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1.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(9): 1826-1840, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618290

RESUMO

Cold events had broadly affected the survival and geographic distribution of mangrove plants. Kandelia obovata, has an excellent cold tolerance as a true halophyte and widespread mangrove species. In this study, physiological characters and comparative proteomics of leaves of K. obovata were performed under cold treatment. The physiological analysis showed that K. obovata could alleviate its cold-stress injuries through increasing the levels of antioxidants, the activities of related enzymes, as well as osmotic regulation substances (proline). It was detected 184 differentially expressed protein spots, and of 129 (70.11%) spots were identified. These proteins have been involved in several pathways such as the stress and defense, photosynthesis and photorespiration, signal transduction, transcription factors, protein biosynthesis and degradation, molecular chaperones, ATP synthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and primary metabolisms. The protein post-translational modification may be a common phenomenon and plays a key role in cold-response process in K. obovata. According to our precious work, a schematic diagram was drawn for the resistance or adaptation strategy of mangrove plants under cold stress. This study provided valuable information to understand the mechanism of cold tolerance of K. obovata.


Assuntos
Rhizophoraceae , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Rhizophoraceae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641314

RESUMO

The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil and the increasing resistance developed by pathogenic bacteria to nearly all existing antibiotics should be taken as a wakeup call for the international authority as this represents a risk for global public health. The lack of antiviral drugs and effective antibiotics on the market triggers the need to search for safe therapeutics from medicinal plants to fight viral and microbial infections. In the present study, we investigated whether a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. (B. gymnorhiza) collected in Mauritius, possesses antimicrobial and antibiotic potentiating abilities and exerts anti-ZIKV activity at non-cytotoxic doses. Microorganisms Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 70603, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 25933, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and Candida albicans ATCC 26555 were used to evaluate the antimicrobial properties. Ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin antibiotics were used for assessing antibiotic potentiating activity. ZIKVMC-MR766NIID (ZIKVGFP) was used for assessing anti-ZIKV activity. In silico docking (Autodock 4) and ADME (SwissADME) analyses were performed on collected data. Antimicrobial results revealed that Bruguiera twig ethyl acetate (BTE) was the most potent extract inhibiting the growth of all nine microbes tested, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.19-0.39 mg/mL. BTE showed partial synergy effects against MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when applied in combination with streptomycin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. By using a recombinant ZIKV-expressing reporter GFP protein, we identified both Bruguiera root aqueous and Bruguiera fruit aqueous extracts as potent inhibitors of ZIKV infection in human epithelial A549 cells. The mechanisms by which such extracts prevented ZIKV infection are linked to the inability of the virus to bind to the host cell surface. In silico docking showed that ZIKV E protein, which is involved in cell receptor binding, could be a target for cryptochlorogenic acid, a chemical compound identified in B. gymnorhiza. From ADME results, cryptochlorogenic acid is predicted to be not orally bioavailable because it is too polar. Scientific data collected in this present work can open a new avenue for the development of potential inhibitors from B. gymnorhiza to fight ZIKV and microbial infections in the future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/química , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antivirais/química , Brasil , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Maurício , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteus mirabilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576037

RESUMO

Their high adaptability to difficult coastal conditions makes mangrove trees a valuable resource and an interesting model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying stress tolerance and adaptation of plants to the stressful environmental conditions. In this study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) for de novo assembling and characterizing the Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk leaf transcriptome. B. gymnorhiza is one of the most widely distributed mangrove species from the biggest family of mangroves; Rhizophoraceae. The de novo assembly was followed by functional annotations and identification of individual transcripts and gene families that are involved in abiotic stress response. We then compared the genome-wide expression profiles between two populations of B. gymnorhiza, growing under different levels of stress, in their natural habitats. One population living in high salinity environment, in the shore of the Pacific Ocean- Japan, and the other population living about one kilometre farther from the ocean, and next to the estuary of a river; in less saline and more brackish condition. Many genes involved in response to salt and osmotic stress, showed elevated expression levels in trees growing next to the ocean in high salinity condition. Validation of these genes may contribute to future salt-resistance research in mangroves and other woody plants. Furthermore, the sequences and transcriptome data provided in this study are valuable scientific resources for future comparative transcriptome research in plants growing under stressful conditions.


