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1.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 193, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of individuals are living with multiple chronic conditions, often combined with psychosocial complexities. For these patients with complex conditions, an integrated primary care model that provides care coordination and a team-based approach can help manage their multiple needs. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are recognized as a critical enabler of integrated primary care. A better understanding of the use of ICTs in an integrated care setting and how ICTs are being leveraged would be beneficial to identify knowledge gaps and could lead to successful implementation for ICT-based interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study will systematically scope the literature on the topic of ICT-enabled integrated healthcare delivery models for patients with complex care needs to identify which technologies have been used in integrated primary care settings. METHOD: This study protocol outlines a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature, using Arksey and O'Malley's (enhanced by Levac et al.) scoping review methodology. Peer-reviewed literature will be identified using a multi-database search strategy. The results of the search will be screened, abstracted, and charted in duplicate by six research team members. DISCUSSION: The key findings of the study will be thematically analyzed to describe the implemented ICTs aimed for complex patients within the integrated primary care model. The finding will highlight what types of ICTs are being put in place to support these models, and how these ICTs are enabling care integration. This review will be the first step to formally identify how ICT is used to support integrated primary health care models. The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations, and special interest groups.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Tecnologia da Informação , Comunicação , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
2.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to identify the mhealth apps delivering early intervention to support parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aim to explore the concept, context and methodology of implementation that is, theoretical framework, feasibility, quality of evidence, for such apps. BACKGROUND: To improve outcomes for children with autism, early intervention has been found to be promising. Parental training, parent psychoeducation and parent-mediated intervention are regarded as the gold standard, to achieve early childhood development goals. Digital health technologies like tele-health, web-based services, have been used to deliver this at a reduced cost. There is little evidence about their use and efficacy in empowering parents of children with ASD. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The studies reporting the use of mhealth apps to support parents of children with ASD, in community settings, school settings, special schools, clinics, hospitals or child development centres. There will be no exclusion based on region, gender or sociocultural factors. The types of studies included will be quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study designs, case reports, grey literature, systematic reviews, clinical trials and studies reporting feasibility of digital mhealth applications. METHOD: Using the NICE Healthcare Databases Advanced Search, we will search the following databases: MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, EbscoHost, Sabinet, SAGE Journals, Directory of Open Access Journals, BioMed Central, Scopus, ScienceDirect. Furthermore, grey literature will be searched through Google Scholar, ShodhGanga, JSTOR, CORE, EBSCO, DOAJ, BASE. The searches will be limited to the age range of children between 2 and 6 years with ASD, and the date range is from the inception of the database to the current date. The terms for the ASD will be combined with terms for parent, early intervention and digital mhealth to identify eligible studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Telemedicina , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Humanos , Pais/educação , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Telemedicina/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273046, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the unprecedented nature of the COVID-19 crisis and the importance of early implementation of prevention programs, it is essential to understand better its potential impacts on various food security dimensions and indicators. METHODS: Research databases, including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Public Health Register, PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of science, and Google Scholar, will be searched using a search strategy and keywords developed in collaboration with librarians. The review will include all field and community trials and observational studies in all population groups. Searching electronic databases, study selection, and data extraction will be conducted by two researchers independently. Four critical appraisal tools will be used to assess the quality of included studies according to the study design: The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Prevalence Critical Appraisal tool, the JBI critical appraisal checklist for randomized control/pseudo-randomized trial, descriptive/case series, and comparable cohort/case-control. These tools were initially designed for use in systematic reviews. A narrative synthesis will be implemented to summarize findings if meta-analyses are not appropriate. DISCUSSION: The current systematic review results can be used to predict the effect of COVID-19 on the individuals' and households' food security, especially in vulnerable populations, and develop effective interventions. This review can provide information for policymakers to better understand the factors influencing the implementation of these interventions and inform decision-making to improve food security. