and reward on motor learning and that these effects of valence are unlikely to be driven by differences in the subjective magnitude of gains and losses.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Punição/psicologia , Retenção Psicológica , Recompensa , Humanos , Motivação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 35(5): 419-430, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in poststroke locomotor learning that is poorly understood and affects individual responses to rehabilitation interventions. Cognitive abilities relate to upper extremity motor learning in neurologically intact adults, but have not been studied in poststroke locomotor learning. OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationship between locomotor learning and retention and cognition after stroke. METHODS: Participants with chronic (>6 months) stroke participated in 3 testing sessions. During the first session, participants walked on a treadmill and learned a new walking pattern through visual feedback about their step length. During the second session, participants walked on a treadmill and 24-hour retention was assessed. Physical and cognitive tests, including the Fugl-Meyer-Lower Extremity (FM-LE), Fluid Cognition Composite Score (FCCS) from the NIH Toolbox -Cognition Battery, and Spatial Addition from the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV, were completed in the third session. Two sequential regression models were completed: one with learning and one with retention as the dependent variables. Age, physical impairment (ie, FM-LE), and cognitive measures (ie, FCCS and Spatial Addition) were the independent variables. RESULTS: Forty-nine and 34 participants were included in the learning and retention models, respectively. After accounting for age and FM-LE, cognitive measures explained a significant portion of variability in learning (R2 = 0.17, P = .008; overall model R2 = 0.31, P = .002) and retention (ΔR2 = 0.17, P = .023; overall model R2 = 0.44, P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive abilities appear to be an important factor for understanding locomotor learning and retention after stroke. This has significant implications for incorporating locomotor learning principles into the development of personalized rehabilitation interventions after stroke.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia
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