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1.
Zootaxa ; 4942(2): zootaxa.4942.2.6, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757068

RESUMO

Two new species of Metatarsonemus Attiah, 1970 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Tarsonemidae), M. badurkani Karmakar Mondal sp. nov. and M. shirishi Karmakar Mondal sp. nov., are described based on specimens collected from Ziziphus jujubae (Rhamnaceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae), Piper betle (Piperaceae) and Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) in West Bengal, India. A larval description of M. shirishi and a dichotomous key to the species of Metatarsonemus are provided.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Rhamnaceae , Ziziphus , Animais , Índia , Larva
2.
Chem Rec ; 21(4): 906-923, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656243

RESUMO

The cyclopeptide alkaloids are cyclic depsipeptides incorporating cyclophanes with polyamide units 13-, 14- and 15-membered macrocyclic systems. Although various pharmacological activities have been ascribed to cyclopeptide alkaloids from plants of the Rhamnacea family, these studies have been hampered by their low availability due to the lack of reasonable amounts distributed in nature. Therefore, novel and efficient synthetic approaches should be an important aim, which inspired us to examine how to diversely construct the unique structures of this type of natural products. In this account, several typical strategies are presented in terms of efficient, stereocontrolled and regioselective synthesis of cyclopeptide alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/síntese química , Alcaloides/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Conformação Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Rhamnaceae/química , Estereoisomerismo
3.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572099

RESUMO

Hovenia dulcis Thunberg is an herbal plant, belonging to the Rhamnaceae family, widespread in west Asia, USA, Australia and New Zealand, but still almost unknown in Western countries. H. dulcis has been described to possess several pharmacological properties, such as antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective, especially in the hangover treatment, validating its use as an herbal remedy in the Chinese Traditional Medicine. These biological properties are related to a variety of secondary metabolites synthesized by the different plant parts. Root, bark and leaves are rich of dammarane-type triterpene saponins; dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, 3,3',5',5,7-pentahydroflavone and dihydromyricetin are flavonoids isolated from the seeds; fruits contain mainly dihydroflavonols, such as dihydromyricetin (or ampelopsin) and hovenodulinol, and flavonols such as myricetin and gallocatechin; alkaloids were found in root, barks (frangulanin) and seeds (perlolyrin), and organic acids (vanillic and ferulic) in hot water extract from seeds. Finally, peduncles have plenty of polysaccharides which justify the use as a food supplement. The aim of this work is to review the whole scientific production, with special focus on the last decade, in order to update phytochemistry, biological activities, nutritional properties, toxicological aspect and regulatory classification of H. dulcis extracts for its use in the European Union.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhamnaceae/química , Animais , União Europeia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Toxicológicos
4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 158: 107085, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540078

RESUMO

AIM: Gondwanan biogeographic patterns include a combination of old vicariance events following the breakup of the supercontinent, and more recent long-distance dispersals across the southern landmasses. Floristic relationships between Australia and New Zealand have mostly been attributed to recent dispersal events rather than vicariance. We assessed the biogeographic history of Pomaderris (Rhamnaceae), which occurs in both Australia and New Zealand, by constructing a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny to infer (1) phylogenetic relationships and (2) the relative contributions of vicariance and dispersal events in the biogeographic history of the genus. LOCATION: Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Using hybrid capture and high throughput sequencing, we generated nuclear and plastid data sets to estimate phylogenetic relationships and fossil calibrated divergence time estimates for Pomaderris. BioGeoBEARS and biogeographical stochastic mapping (BSM) were used to assess the ancestral area of the genus and the relative contributions of vicariance vs dispersal, and the directionality of dispersal events. RESULTS: Our analyses indicate that Pomaderris originated in the Oligocene and had a widespread Australian distribution. Vicariance of western and eastern Australian clades coincides with the uplift of the Nullarbor Plain c. 14 Ma, followed by subsequent in-situ and within-biome diversification with little exchange across regions. A rapid radiation of southeastern Australian taxa beginning c. 10 Ma was the source for at least six independent long-distance dispersal events to New Zealand during the Pliocene-Pleistocene. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the importance of dispersal in explaining not only the current cross-Tasman distributions of Pomaderris, but for the New Zealand flora more broadly. The pattern of multiple independent long-distance dispersal events for Pomaderris, without significant radiation within New Zealand, is congruent with other lowland plant groups, suggesting that this biome has a different evolutionary history compared with the younger alpine flora of New Zealand, which exhibits extensive radiations often following single long distance dispersal events.