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The present study registration number in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) is CRD42020185843.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061286, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is an important strategy to control antimicrobial resistance. Resources are available to provide guidance for design and implementation of AMS programmes, however these may have limited applicability in resource-limited settings including those in Asia. This scoping review aims to identify context-specific domains and items for the development of a healthcare facility (HCF)-level tool to guide AMS implementation in Asia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review is the first step in a larger project to assess AMS implementation, needs and gaps in Asia. We will employ a deductive qualitative approach to identify locally appropriate domains and items of AMS implementation guided by Nilsen and Bernhardsson's contextual dimensions. This process is also informed by discussions from a technical advisory group coordinated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop an AMS HCF-level assessment tool for low-income and middle-income countries. We will review English-language documents that discuss HCF-level implementation, including those describing frameworks, components/elements or recommendations for design, implementation or assessment globally and specific to Asia. We have performed the search in August-September 2021 including general electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar), region-specific databases, national action plans, grey literature sources and reference lists to identify eligible documents. Country-specific documents will be restricted to countries in three subregions: South Asia, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Codes and themes will be derived through a content analysis, classified following the predefined context dimensions and used for developing domains and items of the assessment tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results from this review will feed into our stepwise process for developing a context-specific HCF-level assessment tool for AMS programmes to assess the implementation status, identify intervention opportunities and monitor progress over time. The process will be done in consultation with local stakeholders, the end-users of the generated knowledge.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Ásia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Pobreza , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274135, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108083

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental disorders affect 1 in 5 children having consequences for both the child and their family. Indeed, the siblings of these children are not insulated from these consequences and may experience elevated levels of psychological distress, placing them at increased risk for developing mental disorders. This protocol describes the methodology for a scoping review that will examine how mental disorders in children impact the mental health of their sibling(s). Further, we aim to examine the role of sex, gender, birth order, age of each child, and familial factors (e.g., parent mental illness, family structure), in sibling mental health. The proposed review will also identify resources that aim to support the needs of siblings of children with mental disorders. Taken together, this proposed review aims to take a fundamental step towards determining intervention targets to reduce the transmission of risk between siblings. AIM: The proposed scoping review aims to address the following questions: i) how do mental disorders (in children <18 years of age) impact the mental health of their sibling(s) (also <18 years of age)? ii) Can we identify resources designed to address the needs of siblings of children with mental disorders? METHODS: We will conduct the proposed scoping review in keeping with the six-stage Arksey and O'Malley Framework and the scoping review methodology provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. In section i) we outline our research questions. In section ii) we describe our process for identifying studies that examine the mental health of siblings of a child with a mental disorder and studies that provide evidence on resources directed specifically at these siblings. We will search peer-review and grey literature published between 2011 and 2022 from OVID MEDLINE, OVID EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, Proquest Nursing and Allied Health, PsycINFO (via APA platform), Proquest Sociology Collection and Web of Science Core Collection and Proquest Theses and Dissertations. Section iii) describes our process for selecting relevant studies. In sections iv and v, we describe our methods for charting and summarizing relevant data. Finally, in section vi) we describe our integrative knowledge translation plan that aims to include knowledge users in interpretating and translating evidence gathered from the proposed review.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adolescente , Criança , Família , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Irmãos
6.
