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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2213911119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322748

RESUMO

For sustained vision, photoactivated rhodopsin (Rho*) must undergo hydrolysis and release of all-trans-retinal, producing substrate for the visual cycle and apo-opsin available for regeneration with 11-cis-retinal. The kinetics of this hydrolysis has yet to be described for rhodopsin in its native membrane environment. We developed a method consisting of simultaneous denaturation and chromophore trapping by isopropanol/borohydride, followed by exhaustive protein digestion, complete extraction, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using our method, we tracked Rho* hydrolysis, the subsequent formation of N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine (N-ret-PE) adducts with the released all-trans-retinal, and the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. We found that hydrolysis occurred faster in native membranes than in detergent micelles typically used to study membrane proteins. The activation energy of the hydrolysis in native membranes was determined to be 17.7 ± 2.4 kcal/mol. Our data support the interpretation that metarhodopsin II, the signaling state of rhodopsin, is the primary species undergoing hydrolysis and release of its all-trans-retinal. In the absence of NADPH, free all-trans-retinal reacts with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), forming a substantial amount of N-ret-PE (∼40% of total all-trans-retinal at physiological pH), at a rate that is an order of magnitude faster than Rho* hydrolysis. However, N-ret-PE formation was highly attenuated by NADPH-dependent reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. Neither N-ret-PE formation nor all-trans-retinal reduction affected the rate of hydrolysis of Rho*. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the hydrolysis of Rho* and the release of all-trans-retinal and its reentry into the visual cycle, a process in which alteration can lead to severe retinopathies.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído , Rodopsina , Rodopsina/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/química , Vitamina A , Hidrólise , NADP
2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(40): 9539-9543, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201035

RESUMO

Microbial and animal rhodopsins possess retinal chromophores which capture light and normally photoisomerize from all-trans to 13-cis and from 11-cis to all-trans-retinal, respectively. Here, we show that a near-infrared light-absorbing enzymerhodopsin from Obelidium mucronatum (OmNeoR) contains the all-trans form in the dark but isomerizes into the 7-cis form upon illumination. The photoproduct (λmax = 372 nm; P372) possesses a deprotonated Schiff base, and the system exhibits a bistable nature. The photochemistry of OmNeoR was arrested at <270 K, indicating the presence of a potential barrier in the excited state. Formation of P372 is accompanied by protonation changes of protonated carboxylic acids and peptide backbone changes of an α-helix. Photoisomerization from the all-trans to 7-cis retinal conformation rarely occurs in any solvent and protein environments; thus, the present study reports on a novel photochemistry mediated by a microbial rhodopsin, leading from the all-trans to 7-cis form selectively.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído , Bases de Schiff , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Luz , Retinaldeído/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas , Bases de Schiff/química , Solventes
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0269437, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227868

RESUMO

The visual cycle refers to a series of biochemical reactions of retinoids in ocular tissues and supports the vision in vertebrates. The visual cycle regenerates visual pigments chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and eliminates its toxic byproducts from the retina, supporting visual function and retinal neuron survival. Unfortunately, during the visual cycle, when 11-cis-retinal is being regenerated in the retina, toxic byproducts, such as all-trans-retinal and bis-retinoid is N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), are produced, which are proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The primary biochemical defect in Stargardt disease (STGD1) is the accelerated synthesis of cytotoxic lipofuscin bisretinoids, such as A2E, in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to mutations in the ABCA4 gene. To prevent all-trans-retinal-and bisretinoid-mediated retinal degeneration, slowing down the retinoid flow by modulating the visual cycle with a small molecule has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy. The present study describes RPE65-61, a novel, non-retinoid compound, as an inhibitor of RPE65 (a key enzyme in the visual cycle), intended to modulate the excessive activity of the visual cycle to protect the retina from harm degenerative diseases. Our data demonstrated that (±)-RPE65-61 selectively inhibited retinoid isomerase activity of RPE65, with an IC50 of 80 nM. Furthermore, (±)-RPE65-61 inhibited RPE65 via an uncompetitive mechanism. Systemic administration of (±)-RPE65-61 in mice resulted in slower chromophore regeneration after light bleach, confirming in vivo target engagement and visual cycle modulation. Concomitant protection of the mouse retina from high-intensity light damage was also observed. Furthermore, RPE65-61 down-regulated the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway, decreased the inflammatory factor, and attenuated retinal apoptosis caused by light-induced retinal damage (LIRD), which led to the preservation of the retinal function. Taken together, (±)-RPE65-61 is a potent visual cycle modulator that may provide a neuroprotective therapeutic benefit for patients with STGD and AMD.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Degeneração Retiniana , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Interferons/metabolismo , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Pigmentos da Retina/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/farmacologia , Retinoides/metabolismo , Retinoides/farmacologia , cis-trans-Isomerases/genética , cis-trans-Isomerases/metabolismo
4.
Biophys J ; 121(21): 4109-4118, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181266