Assuntos
Rhamnaceae/classificação , Austrália , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plastídeos/genética , Rhamnaceae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(11): 4818-4828, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit juice is usually rich in monosaccharides and disaccharides. A reverse osmosis separation machine was used to remove monosaccharides and disaccharides from Hovenia dulcis fruit juice, leaving behind most of the bioactive substances in a low-sugar fruit juice (LSFJ), so as to provide a more effective treatment for diabetic patients. METHOD: This study was carried out with type 1 diabetes mellitus model induced with high dose of streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1 ), and oral administration of LSFJ for 4 weeks. RESULTS: LSFJ treatment led to significant gain in body weight and increased serum insulin level, insulin-like growth factor-1 level, blood urea nitrogen level, creatinine level, and hepatic glycogen level. Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine level, and glucose tolerance were also observably enhanced. Additional, LSFJ treatment significantly improved lipid metabolism, islet quality, and islet oxidative stress. The messenger RNA levels of glucose metabolism genes in the pancreas of diabetic rats decreased in the diabetes model group, whereas messenger RNA expression of these genes was significantly increased with LSFJ treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that LSFJ can improve symptoms associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The research also suggests new strategies for diabetes prevention and treatment. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Rhamnaceae/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rhamnaceae/química , Açúcares/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113514, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223115

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhamnella gilgitica Mansf. et Melch. (སེང་ལྡེང་།, RG) is a traditional Tibetan medicinal plant that is currently grown throughout Tibet. According to the theory of Tibetan medicine, RG is efficient for removing rheumatism, reducing swelling, and relieving pain. Hence, it has been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Tibet for many years. However, there are no previous reports on the anti-RA activities of ethyl acetate extract of RG (RGEA). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to explore the anti-RA effect and mechanism of RGEA on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CIA model was established in male Wister rats by intradermal injection of bovine type II collagen and Complete Freund's Adjuvant at the base of the tail and left sole, respectively. The rats were orally administered with RGEA (9.71, 19.43, or 38.85 mg/kg) for 23 days. The body weight, swelling volume, arthritis index score, thymus and spleen indices, and pathological changes were observed to evaluate the effect of RGEA on RA. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokines in serum, such as interleukin1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin6 (IL-6), interleukin17 (IL-17), interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleukin4 (IL-4), and interleukin10 (IL-10) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of RGEA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining was used to examine apoptosis. Finally, the protein and gene expression of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X (Bax), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Caspase3, janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), suppressor of cytokine signaling1 (SOCS1), and 3 (SOCS3) in synovial tissue were detected using immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: After the treatment with RGEA, the body weight of rats was restored, both the arthritis index and paw swelling were suppressed, and spleen and thymus indices were decreased. RGEA reduced the inflammatory cells and synovial hyperplasia in the synovial tissue of the knee joint, and suppressed bone erosion. Meanwhile, RGEA decreased the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, and INF-γ, while increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-10. TUNEL fluorescence apoptosis results confirmed that RGEA obviously promoted the apoptosis of synovial cells. Further studies showed that RGEA inhibited the proteins and mRNAs expression of JAK2 and STAT3 as well as increased the proteins and mRNAs expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. In addition, RGEA upregulated the expression of Bax and Caspase3, and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2. CONCLUSION: The anti-RA effectof RGEA might be related to the promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of inflammation, which regulated the JAK-STAT pathway.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/prevenção & controle , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Articulações/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhamnaceae , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Acetatos/química , Animais , Antirreumáticos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/enzimologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Articulações/enzimologia , Articulações/patologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar , Rhamnaceae/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Solventes/química , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/genética , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/metabolismo
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(5): 802-806, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990070