Implement Sci ; 17(1): 60, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing the rate of stillbirth is an international priority. At least half of babies stillborn in high-income countries are small for gestational-age (SGA). The Growth Assessment Protocol (GAP), a complex antenatal intervention that aims to increase the rate of antenatal detection of SGA, was evaluated in the DESiGN type 2 hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomised trial (n = 13 clusters). In this paper, we present the trial process evaluation. METHODS: A mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted. Clinical leads and frontline healthcare professionals were interviewed to inform understanding of context (implementing and standard care sites) and GAP implementation (implementing sites). Thematic analysis of interview text used the context and implementation of complex interventions framework to understand acceptability, feasibility, and the impact of context. A review of implementing cluster clinical guidelines, training and maternity records was conducted to assess fidelity, dose and reach. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 28 clinical leads and 27 frontline healthcare professionals across 11 sites. Staff at implementing sites generally found GAP to be acceptable but raised issues of feasibility, caused by conflicting demands on resource, and variable beliefs among clinical leaders regarding the intervention value. GAP was implemented with variable fidelity (concordance of local guidelines to GAP was high at two sites, moderate at two and low at one site), all sites achieved the target to train > 75% staff using face-to-face methods, but only one site trained > 75% staff using e-learning methods; a median of 84% (range 78-87%) of women were correctly risk stratified at the five implementing sites. Most sites achieved high scores for reach (median 94%, range 62-98% of women had a customised growth chart), but generally, low scores for dose (median 31%, range 8-53% of low-risk women and median 5%, range 0-17% of high-risk women) were monitored for SGA as recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of GAP was generally acceptable to staff but with issues of feasibility that are likely to have contributed to variation in implementation strength. Leadership and resourcing are fundamental to effective implementation of clinical service changes, even when such changes are well aligned to policy mandated service-change priorities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Primary registry and trial identifying number: ISRCTN 67698474. Registered 02/11/16. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN67698474 .


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Natimorto , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Feto , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
7.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2370-2377, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to map the global evidence on interventions aiming to enhance the patient experience during mammography examination. INTRODUCTION: Mammography is the examination of choice to detect breast cancer, which is the most common malignant condition among women globally. However, this examination can cause psychological distress, discomfort, and pain for patients. To limit these negative experiences, and to promote patient engagement in diagnostic and screening examinations, some interventions have been tested in clinical practice. Each intervention has key differing features that need to be explored in a scoping review. This mapping will help inform mammography professionals and researchers. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider studies that focus on women, men, transgender, nonbinary, or intersexual persons undergoing diagnostic or screening mammography. It will consider studies evaluating interventions and reporting data on the patient experience. These interventions may, for instance, be related to the information provided, breast compression, relaxation, medication, or physical environment. The review will also describe the outcomes related to patient experience (eg, anxiety, pain, discomfort). METHODS: The search strategy will aim to find published and unpublished studies and will be conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses. Furthermore, three registries will be searched for ongoing studies. This review will be conducted following JBI methodology, utilizing the three-step search strategy with two independent reviewers performing study selection and data extraction. The results, frequencies, and conceptual categories will be presented in a tabular and narrative summary. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework ( https://osf.io/fn865/ ).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamografia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
8.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2336-2343, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to map the current evidence about access to health and social services for women living on a low income in Canada. INTRODUCTION: Women, especially those living on a low income, are disproportionately likely to suffer inequities in access to health and social services. There is insufficient understanding of how the interaction of socioeconomic factors and gender can affect women's access to these services. This review will provide an initial picture of what exists in the literature about access to health and social services for women living on a low income in Canada. The results of this scoping review may be used to inform subsequent qualitative and quantitative reviews on this subject. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Literature addressing access to health and social services by women who are 18 years or older and living on a low income in Canada will be considered for inclusion. Health services will include health promotion and disease prevention; treatment of medical conditions; and rehabilitation, palliative, and end-of-life care. Social services are non-medical services designed to help members of a society who may need extra support or are considered to have social or behavioral risk factors. METHODS: We will search relevant electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO) and gray literature. The review will include all study designs, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods methodologies (excluding economic analyses or clinical practice guideline development documents). Two reviewers will test the screening criteria and data extraction protocol.