Assuntos
Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizophoraceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizophoraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Árvores
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17800, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493747

RESUMO

The Merbok Estuary comprises one of the largest remaining mangrove forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Its value is significant as it provides important services to local and global communities. It also offers a unique opportunity to study the structure and functioning of mangrove ecosystems. However, its biodiversity is still partially inventoried, limiting its research value. A recent checklist based on morphological examination, reported 138 fish species residing, frequenting or subject to entering the Merbok Estuary. In this work, we reassessed the fish diversity of the Merbok Estuary by DNA barcoding 350 specimens assignable to 134 species initially identified based on morphology. Our results consistently revealed the presence of 139 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). 123 of them are congruent with morphology-based species delimitation (one species = one MOTU). In two cases, two morphological species share the same MOTU (two species = one MOTU), while we unveiled cryptic diversity (i.e. COI-based genetic variability > 2%) within seven other species (one species = two MOTUs), calling for further taxonomic investigations. This study provides a comprehensive core-list of fish taxa in Merbok Estuary, demonstrating the advantages of combining morphological and molecular evidence to describe diverse but still poorly studied tropical fish communities. It also delivers a large DNA reference collection for brackish fishes occurring in this region which will facilitate further biodiversity-oriented research studies and management activities.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Peixes/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA/genética , Estuários , Peixes/genética , Biblioteca Gênica , Malásia , Padrões de Referência , Rhizophoraceae , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(10): 1633-1645, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333698

RESUMO

A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, brilliant yellow and non-spore forming, coccoid- or short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain KSK16Y-1T, was isolated from surface-sterilised leaf of Rhizophora stylosa collected from Shankou Mangrove Nature Reserve, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Genome of strain KSK16Y-1T is 4.93 Mb with 68.1% DNA G + C content and encoded 4359 predicted proteins, 4 rRNAs, 45 tRNAs and 4 ncRNA. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain KSK16Y-1T has 98.1%, 97.9% and 96.9% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Jiella aquimaris JCM 30119T, J. endophytica CBS5Q-3T and J. pacifica 40Bstr34T, respectively. Whole-genome comparisons between strain KSK16Y-1T and J. aquimaris 22II-16-19i, J. endophytica CBS5Q-3T, J. pacifica 40Bstr34T, using average nucleotide identity (ANI) values (< 82.0%) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values (< 25.1%), confirmed low genome relatedness. Strain KSK16Y-1T grew at 20-30 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and with 0-10% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-2%). Cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major fatty acid was C18:1ω7c. The polar lipid profile consists of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown aminophospholipid and four unidentified lipids. The predominant respiratory quinone is ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The polyphasic characterization indicated that strain KSK16Y-1T represents a novel Jiella species. The name Jiella mangrovi sp. nov., type strain KSK16Y-1T (= CGMCC 1.18745T = JCM 34332T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Rhizophoraceae , Alphaproteobacteria , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443439

RESUMO

Ten polyketide derivatives (1-10), including a new natural product named (E)-2,4-dihydroxy-3-methyl-6-(2-oxopent-3-en-1-yl) benzaldehyde (1), and five known diketopiperazines (11-15), were isolated from the mangrove-sediment-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. SCSIO41407. The structures of 1-15 were determined via NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. In a variety of bioactivity screening, 3 showed weak cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line, and 2 exhibited weak antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Compounds 3, 5, and 6 showed inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with IC50 values of 23.9, 39.9, and 18.6 µM. Compounds 11, 12, and 14 exhibited obvious inhibitory activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) with IC50 values of 19.2, 20.9, and 8.7 µM, and they also suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages cells (BMMCs), with the concentration of 5 µM. In silico molecular docking with AChE and NF-κB p65 protein were also performed to understand the inhibitory activities, and 1, 11-14 showed obvious protein/ligand-binding effects to the NF-κB p65 protein.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicetopiperazinas/farmacologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/química , Células A549 , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Dicetopiperazinas/química , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Policetídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ligante RANK/farmacologia
7.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117589, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426385