RESUMO

Colletia paradoxa (Spreng.) Esc. (Rhamnaceae, Colletieae) is a medicinal plant, threatened with extinction in Brazil, presenting great morphological variability. Our objective is to investigate the phytochemical components, antioxidant capacity and antimycobacterial activity of different morphotypes of C. paradoxa in different environments. For this, the crude extract of the leaves and branches of the individuals sampled was used. The elimination capacity of the free radicals was determined by the DPPH method, the antimycobacterial activity by the broth microdilution method and the phenolic content by the spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and by HPLC. The extracts of C. paradoxa and its morphotypes showed significant amounts of phenolic compounds, including quercetin, quercitrin and rutin, besides considerable antioxidant and antimycobacterial activity No connection was detected between the phytochemical composition and different morphotypes of C. paradoxa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Rhamnaceae/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Brasil , Cromatografia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(19): 3192-3203, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782674

RESUMO

3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl gouanogenin A (1), a new naturally occurring dammarane class of triterpene glucoside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Gouania longipetala along with six known secondary metabolites 2-7. Their structure was elucidated through spectroscopic data including 1 D- and 2 D-NMR. The compounds 1 and 6 showed significant antioxidant potential in DPPH radical scavenging assay. On the other hand, the compound 4 revealed potent inhibitory potential against the enzyme urease, while 1 and 3 were significantly active.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Rhamnaceae , Triterpenos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Rhamnaceae/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(3): 521-524, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305140

RESUMO

Investigations were performed on the determination of the main components in Berchemia lineata (L.) DC. (BL) and its metabolism with human liver microsomes (HLM). A total of 35 compounds were detected in BL extracts and 25 of them including 6 naphthopyrones, 10 flavonoids, 2 phenolic acids, 2 phenols, 4 fatty acids and 1 quinone were unambiguously or tentatively identified by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Among them, naphthopyrones were first identified in BL extracts and labelled in chromatography. In addition, the weak inhibitory effects of BL extracts (IC50=149.25 µg/mL) and rubrofusarin-6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1-6)-O-ß-D-glu-copyranside (the main component of BL extracts, M0; IC50=82.14 µM) on CYP3A4 were also proved using testosterone as specific probe drug. The main metabolic pathway of M0 by HLM was hydroxylation in its aglycone, the metabolite was tentatively identified as 10-hydroxy-rubrofusarin-6-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1-6)-O-ß-D-glucopyranside. Components characterisation and the metabolism with HLM could help the further development and application of BL.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Rhamnaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/química , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Testosterona/farmacocinética
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4792-4797, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164447

RESUMO

"Shengdeng" is a traditional Tibetan medicine, which has many synonyms. It is complex in origin and serious in mi-xing. In order to clarify the origin of "Shengdeng" and its medicinal use, this paper makes a textual research on the name, variety and efficacy of "Shengdeng" by consulting Tibetan medicine classics such as The Four Medical Trantras and Jingzhu Materia Medica, combined with modern literature of Tibetan medicine. It is clear that the synonyms, primitive species, mainstream varieties and functions of Tibetan medicine "Shengdeng". The collation and analysis of the literature shows that "Shengdeng" has effects of treating rheumatism, drying "Huangshui", detumescence and relieving pain, and is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Tibetan medicine. Its original varieties include 14 species of plants belonging to 6 families: Spicaceae, Rhamnaceae, Cephalotaxus, Leguminosae, Hematoxylaceae and Taxaceae. Combined with the collection of legal standards at all levels, the distribution of resources and the application of clinical prescriptions, it is considered that the mainstream species of "Shengdeng" are Rhamnella gilgitica, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Rhamnus parvifolia. As a substitute, Acacia catechu is also widely used in clinic. The literature review and variety textual research on Tibetan medicine "Shengdeng" is helpful to improve the safety, effectiveness and quality controllability of its clinical application, and provide scientific basis for its further standard setting, pharmacodynamics research, new drug development and so on.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Rhamnaceae , Dessecação , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana
11.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153001