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Assistência Terminal , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Serviço Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2387-2394, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to give an overview of the demographic, peri-, and postoperative factors that have been assessed for influence on self-perceived functioning at least 3 months after volar locking plate fixation of a distal radius fracture. INTRODUCTION: Most patients treated with a volar locking plate for a distal radius fracture recover within months after surgery; however, a subgroup of patients experience complications and slow recovery. A variety of demographic, peri-, and postoperative factors may influence self-perceived functioning. To facilitate functioning after surgery, supervised rehabilitation can be offered by a hand therapist. In the decision-making process about which patients to offer supervised rehabilitation, demographic, peri-, and postoperative factors may provide additional information, but no updated overview of explored factors has been found. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider all studies reporting on peri- and postoperative factors identified within 6 weeks after surgery, or demographic factors assessed for influence on self-perceived functioning experienced by patients at least 3 months after volar locking plate fixation of distal radius fractures. METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, SPORTSdiscus, and Web of Science will be searched for eligible studies. The review will consider peer-reviewed studies published after 2005 in English and Scandinavian languages. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection and data extraction. Following a content analysis of each identified factor, the factors will be mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components by using the ICF linking rules. An overview will be depicted graphically or in tabular format for different timepoints based on assessment of the self-perceived functioning.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Rádio , Placas Ósseas , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Humanos , Fraturas do Rádio/etiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
10.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(9): 2395-2407, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review is to describe how a public health approach to legal and illegal psychoactive substance use has been previously defined, and to identify its core values, concepts, activities, and goals. INTRODUCTION: Jurisdictions globally are increasingly endorsing a public health approach to addressing psychoactive substance use. However, there is currently no agreed definition of this approach, and this term has been applied inconsistently in the literature, policy, and practice. A critical first step toward advancing a public health approach to substance use is identifying and articulating its core components. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider all peer-reviewed and gray literature in English focused on conceptualizing, defining, or describing a public health approach to substance use. Our review does not place limitations on populations, psychoactive substance types, or other contextual factors. METHODS: We will search PROSPERO, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Scopus, as well as health and social science databases; websites of prominent nonprofit, civil society, and government agencies/organizations in public health and substance use fields; and reference lists of included articles. Two independent reviewers will screen titles/abstracts of peer-reviewed literature, and 1 reviewer will screen titles/abstracts of gray literature. Two independent reviewers will conduct the full-text screening. A data extraction sheet will be pilot tested through double extraction. Findings will be presented as a narrative summary supported by tables and diagrams and, if feasible, a conceptual framework for understanding and applying a public health approach to substance use. SCOPING REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework https://osf.io/sv25e.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Revisão por Pares , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
11.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 201, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community engagement (CE) has been increasingly implemented across health interventions, including for maternal and newborn health (MNH). This may take various forms, from participatory women's groups and community health committees to public advocacy days. While research suggests a positive influence of CE on MNH outcomes, such as mortality or care-seeking behaviour, there is a need for further evidence on the processes of CE in different settings in order to inform the future development and implementation of CE across programmes. Communication is an integral component of CE serving as a link between the programme and community. The aim of the realist review described in this protocol is to understand how, why, to what extent, and for whom CE contributes to intended and unintended outcomes in MNH programming, focusing on the communication components of CE. METHODS: Realist review methodology will be used to provide a causal understanding of what communication for CE interventions in MNH programming work, for whom, to what extent, why, and how. This will be done by developing and refining programme theories on communications for CE in MNH through a systematic review of the literature and engaging key experts for input and feedback. By extrapolating context-mechanism-outcome configurations, this review seeks to understand how certain contexts trigger or inhibit specific mechanisms and what outcomes this interaction generates when communication in CE interventions is used in MNH programming. DISCUSSION: A realist philosophy is well-suited to address the aims of this study because of the complex nature of CE. The review findings will be used to inform a realist evaluation case study of CE for an MNH programme in order to ascertain transferable findings that can inform and guide engagement activities in various settings. Findings will also be shared with stakeholders and experts involved in the consultative processes of the review (through workshops or policy briefs) in order to ensure the relevance of these findings to policy and practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022293564.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde do Lactente , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078280