RESUMO

The rhodopsin mimic is a chemically synthetized complex with retinyl Schiff base (RSB) formed between protein and the retinal chromophore that can mimic the natural rhodopsin-like protein. The artificial rhodopsin mimic is more stable and designable than the natural protein and hence has wider uses in photon detection devices. The mimic structure RSB, like the case in the actual rhodopsin-like protein, undergoes isomerization and protonation throughout the photoreaction process. As a result, understanding the dynamics of the RSB in the photoreaction process is critical. In this study, the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of three mutants of the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II-based rhodopsin mimic at acidic environment were recorded, from which the related excited-state dynamics of the all-trans protonated RSB (AT-PRSB) were investigated. The transient fluorescence spectra measurements are used to validate some of the dynamic features. We find that the excited-state dynamics of AT-PRSB in three mutants share a similar pattern that differs significantly from the dynamics of 15-cis PRSB of the rhodopsin mimic in neutral solution. By comparing the dynamics across the three mutants, we discovered that the aromatic residues near the ß-ionone ring structure of the retinal may help stabilize the AT-PRSB and hence slow down its isomerization rate. The experimental results provide implications on designing a rhodopsin-like protein with significant infrared fluorescence, which can be particularly useful in the applications in biosensing or bioimaging in deeper tissues.


Assuntos
Rodopsina , Bases de Schiff , Rodopsina/química , Bases de Schiff/química , Isomerismo , Retina , Fótons , Retinaldeído/química
5.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 125, 2022 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress-caused damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) underlies the onset and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis sensitizes RPE cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, energy insufficiency and death. Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1 is important in regulating immune responses and cell survival. However, its roles in cell survival are not always consistent. Until now, the effects of SHP-1 on RPE dysfunction, especially mitochondrial homeostasis, remain to be elucidated. We sought to clarify the effects of SHP-1 in RPE cells in response to atRAL-induced oxidative stress and determine the regulatory mechanisms involved. METHODS: In the all trans retinal (atRAL)-induced oxidative stress model, we used the vector of lentivirus to knockdown the expression of SHP-1 in ARPE-19 cells. CCK-8 assay, Annexin V/PI staining and JC-1 staining were utilized to determine the cell viability, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. We also used immunoprecipitation to examine the ubiquitination modification of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and its interaction with SHP-1. The expression levels of mitochondrial marker, proteins related to mitochondrial biogenesis, and signaling molecules involved were examined by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: We found that SHP-1 knockdown predisposed RPE cells to apoptosis, aggravated mitochondrial damage, and repressed mitochondrial biogenesis after treatment with atRAL. Immunofluoresent staining and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that SHP-1 interacted with the endoplasmic reticulum-resident STING and suppressed K63-linked ubiquitination and activation of STING. Inhibition of STING with the specific antagonist H151 attenuated the effects of SHP-1 knockdown on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative damage. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway acted as the crucial downstream target of STING and was involved in the regulatory processes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SHP-1 knockdown potentiates STING overactivation and represses mitochondrial biogenesis and cell survival, at least in part by blocking the AMPK pathway in RPE cells. Therefore, restoring mitochondrial health by regulating SHP-1 in RPE cells may be a potential therapeutic strategy for degenerative retinal diseases including AMD.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular , Mitocôndrias , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Retinaldeído , Humanos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Anexina A5/metabolismo , Anexina A5/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Interferons/farmacologia , Degeneração Macular/genética , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Estresse Oxidativo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/farmacologia , Sincalida/metabolismo , Sincalida/farmacologia
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140676