RESUMO

The Chilean plants Discaria chacaye, Talguenea quinquenervia (Rhamnaceae), Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae), and Cryptocarya alba (Lauraceae) were evaluated against Codling moth: Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), which is one of the most widespread and destructive primary pests of Prunus (plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds), pear, walnuts, and chestnuts, among other. Four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (coclaurine, laurolitsine, boldine, and pukateine) were isolated from the above mentioned plant species and evaluated regarding their insecticidal activity against the codling moth and fruit fly. The results showed that these alkaloids possess acute and chronic insecticidal effects. The most relevant effect was observed at 10 µg/mL against D. melanogaster and at 50 µg/mL against C. pomonella, being the alteration of the feeding, deformations, failure in the displacement of the larvae in the feeding medium of D. melanogaster, and mortality visible effects. In addition, the docking results show that these type of alkaloids present a good interaction with octopamine and ecdysone receptor showing a possible action mechanism.


Assuntos
Benzilisoquinolinas , Inseticidas , Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhamnaceae/química , Animais , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Drosophila melanogaster , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20181382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174909

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to investigate the ultrastructural events that occur during pollen grains development, with emphasis in pollen grain wall and tapetum ontogeny in Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mucronata, Paliurus spina-christi (Paliureae) and Gouania ulmifolia (Gouanieae). Anthers at different developmental stages were processed according to classic techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Differences in the number of endothecium layers and in the number of tapetal cell nuclei were found. Tapetal cells present an anastomosing tubular network and large vesicles with fibrillar content in the cytoplasm. Pollen grain development and ontogeny of pollen grain wall are similar in the four species. The number of endothecium layers, the number of nuclei of the tapetal cells and tapetal cells ultrastructure of the four species support the phylogenetic relationships previously published for the Rhamnaceae family. Tapetal vesicles with fibrillar or polysaccharide content seem to be an exclusive characteristic of the tribes Paliureae and Gouanieae. Some ultrastructural characters of the pollen grain wall development are common to other species of Rhamnaceae, such as the primexine matrix present at the microspore mother cell stage, the aperture entirely built up during the tetrad stage, the thick and fibrillar intine, and the granular infractectum.


Assuntos
Rhamnaceae , Ziziphus , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia , Pólen
13.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867192

RESUMO

In a systematic field survey for plant-infecting viruses, leaf tissues were collected from trees showing virus-like symptoms in Brazil. After viral enrichment, total RNA was extracted and sequenced using the MiSeq platform (Illumina). Two nearly full-length picorna-like genomes of 9534 and 8158 nucleotides were found associated with Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae family). Based upon their genomic information, specific primers were synthetized and used in RT-PCR assays to identify plants hosting the viral sequences. The larger contig was tentatively named as Hovenia dulcis-associated virus 1 (HDaV1), and it exhibited low nucleotide and amino acid identities with Picornavirales species. The smaller contig was related to insect-associated members of the Dicistroviridae family but exhibited a distinct genome organization with three non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), and it was tentatively named as Hovenia dulcis-associated virus 2 (HDaV2). Phylogenetic analysis using the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) revealed that HDaV1 and HDaV2 clustered in distinct groups, and both viruses were tentatively assigned as new members of the order Picornavirales. HDaV2 was assigned as a novel species in the Dicistroviridae family. The 5' ends of both viruses are incomplete. In addition, a nucleotide composition analysis (NCA) revealed that HDaV1 and HDaV2 have similarities with invertebrate-infecting viruses, suggesting that the primary host(s) of these novel virus species remains to be discovered.