RESUMO

Introduction: A deprivation index has become a more popular tool to rank levels of deprivation within different geographic areas. It is extensively used for monitoring health inequalities, evaluating health care services, developing and modifying health policies and programs, and allocating health resources equitably. Our objectives are (1) to explore the relevant literature to describe features of composite deprivation measures; (2) create a list and classification of original deprivation indices. We will develop the classification of indices to systematize knowledge and improve the functional utility of the information. Methods: Any original deprivation index mentioned in peer-reviewed or grey literature documents will be eligible for inclusion if it assesses deprivation at a population level and used in relation to health. The study area will be limited to the geographic areas of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Tables and a narrative summary will be used to describe features of deprivation indices. Diagrammatic form will be used to create the classification of deprivation indices. Discussion: Practically, the results of this study could facilitate finding a common language among researchers and specialists who create and use deprivation indices, thus helping the development and implementation of appropriate deprivation indices for different countries.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Austrália , Europa (Continente) , América do Norte , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274241, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084114

RESUMO

Hyperbaric pressure experiments have provided researchers with valuable insights into the effects of pressure changes, using various species as subjects. Notably, extensive work has been done to observe rodents subjected to hyperbaric pressure, with differing imaging modalities used as an analytical tool. Decompression puts subjects at a greater risk for injury, which often justifies conducting such experiments using animal models. Therefore, it is important to provide a broad view of previously utilized methods for decompression research to describe imaging tools available for researchers to conduct rodent decompression experiments, to prevent duplicate experimentation, and to identify significant gaps in the literature for future researchers. Through a scoping review of published literature, we will provide an overview of decompression bubble information collected from rodent experiments using various non-invasive methods of ultrasound for decompression bubble assessment. This review will adhere to methods outlined by the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Evidence Synthesis and be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Literature will be obtained from the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases. Extracted sources will first be sorted to a list for inclusion based on title and abstract. Two independent researchers will then conduct full-text screening to further refine included papers to those relevant to the scope. The final review manuscript will cover methods, data, and findings for each included publication relevant to non-invasive in vivo bubble imaging.


Assuntos
Pesquisadores , Roedores , Animais , Descompressão , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Relatório de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e062464, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are presently over four million people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the South African national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. However, some ART programmes are battling poor ART adherence emanating from patient-related factors, including their religious beliefs. In this paper, we outline a study protocol to understand the adherence behaviours of Pentecostal Christians living with HIV to ART and to develop guidelines that can be used to strengthen ART adherence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose an exploratory multimethod research design. In phase 1, a scoping review will be conducted. The data captured in this phase will be put into charting forms, analysed qualitatively, and then collated and summarised to hypothesise the relationship between religious beliefs and ART adherence. In phase 2, an explanatory qualitative approach will be used. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposefully selected religious leaders, Pentecostal Christians living with HIV who are not adhering to ART and healthcare workers delivering ART at selected healthcare facilities in the Milnerton subhealth district. The qualitative data obtained in this phase will be transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using the ATLAS.ti V.8 software program towards strengthening the hypothesised relationship between religious beliefs and ART adherence. In phase 3, intervention mapping and nominal group techniques will be applied with purposefully selected stakeholders to develop guidelines to strengthen ART adherence among PLHIV. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Phase 1 of the study will not require ethics approval. Ethics approval for phases 2 and 3 has been received from the University of the Western Cape Biomedical Research and Ethics Committee and the Western Cape Department of Health. Informed consent forms will be obtained from all participants at the different phases of the study. The study findings will be disseminated through publications in scientific journals, presentations at conferences and workshops aimed at improving ART adherence.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adesão à Medicação , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Religião , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , África do Sul