RESUMO

Several pathogenic variants have been reported in the IMPG1 gene associated with the inherited retinal disorders vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). IMPG1 and its paralog IMPG2 encode for two proteoglycans, SPACR and SPACRCAN, respectively, which are the main components of the interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM), the extracellular matrix surrounding the photoreceptor cells. To determine the role of SPACR in the pathological mechanisms leading to RP and VMD, we generated a knockout mouse model lacking Impg1, the mouse ortholog. Impg1-deficient mice show abnormal accumulation of autofluorescent deposits visible by fundus imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and attenuated electroretinogram responses from 9 months of age. Furthermore, SD-OCT of Impg1-/- mice shows a degeneration of the photoreceptor layer, and transmission electron microscopy shows a disruption of the IPM and the retinal pigment epithelial cells. The decrease in the concentration of the chromophore 11-cis-retinal supports this loss of photoreceptors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of SPACR in maintaining photoreceptors. Impg1-/- mice provide a novel model for mechanistic investigations and the development of therapies for VMD and RP caused by IMPG1 pathogenic variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Proteínas do Olho , Proteoglicanas , Retinite Pigmentosa , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Camundongos , Células Fotorreceptoras/patologia , Proteoglicanas/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Pigmentos da Retina , Retinaldeído , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Distrofia Macular Viteliforme/genética
7.
Methods Enzymol ; 674: 405-445, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008015

RESUMO

Carotenoids constitute an essential dietary component of animals and other non-carotenogenic species which use these pigments in both their modified and unmodified forms. Animals utilize uncleaved carotenoids to mitigate light damage and oxidative stress and to signal fitness and health. Carotenoids also serve as precursors of apocarotenoids including retinol, and its retinoid metabolites, which carry out essential functions in animals by forming the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinaldehyde. Retinoids, such as all-trans-retinoic acid, can also act as ligands of nuclear hormone receptors. The fact that enzymes and biochemical pathways responsible for the metabolism of carotenoids in animals bear resemblance to the ones in plants and other carotenogenic species suggests an evolutionary relationship. We will explore some of the modes of transmission of carotenoid genes from carotenogenic species to metazoans. This apparent relationship has been successfully exploited in the past to identify and characterize new carotenoid and retinoid modifying enzymes. We will review approaches used to identify putative animal carotenoid enzymes, and we will describe methods used to functionally validate and analyze the biochemistry of carotenoid modifying enzymes encoded by animals.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Retinaldeído , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Retinoides/metabolismo
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(31): 5803-5809, 2022 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894868

RESUMO

Heliorhodopsins (HeR) are a new category of heptahelical transmembrane photoactive proteins with a covalently linked all-trans retinal. The protonated Schiff base (PSB) nitrogen in the retinal is stabilized by a negatively charged counterion. It is well-known that stronger or weaker electrostatic interactions with the counterion cause a significant spectral blue- or red-shift, respectively, in both microbial and animal rhodopsins. In HeR, however, while Glu107 acts as the counterion, mutations of this residue are not directly correlated with a spectral shift. A molecular dynamics analysis revealed that a water cluster pocket produces a microsolvation effect on the Schiff base, compensating to various extents the replacement of the native counterion. Using a combination of molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM), we study this microsolvation effect on the electronic absorption of the retinylidene Schiff base chromophore of HeR.


Assuntos
Rodopsinas Microbianas , Bases de Schiff , Animais , Retinaldeído/química , Rodopsina/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Bases de Schiff/química
9.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102266, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850308

RESUMO

Over 100 mutations in the rhodopsin gene have been linked to a spectrum of retinopathies that include retinitis pigmentosa and congenital stationary night blindness. Though most of these variants exhibit a loss of function, the molecular defects caused by these underlying mutations vary considerably. In this work, we utilize deep mutational scanning to quantitatively compare the plasma membrane expression of 123 known pathogenic rhodopsin variants in the presence and absence of the stabilizing cofactor 9-cis-retinal. We identify 69 retinopathy variants, including 20 previously uncharacterized variants, that exhibit diminished plasma membrane expression in HEK293T cells. Of these apparent class II variants, 67 exhibit a measurable increase in expression in the presence of 9-cis-retinal. However, the magnitude of the response to this molecule varies considerably across this spectrum of mutations. Evaluation of the observed shifts relative to thermodynamic estimates for the coupling between binding and folding suggests underlying differences in stability constrains the magnitude of their response to retinal. Nevertheless, estimates from computational modeling suggest that many of the least sensitive variants also directly compromise binding. Finally, we evaluate the functional properties of three previous uncharacterized, retinal-sensitive variants (ΔN73, S131P, and R135G) and show that two of these retain residual function in vitro. Together, our results provide a comprehensive experimental characterization of the proteostatic properties of retinopathy variants and their response to retinal.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias , Rodopsina , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Retinaldeído/farmacologia , Rodopsina/efeitos dos fármacos , Rodopsina/genética , Rodopsina/metabolismo
10.
Methods Enzymol ; 671: 421-433, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878988