Assuntos
Dicistroviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , Brasil , Dicistroviridae/classificação , Dicistroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Rhamnaceae/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
14.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 30(5): 649-661, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482930

RESUMO

This study examined the laxative effects of hot-water extracts of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (HD), Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel (PM), and a 2:8 mixture of both (HP) in two chronic constipation models. For the loperamide-induced constipation model, animals were divided into an untreated group, negative control group (loperamide 4 mg/kg), positive control group (bisacodyl 4 mg/kg) group, and six treatment groups (HP 100 or 400, HD 50 or 100, and PM 100 or 400 mg/kg). For the lowfiber diet-induced constipation model, animals were divided into an untreated group (normal diet), negative control group (low-fiber diet), positive control group (Agio granule, 620 mg/kg), and the same treatment groups. Fecal number, weight, fecal water content, and intestinal transit ratio were higher in the groups treated with HP, HD, and PM than in the groups treated with loperamide or lowfiber diet. Thickness of colon mucosa and muscle layers were increased in the treated groups. Colon tension increased in the HP groups, and [Ca2+]i measurements using fura-2 as an indicator showed that HP inhibits ATP-mediated Ca2+ influx in IEC-18 cells. These results showed that the HP mixture has laxative activity by increased mucin secretion and inducing contractile activity and relaxation. It may be a useful therapeutic strategy for ameliorating in chronic constipation.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Laxantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/química , Rhamnaceae/química , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Loperamida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(24): 6715-6725, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450691

RESUMO

Brown adipocytes, which contain abundant mitochondria, use stored energy as fuel during a process named nonshivering thermogenesis. Thus, the pharmacological activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become a promising target for treating obesity. We investigated the effect of fruit of Hovenial dulcis Thunb. (FHD), a frequently used herbal treatment for liver diseases, on thermogenesis and its mechanism using primary cultured brown adipocytes and BAT of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Thermogenesis-related factors including UCP1 and PGC1α increased with FHD treatment. FHD also increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activation factors such as nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)1 and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex. Furthermore, FHD increased the intercellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) level and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity, which may be responsible for the activation of the thermogenic reaction. Overall, our results suggest that FHD can be a novel option for obesity treatment due to its thermogenic action through mitochondrial biogenesis and activation.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Rhamnaceae/química , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
16.
Zootaxa ; 4758(1): zootaxa.4758.1.11, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230163

RESUMO

Jujube Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae), known as "Ber" in India, is an evergreen thorny shrub with reddish-brown fruits, chiefly found in Southeast Asia (Reza 2014). Up to now three species of gall midges have been associated with jujube: Phyllodiplosis jujubae Grover Bakshi, and Silvestrina jujubae Chandra in India and Dasineura jujubifolia Jiao Bu in China (Grover Bakhshi 1978; Chandra 1988; Jiao et al. 2017). Between 2015 and 2018 during field trips by DV VRP to Singanallur lake area, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, one of us (DV) noticed and collected leaves of Z. jujuba containing small galls on the midrib region of leaves. In the laboratory the leaves were dissected, and causative agent identified as a gall midge. The adults were reared and identified as undescribed species of gall midge, here described and named Asphondylia singanallurensis Vasanthakumar Sharma. Type specimens were processed and mounted in Canada balsam as per the method in Kolesik et al. (2015). Holotype and paratypes were prepared and deposited in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India, WRC, Pune.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Rhamnaceae , Ziziphus , Animais , Frutas , Índia , Folhas de Planta
17.
Fitoterapia ; 143: 104587, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276033

RESUMO

Three novel bisflavonol derivatives, Hovenianins A-C, along with 12 known flavonoids were isolated and identified from the seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods (MS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and electronic circular dichroism experiments. Hovenianin A (1) was the first dimer of flavonol linked dihydroflavonol via the B rings at C-2' and C-2″'positions to be found in nature. While Hovenianins BC (2-3) were a pair of diastereoisomeric bis-dihydroflavonols firstly reported in the Hovenia genus. The in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytium virus (RSV) were evaluated by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. As a result, compounds 4, 5, and 10 displayed better antiviral effect against RSV A2 strains.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhamnaceae/química , Sementes/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , China , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(4)2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316316