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274468, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious infectious disease that emerged in 2019. This disease is causing devastating health, socio-economic, and economic crises. More specifically COVID-19 is affecting both the quality and length of human life. The overall health impact of this disease is measured by the disability-adjusted life years which is the sum of the life years lost due to disability (the effect on the health quality) and the years life lost due to premature death (effect on the length of life). The purpose of this review is to summarise DALYs-based health impact publications and produce compiled and informative literature that can aid the health regulators to make evidence-based decisions on mitigating COVID-19. METHODS: The review will be conducted using the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. The DALYs-based original observational and cross-sectional studies will be collected for assessing the health impact of COVID-19. Both the life quality and length impacts of COVID-19 will be reviewed. The life quality impact of COVID-19 will be measured using the life years lost due to disability (pre-recovery illness, pre-death illness, and post-acute consequences), and its impact on the length of life will be measured with years of life lost due to premature death (shortening of life expectancy). The combined health impact of COVID-19 on the quality and length of life will be measured in disability-adjusted life years. DISCUSSION: The impacts of COVID-19 on the two health outcomes (quality and length of life) will indicate the level of COVID-19 health burden. The increase or decrease of COVID-19 health impact might be due to the sample size differences of different studies and the omission of years lost due to post-acute consequences in some studies. After having a summarized systematic review health decision-makers will apply an impact-based response to COVID-19. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Systematic review registration: This protocol is pre-registered in PROSPERO with the registration number CRD42022324931.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e065327, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) encounter a range of health and allied health providers and require specialised support to ensure health services are provided safely and effectively. Not all health professionals possess the knowledge or expertise required for the identification, assessment, referral and management of FASD. Accessible resources for understanding and managing FASD can help create awareness in health professionals and ensure patients receive the correct diagnosis and timely access to the necessary supports and services. The aim of this scoping review is to identify and analyse FASD resources for health professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive search of eight databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PubMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and Trip Medical Database) and nine grey literature databases (FASD Hub, NOFASD Australia, National Organisation for FASD, FASD United, HealthInfoNet, Proof Alliance, Child Family Community Australia, Foundation for Alcohol Research & Education and the Australian Department of Health websites) will be conducted using three search engines including PubMed, Ovid and Google advanced search (search dates: October 2021 to May 2022). Consultations will also be carried out with international and national experts in the diagnosis/management of FASD to obtain any additional relevant published or unpublished resources. Inclusion criteria were developed to guide the selection of resources that are publicly available, primarily focused on FASD and curated for health professionals for the identification, management or referral of FASD. Critical appraisal process will be executed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch & Evaluation II (AGREE II) tool to assess the quality of selected resources. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for the scoping review. Scoping review results will be presented at relevant national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Search results will be made available to ensure reproducibility and transparency.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/terapia , Literatura Cinzenta , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
17.
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(9): 871-880, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002144

RESUMO

PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Despite substantial advances in assisted reproductive techniques having been recently reported in cats, the use of these is limited and routine application is still far from being a reality in veterinary clinics. Nevertheless, there is an increasing demand from domestic cat breeders for artificial insemination (AI) techniques that are already commonly used in dogs. Where natural breeding is not possible in tom cats and queens of high breeding value, AI could offer a solution. Clinical challenges: AI in cats is more difficult than in other species - both in terms of semen collection/handling and oestrous cycle management given that ovulation must be induced. AIM: For practitioners wishing to perform AI in queens, there are challenges to overcome, and a good understanding of the techniques and procedures involved is pivotal. This review aims to contribute to improved knowledge by providing an overview of AI protocols, encompassing choice of breeding animals, procedures for semen collection, oestrus and ovulation induction, AI techniques and equipment. EQUIPMENT AND TECHNICAL SKILLS: Depending on the animals involved and the specific AI technique chosen, essential equipment may include an artificial vagina, electroejaculator, endoscope (sialendoscope, which can be fairly expensive) and special catheters for transcervical insemination. Other instrumentation and materials needed are typically readily available in a veterinary clinic. In general, no particular skills are needed to perform the procedures described in this review, with the exception of endoscopic transcervical catheterisation, where the ability to use an endoscope is required. EVIDENCE BASE: The information and advice/recommendations provided are based on specific feline research and reviews published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, animal reproduction textbooks, and presentations at national and international congresses. The authors also drew on their own clinical experience with regard to the choice of protocols and procedures presented in this review.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial , Indução da Ovulação , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Ovulação , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Vagina
18.