RESUMO

Retinoid-binding proteins (RBPs) are a diverse category of proteins that have been most extensively characterized for their role in vertebrate development. Recent work has uncovered new functions of RBPs in invertebrates and plants. Here, we present a methodology for applying a fluorescent chemical probe to characterize RBP binding in plants. This reporter, called merocyanine aldehyde (MCA), fluoresces upon binding to RBPs and therefore enables in vivo investigations into their functions with high spatio-temporal resolution. MCA treatment is simple, fast, non-destructive, and does not require prior knowledge of the RBP encoding genes. Therefore, a major advantage of this methodology is that it can be performed in species that are not genetically tractable. Furthermore, many of the methods presented here apply to diverse species within and beyond the plant kingdom.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol , Benzopiranos , Indóis , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo
11.
Redox Biol ; 54: 102386, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809434

RESUMO

To facilitate the movement of retinoids through the visual cycle and to limit nonspecific chemical reaction, multiple mechanisms are utilized to handle these molecules when not contained within the binding pocket of opsin. Vitamin A aldehyde is sequestered by reversible Schiff base formation with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and subsequently undergoes NADPH-dependent reduction. Otherwise inefficient handling of retinaldehyde can lead to the formation of fluorescent di-retinal compounds within the outer segments of photoreceptor cells. These bisretinoid fluorophores initiate photooxidative processes having adverse consequences for retina. Various carrier proteins confer water solubility and maintain the 11-cis-retinoid configuration. Mechanisms for sequestration of retinoid include the formation of a reversible Schiff base between retinaldehyde and taurine (A1-taurine, A1T), the most abundant amino acid in photoreceptor cells. Here we have undertaken to examine the effects of taurine depletion using the transport inhibitors guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES) and ß-alanine. Oral treatment of BALB/cJ mice with ß-alanine reduced ocular A1T and the mice exhibited significantly lower scotopic and photopic a-wave amplitudes. As a secondary effect of retinal degeneration, A1T was not detected and taurine was significantly reduced in mice carrying a P23H opsin mutation. The thinning of ONL that is indicative of reduced photoreceptor cell viability in albino Abca4-/- mice was more pronounced in ß-alanine treated mice. Treatment of agouti and albino Abca4-/- mice with ß-alanine and GES was associated with reduced bisretinoid measured chromatographically. Consistent with a reduction in carbonyl scavenging activity by taurine, methylglyoxal-adducts were also increased in the presence of ß-alanine. Taken together these findings support the postulate that A1T serves as a reservoir of vitamin A aldehyde, with diminished A1T explaining reduced photoreceptor light-sensitivity, accentuated ONL thinning in Abca4-/- mice and attenuated bisretinoid formation.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído , Bases de Schiff , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Opsinas/análise , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/análise , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Retinoides/análise , Retinoides/química , Retinoides/metabolismo , Bases de Schiff/análise , Bases de Schiff/metabolismo , Taurina , beta-Alanina/metabolismo
12.
FASEB J ; 36(7): e22390, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665537