RESUMO

Nitrogen-fixing Actinobacteria of the genus Frankia can be subdivided into four phylogenetically distinct clades; members of clusters one to three engage in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with actinorhizal plants. Mur enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacteria. The four Mur ligases, MurC, MurD, MurE, and MurF, catalyse the addition of a short polypeptide to UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid. Frankia strains of cluster-2 and cluster-3 contain two copies of murC, while the strains of cluster-1 and cluster-4 contain only one. Phylogenetically, the protein encoded by the murC gene shared only by cluster-2 and cluster-3, termed MurC1, groups with MurC proteins of other Actinobacteria. The protein encoded by the murC gene found in all Frankia strains, MurC2, shows a higher similarity to the MurC proteins of plants than of Actinobacteria. MurC2 could have been either acquired via horizontal gene transfer or via gene duplication and convergent evolution, while murC1 was subsequently lost in the cluster-1 and cluster-4 strains. In the nodules induced by the cluster-2 strains, the expression levels of murC2 were significantly higher than those of murC1. Thus, there is clear sequence divergence between both types of Frankia MurC, and Frankia murC1 is in the process of being replaced by murC2, indicating selection in favour of murC2. Nevertheless, protein modelling showed no major structural differences between the MurCs from any phylogenetic group examined.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Frankia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Família Multigênica , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Rhamnaceae/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Frankia/classificação , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Rhamnaceae/genética , Rhamnaceae/microbiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 98: 103744, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179280

RESUMO

Two natural products, compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from the root bark of Ziziphus abyssinica for the first time and were structurally elucidated as ß-amyrin and polpunonic acid, respectively. Both compounds were further subjected to an in vivo study in rats to evaluate their anti-arthritic potency. Compared to the arthritic control group, rats treated with different doses of 1 or 2 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) exhibited significantly higher total change in body weight as well as lower arthritic scores and total change in paw edema and erythema. Histopathological examinations of the hind paws of the rats further demonstrated the beneficial effects of both compounds as they significantly reversed cartilage erosion, subchondral cyst, and Weichselbaum's lacunae formation. Evidence of bone remodeling was also observed in all groups of rats treated with 1 or 2. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters were not significantly affected by treatment of 1 or 2. Taken together, the results from the present study suggest potential therapeutic benefit of ß-amyrin and polpunonic acid in rheumatoid arthritis and related inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Rhamnaceae/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Protoplasma ; 257(4): 1109-1121, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152721

RESUMO

Although the presence of scent was described for several species of Rhamnaceae, localization, morphology and structure of osmophores were unknown. We studied different species of the tribes Rhamneae (Rhamnoids clade), Pomaderreae, Colletieae, Paliureae (Ziziphoids clade) and the species Alphitonia excelsa (unknown tribe, Ziziphoids clade). We expect to have a better comprehension of these structures and provide information on which morphological and anatomical characters may support the phylogeny of the family. We localized the osmophores in the margins and top of the sepals using neutral red. Histochemical tests were made on transverse hand-cut sections of fresh sepals. Observations were made with stereoscopic and bright field microscopes, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Papillae were observed in the zones with positive reaction to reagents. Different kinds of hairs are present in the sepal epidermis besides papillae. Epidermal cells present a striate cuticle with canals and cavities. Druses are abundant in most species. The ultrastructure of epidermal and subepidermal cells shows high metabolic activity: there are vesicles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, plastids with lipids and starch. The vascularization is well developed and reaches the top of the sepal where the principal area of volatile components production is localized. The location and abundance of papillae are the most important traits that allow us recognize and characterize the osmophores in Rhamnaceae. There are no clear anatomical and morphological features exclusive of one clade or tribe. Therefore, in contrast to other sporophytic structures of this family, osmophores do not seem to have any systematic value.


Assuntos
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Rhamnaceae/anatomia & histologia , Rhamnaceae/ultraestrutura
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