JBI Evid Synth ; 20(8): 2032-2039, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review will evaluate the effectiveness of microsurgical clipping versus endovascular treatment of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms in adults. INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture is a catastrophic event leading to significant neurological morbidity and mortality. The clinical outcomes of microsurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling have been reported in systematic reviews for other intracranial aneurysm locations, including middle cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery aneurysms. A systematic review is necessary to evaluate the functional, angiographic, and safety outcomes of endovascular management versus microsurgical clipping for treatment guidance. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients aged 18 years and over with a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm will be included. Patients may have intracranial aneurysms in other locations; however, they will only be included if a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm has occurred and only if that aneurysm has been treated. Interventions of interest are microsurgical clipping compared to endovascular treatment. METHODS: The following databases will be searched: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Experimental, quasi-experimental, and analytical observational studies will be considered. Studies in all languages will be included if they can be translated. Two independent reviewers will retrieve and assess relevant studies using JBI's standardized critical appraisal instruments. Extracted data will include Glasgow Outcome Scale/Modified Rankin Score, angiographic occlusion, aneurysm recurrence, intra-operative thromboembolic event rates, post-operative complications, and post-operative aneurysm recurrence rates. Studies will, where possible, be pooled using statistical meta-analysis. Outcomes assessed will include functional status, angiographic occlusion rates, incidence of aneurysm recurrence, and safety of treatment.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto , Embolização Terapêutica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Metanálise como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(31): e29293, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our main purpose is to evaluate the prevalence of stress among nursing students systematically. METHODS: Adhering to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, we carefully searched ten databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang, and China Biomedical Literature Service System, to collect cross-sectional studies on nursing students. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies. RESULTS: From 1397 studies, 27 cross-sectional studies were included, including 7116 subjects. Meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of low-level stress was 0.24% [95% CI (0.24% to 0.25%)], the prevalence of middle level stress was 0.35% [95% CI (0.35% to 0.35%)], and the prevalence of high-level stress was 0.10% [95% CI (0.10% to 0.10%)]. The results of subgroup analysis showed that stress levels are different in different genders, diagnostic criteria for stress, years of publication, and regions. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified the stress levels of nursing interns, which were mainly moderate. This result makes nursing administrators and nursing educators pay more attention to the mental health problems of nursing interns, which can actively take measures to promote the physical and mental health of nursing students, improve the quality of nursing students' practice, and further promote the development of the nursing profession.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Prevalência , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e062654, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies based on health claims data (HCD) have been increasingly adopted in medical research for their strengths in large sample size and abundant information, and the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) has been widely used in medical research across disciplines, including dementia. How the diagnostic codes are applied to define the diseases/conditions of interest is pivotal in HCD-related research, but the consensus on the issue that diagnostic codes most appropriately define dementias in the NHIRD is lacking. The objectives of this scoping review are (1) to investigate the relevant characteristics in the published reports targeting dementias based on the NHIRD, and (2) to address the diversity by a case study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review protocol follows the methodological framework of the Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer's Manual and the guidance of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. The review will be performed between 1 March and 31 December 2022 in five stages, including identifying the relevant studies, developing search strategies, individually screening and selecting evidence, collecting and extracting data, and summarising and reporting the results. The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, Airiti Library Academic Database, the National Health Insurance Administration's repository, and Taiwan Government Research Bulletin will be searched. We will perform narrative syntheses of the results to address research questions and will analyse the prevalence across the included individual studies as a case study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Our scoping review is a review of the published reports and ethical approval is not required. The results will provide a panorama of the dementia studies based on the NHIRD. We will disseminate our findings through peer-reviewed journals and conferences, and share with stakeholders by distributing the summaries in social media and emails.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Demência , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Revisão por Pares , Projetos de Pesquisa , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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