RESUMO

The daylight and color vision of diurnal vertebrates depends on cone photoreceptors. The capability of cones to operate and respond to changes in light brightness even under high illumination is attributed to their fast rate of recovery to the ground photosensitive state. This process requires the rapid replenishing of photoisomerized visual chromophore (11-cis-retinal) to regenerate cone visual pigments. Recently, several gene candidates have been proposed to contribute to the cone-specific retinoid metabolism, including acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2 (AWAT2, aka MFAT). Here, we evaluated the role of AWAT2 in the regeneration of visual chromophore by the phenotypic characterization of Awat2-/- mice. The global absence of AWAT2 enzymatic activity did not affect gross retinal morphology or the rate of visual chromophore regeneration by the canonical RPE65-dependent visual cycle. Analysis of Awat2 expression indicated the presence of the enzyme throughout the murine retina, including the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Müller cells. Electrophysiological recordings revealed reduced maximal rod and cone dark-adapted responses in AWAT2-deficient mice compared to control mice. While rod dark adaptation was not affected by the lack of AWAT2, M-cone dark adaptation both in isolated retina and in vivo was significantly suppressed. Altogether, these results indicate that while AWAT2 is not required for the normal operation of the canonical visual cycle, it is a functional component of the cone-specific visual chromophore regenerative pathway.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Retina/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/metabolismo
13.
Nanoscale ; 14(24): 8709-8726, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673987

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in the elderly worldwide, is typically characterized by elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and a chronic inflammatory state at the arterial plaques. Herein, pH-sensitive nanoparticles (HRRAP NPs) co-delivering all-trans retinal (ATR), an antioxidant linked to hyaluronic acid (HA) through a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond, and rapamycin (RAP), an anti-atherosclerotic drug loaded into the nanoparticle core, are developed for targeted combination therapy of atherosclerosis. In this way, HRRAP NPs might simultaneously reduce ROS levels via ATR antioxidant activity and reduce inflammation via the anti-inflammatory effect of RAP. In response to mildly acidic conditions mimicking the lesional inflammation in vitro, HRRAP NPs dissociated and both ATR and RAP were effectively released. The developed HRRAP NPs effectively inhibited pro-inflammatory macrophage proliferation, and displayed dose- and time-dependent specific internalization by different cellular models of atherosclerosis. Also, HRRAP NP combination therapy showed an efficient synergetic anti-atherosclerotic effect in vitro by effectively inhibiting the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in inflammatory cells. More importantly, HR NPs specifically accumulated in the atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, by active interaction with HA receptors overexpressed by different cells of the plaque. The treatment with HRRAP NPs remarkably inhibited the progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice which resulted in stable plaques with considerably smaller necrotic cores, lower matrix metalloproteinase-9, and decreased proliferation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Furthermore, HRRAP NPs attenuated RAP adverse effects and exhibited a good safety profile after long-term treatment in mice. Consequently, the developed pH-sensitive HRRAP NP represent a promising nanoplatform for atherosclerosis combination therapy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Nanopartículas , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Retinaldeído/uso terapêutico , Sirolimo/farmacologia
14.
J Physiol ; 600(21): 4603-4621, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35612091

RESUMO

The substantial time taken for regaining visual sensitivity (dark adaptation) following bleaching exposures has been investigated for over a century. Psychophysical studies yielded the classic biphasic curve representing recovery of cone-driven and rod-driven vision. The electroretinogram (ERG) permits direct assessment of recovery at the level of the retina (photoreceptors, bipolar cells), with the first report over 70 years ago. Over the last two decades, ERG studies of dark adaptation have generated insights into underlying physiological processes. After large bleaches, rod photoreceptor circulating current, estimated from the rod-isolated bright-flash ERG a-wave, takes 30 min to recover, indicating that products of bleaching, thought to be free opsin (unbound to 11-cis-retinal), continue to activate phototransduction, shutting off rod circulating current. In contrast, cone current, assessed with cone-driven bright-flash ERG a-waves, recovers within 100 ms following similar exposures, suggesting that free opsin is less able to shut off cone current. The cone-driven dim-flash a-wave can be used to track recovery of cone photopigment, showing regeneration is 'rate-limited' rather than first order. Recoveries of the dim-flash ERG b-wave are consistent also with rate-limited rod photopigment regeneration (where free opsin, desensitising the visual system as an 'equivalent background', is removed by rate-limited delivery of 11-cis-retinal). These findings agree with psychophysical and retinal densitometry studies, although there are unexplained points of divergence. Post-bleach ERG recovery has been explored in age-related macular degeneration and in trials of visual cycle inhibitors for retinal diseases. ERG tracking of dark adaptation may prove useful in future clinical contexts.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes , Retinaldeído , Humanos , Adaptação à Escuridão , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Eletrorretinografia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Opsinas
15.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(10): 3131-3148, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524799

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In many retinal pathological conditions, rod and cone degeneration differs. For example, the early-onset maculopathy Stargardts disease type 1 (STGD1) is typified by loss of cones while rods are often less affected. We wanted to examine whether there exist intrinsic membrane differences between rods and cones that might explain such features. METHODS: Abca4 mRNA and protein levels were quantified in rod- and cone-enriched samples from wild-type and Nrl-/- mice retinas; rod- and cone-enriched outer segments (ROS and COS respectively) were prepared from pig retinas, and total lipids were analyzed by flame ionization, chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemical staining of cone-rich rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei retinas was conducted, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography of lipid species in porcine ROS and COS was performed. RESULTS: Abca4 mRNA and Abca4 protein content was significantly higher (50-300%) in cone compared to rod-enriched samples. ROS and COS displayed dramatic differences in several lipids, including very long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3): ROS 20.6% DHA, COS 3.3% (p < 0.001). VLC-PUFAs (> 50 total carbons) were virtually absent from COS. COS were impoverished (> 6× less) in phosphatidylethanolamine compared to ROS. ELOVL4 ("ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids 4") antibody labelled Arvicanthis cones only very weakly compared to rods. Finally, there were large amounts (905 a.u.) of the bisretinoid A2PE in ROS, whereas it was much lower (121 a.u., ~ 7.5-fold less) in COS fractions. In contrast, COS contained fivefold higher amounts of all-trans-retinal dimer (115 a.u. compared to 22 a.u. in rods). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to rods, cones expressed higher levels of Abca4 mRNA and Abca4 protein, were highly impoverished in PUFA (especially DHA) and phosphatidylethanolamine, and contained significant amounts of all-trans-retinal dimer. Based on these and other data, we propose that in contrast to rods, cones are preferentially vulnerable to stress and may die through direct cellular toxicity in pathologies such as STGD1.


Assuntos
Fosfatidiletanolaminas , Degeneração Retiniana , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Murinae/genética , Murinae/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/análogos & derivados , Suínos
16.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 44(2): 201-215, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because they limit, even reverse, age-induced skin alterations, retinoids became a staple in cosmetology. However, their use can result in undesired secondary effects and there is a demand for natural sources of compounds with retinoid-like effects. A preliminary screening identified a Harungana madagascariensis plant extract (HME) as possibly inducing genes stimulated by retinol. We analysed its effect on gene and protein expression, comparing it to retinoids. METHODS: Gene expression was analysed by real-time qPCR on RNA from isolated fibroblasts subjected to retinol or the plant extract for 6, 48 or 96 h. Skin markers were quantified in fibroblasts cultured with retinol or extract containing medium, and UV-aged skin explants subjected to topical applications of creams containing retinol, retinaldehyde or HME. RESULTS: Real-time qPCR shows that the extract induced all RARs and RXRs, even RXRγ that was not induced by retinol. Eighty-eight per cent of the 25 early retinoid reaction genes induced by a concentration of retinol are induced by the extract. In fibroblasts, only the extract increased collagen III labelling, while collagen I and fibronectin labelling are increased by retinol and the extract, with higher levels for the extract. When topically applied to UV-aged skin explants, only the cream containing the HME led to increased labelling of CRABP1 in the epidermis. CRABP2 and Ki67 are induced by all three creams and no effect was detected on RXRs. In the dermisthe extract containing cream increased CRABP2, total collagen, procollagen I and collagen I while creams with retinol or retinaldehyde only affected some of these proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The HME induces an overall retinol-like gene induction profile in isolated fibroblasts and retinoid-like stimulation of protein synthesis in both isolated fibroblasts and photoaged skin explants.


OBJECTIFS: Limitant, voire inversant les altérations cutanées induites par l'âge, les rétinoïdes sont devenus incontournables en cosmétologie. Cependant, leur application topique peut entraîner des effets secondaires indésirables et il existe une demande pour des composés naturels ayant des effets similaires à ceux des rétinoïdes. Un screening préliminaire nous avait permis d'identifier un extrait de la plante Harungana madagascariensis (HME) comme pouvant induire des gènes stimulés par le rétinol. Nous avons donc analysé son effet sur l'expression de gènes et de protéines induits par les rétinoïdes et comparé les résultats à ceux obtenus en présence de rétinoïdes. MÉTHODES: L'expression de gènes a été analysée par qPCR en temps réel réalisée sur l'ARN de fibroblastes isolés soumis au rétinol ou à l'extrait végétal pendant 6, 48 ou 96 heures. Différentes protéines cutanées ont été quantifiés dans des fibroblastes cultivés en présence de rétinol ou d'un milieu contenant l'extrait. Des quantifications ont également été faites sur des explants de peau vieillie par les UV et soumis à des applications topiques de crèmes contenant du rétinol, du rétinaldéhyde ou le HME. RESULTATS: La qPCR en temps réel montre que l'extrait induit tous les gènes RARs et RXRs, même RXRγ qui n'était pas induit par le rétinol. Quatre-vingt-huit pour cent des 25 gènes impliqués dans la réaction précoce aux rétinoïdes induits par une concentration de rétinol ont été induits par l'extrait. Dans les fibroblastes, seul l'extrait a augmenté le marquage du collagène III, tandis que le marquage du collagène I et de la fibronectine a été augmenté par le rétinol et l'extrait, avec des niveaux plus élevés pour l'extrait. En application topique sur des explants de peau vieillie par les UV, seule la crème contenant le HME a entraîné une augmentation du marquage de CRABP1 dans l'épiderme. CRABP2 et Ki67 ont été induits par les trois crèmes et aucun effet n'a été détecté sur les RXRs. Dans le derme, la crème contenant l'extrait a augmenté CRABP2, le collagène total, le procollagène I et le collagène I, tandis que les crèmes contenant du rétinol ou du rétinaldéhyde n'ont affecté que certaines de ces protéines. CONCLUSIONS: Chez les fibroblastes isolés, le HME induit un profil d'induction génique globalement similaire à celui du rétinol. Chez les fibroblastes isolés et des explants de peau photo-vieillie, il entraine une stimulation de la synthèse protéique similaire à celle des rétinoïdes.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído , Vitamina A , Idoso , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/farmacologia , Retinoides/farmacologia , Pele , Regulação para Cima , Vitamina A/farmacologia
17.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159132

RESUMO

Retinoic acid (RA) functions as an essential signal for development of the vertebrate eye by controlling the transcriptional regulatory activity of RA receptors (RARs). During eye development, the optic vesicles and later the retina generate RA as a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol). Retinol is first converted to retinaldehyde by retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) and then to RA by all three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3). In early mouse embryos, RA diffuses to tissues throughout the optic placode, optic vesicle, and adjacent mesenchyme to stimulate folding of the optic vesicle to form the optic cup. RA later generated by the retina is needed for further morphogenesis of the optic cup and surrounding perioptic mesenchyme; loss of RA at this stage leads to microphthalmia and cornea plus eyelid defects. RA functions by binding to nuclear RARs at RA response elements (RAREs) that either activate or repress transcription of key genes. Binding of RA to RARs regulates recruitment of transcriptional coregulators such as nuclear receptor coactivator (NCOA) or nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR), which in turn control binding of the generic coactivator p300 or the generic corepressor PRC2. No genes have been identified as direct targets of RA signaling during eye development, so future studies need to focus on identifying such genes and their RAREs. Studies designed to learn how RA normally controls eye development in vivo will provide basic knowledge valuable for determining how developmental eye defects occur and for improving strategies to treat eye defects.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído , Tretinoína , Animais , Camundongos , Organogênese , Retina/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Vitamina A
18.
Nutrition ; 94: 111539, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An altered retinol metabolism might play a role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Tocopherols (TF) modulate metabolic pathways and have been proposed as a complementary treatment of obesity-induced metabolic alterations. Moreover, there is evidence suggesting that TF may modulate retinol metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the dietary supplementation of α- and γ-TF modulates the expression of hepatic retinaldehyde dehydrogenases, RALDH1, RALDH2, and RALDH3 (involved in retinol metabolism) and, lipogenic factors sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and cluster differentiation 36 (CD36) in an animal model of diet-induced NAFLD. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: a control diet (CD) group (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates); a CD + TF group (α-tocopherol: 0.7 mg·kg·d-1, γ-tocopherol: 3.5 mg·kg·d-1); a high-fat diet (HFD) group (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates); and a HFD + TF group (0.01 mL·g body weight·d-1), for 12 wk. General parameters (body-adipose tissue weight, glucose-triacylglyceride serum levels), liver steatosis (histology, liver triacylglycerides content), and hepatic RALDH1, RALDH2, RALDH3, SREBP-1c and CD36 (qPCR, quantitative polymerase chain reaction; IHQ, immunohistochemistry) were measured. RESULTS: TF supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased the presence of lipid vesicles (90%) and total lipid content (75%) and downregulated the expression of RALDH1, RALDH3, SREBP-1c, and CD36. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that α- and γ-TF (1:5 ratio) might play a role in modulating retinol metabolism in the prevention of NAFLD induced by a HFD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Retinaldeído , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/metabolismo
19.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101553, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973334

RESUMO

The breakdown of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) clearance is closely associated with photoreceptor cell death in dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and autosomal recessive Stargardt's disease (STGD1), but its mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that activation of gasdermin E (GSDME) but not gasdermin D promotes atRAL-induced photoreceptor damage by activating pyroptosis and aggravating apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent signaling pathway. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase was identified as one of the major causes of mitochondrial membrane rupture in atRAL-loaded photoreceptor cells, resulting in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol, where it stimulated caspase-3 activation required for cleavage of GSDME. Aggregation of the N-terminal fragment of GSDME in the mitochondria revealed that GSDME was likely to penetrate mitochondrial membranes in photoreceptor cells after atRAL exposure. ABC (subfamily A, member 4) and all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase 8 are two key proteins responsible for clearing atRAL in the retina. Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- mice exhibit serious defects in atRAL clearance upon light exposure and serve as an acute model for dry AMD and STGD1. We found that N-terminal fragment of GSDME was distinctly localized in the photoreceptor outer nuclear layer of light-exposed Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- mice. Of note, degeneration and caspase-3 activation in photoreceptors were significantly alleviated in Abca4-/-Rdh8-/-Gsdme-/- mice after exposure to light. The results of this study indicate that GSDME is a common causative factor of photoreceptor pyroptosis and apoptosis arising from atRAL overload, suggesting that repressing GSDME may represent a potential treatment of photoreceptor atrophy in dry AMD and STGD1.


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Retina , Retinaldeído , Doença de Stargardt , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/patologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Doença de Stargardt/metabolismo , Doença de Stargardt/patologia
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(4): 548-560, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508587

RESUMO

The retinal pigment epithelium of the vertebrate eyes acquires vitamin A from circulating retinol binding protein for chromophore biosynthesis. The chromophore covalently links with an opsin protein in the adjacent photoreceptors of the retina to form the bipartite visual pigment complexes. We here analyzed visual pigment biosynthesis in mice deficient for the retinol-binding protein receptor STRA6. We observed that chromophore content was decreased throughout the life cycle of these animals, indicating that lipoprotein-dependent delivery pathways for the vitamin cannot substitute for STRA6. Changes in the expression of photoreceptor marker genes, including a downregulation of the genes encoding rod and cone opsins, paralleled the decrease in ocular retinoid concentration in STRA6-deficient mice. Despite this adaptation, cone photoreceptors displayed absent or mislocalized opsins at all ages examined. Rod photoreceptors entrapped the available chromophore but exhibited significant amounts of chromophore-free opsins in the dark-adapted stage. Treatment of mice with pharmacological doses of vitamin A ameliorated the rod phenotype but did not restore visual pigment synthesis in cone photoreceptors of STRA6-deficient mice. The imbalance between chromophore and opsin concentrations of rod and cone photoreceptors was associated with an unfavorable retinal physiology, including diminished electrical responses of photoreceptors to light, and retinal degeneration during aging. Together, our study demonstrates that STRA6 is critical to adjust the stoichiometry of chromophore and opsins in rod and cone photoreceptors and to prevent pathologies associated with ocular vitamin A deprivation.


Assuntos
Opsinas dos Cones , Pigmentos da Retina , Animais , Opsinas dos Cones/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Opsinas/genética , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Pigmentos da Retina/metabolismo , Retinaldeído/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo
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