RESUMO

Plant leaf cuticles play a critical role in the accumulation and transport of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The relationship between the distribution and retained amount of PAHs on the leaf cuticles and the leaves micro-zone structures is still unclear. In this study, a confocal microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis (CMFSA) system with a spatial resolution of 200 nm was established as a direct and noninvasive means to determine the microscopic distribution and quantify the retained amount of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac), Kandelia obovata (Ko) and Avicennia marina (Am) leaf cuticle micro-zones (0.096 mm2). The linear ranges for the established method were 10-1900 ng spot-1 for Ac, 15-1700 ng spot-1 for Ko and 30-1800 ng spot-1 for Am, and the detection limits were 0.06 ng spot-1 for Ac, 0.06 ng spot-1 for Ko and 0.07 ng spot-1 for Am. Notably, B[a]P formed clusters and unevenly distributed at the leaf cuticles. On the adaxial cuticles, B[a]P was mainly accumulated unevenly along the epidermis cell wall, and it was also distinctively distributed in the secretory cells around salt glands for Ac and Am. On the abaxial leaf cuticles, B[a]P was concentrated in the salt glands and stomata apart from being unevenly distributed in the epidermis cell wall. Moreover, the amount of B[a]P retained presented a negative correlation with the polarity of leaf cuticles, which resulted in the amount of B[a]P retained on the adaxial leaf cuticles being significantly higher than that on abaxial leaf cuticles. Our results provide a potential in situ method for investigating the distribution and retained amount of PAHs at plant leaf surface micro-zones, which would contribute to further studying and understanding the mechanism of migration and transformation of PAHs by plant leaves from a microscopic perspective.


Assuntos
Avicennia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rhizophoraceae , Benzo(a)pireno , Folhas de Planta
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214025

RESUMO

A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain R1DC9T, was isolated from sediments of a mangrove stand on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia via diffusion chamber cultivation. Strain R1DC9T grew at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 8) and 3-11 % NaCl (optimum, 7-9 %) in the cultivation medium. The genome of R1DC9T was 4 661 901 bp long and featured a G+C content of 63.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-genome multilocus sequence analysis using 120 concatenated single-copy genes revealed that R1DC9T represents a distinct lineage in the order Cytophagales and the phylum Bacteroidetes separated from the Roseivirgaceae and Marivirgaceae families. R1DC9T displayed 90 and 89 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identities with Marivirga sericea DSM 4125T and Roseivirga ehrenbergii KMM 6017T, respectively. The predominant quinone was MK7. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were the saturated branch chain fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0, along with a low percentage of the monounsaturated fatty acid C16 : 1 ω5c. Based on differences in phenotypic, physiological and biochemical characteristics from known relatives, and the results of phylogenetic analyses, R1DC9T (=KCTC 72349T=JCM 33609T=NCCB 100698T) is proposed to represent a novel species in a new genus, and the name Mangrovivirga cuniculi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The distinct phylogenetic lineage among the families in the order Cytophagales indicates that R1DC9T represents a new family for which the name Mangrovivirgaceae fam. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rhizophoraceae , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Oceano Índico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Arábia Saudita , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149213, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311375

RESUMO

Spartina alterniflora invasion has initiated one of the greatest changes to occur in coastal wetlands in China, and ecological replacement using mangrove species such as Kandelia obovata is an effective method for controlling these invasions. The effects of S. alterniflora invasions and subsequent K. obovata restorations on soil microbial community structures in different seasons are still not fully understood. In this study, soil samples were collected from six vegetation types (unvegetated mudflat, invasive S. alterniflora stands, one-/eight-/ten-year K. obovata restoration areas, and native mature K. obovata forests) in summer and winter. The variations in the soil microbial community structure between the vegetation types across two seasons were then characterized based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the physicochemical properties that shaped the microbial communities were also determined. The invasion and restoration processes significantly influenced microbial community diversity, composition, and putative functions in different seasonal patterns. Microbial communities from a ten-year restoration area and a native mature K. obovata area shared more similarities than other areas. In both seasons, the key environmental factors driving microbial community included total carbon and nitrogen content, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, and the soil pH. In addition, total sulfur and total phosphorus contents significantly contributed to structuring microbial communities in summer and winter, respectively. This study provides insights into microbial diversity, composition, and functional profiles in association with physicochemical impacts, with the aim of understanding microbial ecological functions during the invasion and restoration processes in wetland ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rhizophoraceae , China , Espécies Introduzidas , Poaceae , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estações do Ano , Solo , Áreas Alagadas
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 341, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restoration through planting is the dominant strategy to conserve mangrove ecosystems. However, many of the plantations fail to survive. Site and seeding selection matters for planting. The process of afforestation, where individuals were planted in a novel environment, is essentially human-controlled transplanting events. Trying to deepen and expand the understanding of the effects of transplanting on plants, we have performed a seven-year-long reciprocal transplant experiment on Kandelia obovata along a latitudinal gradient. RESULTS: Combined phenotypic analyses and next-generation sequencing, we found phenotypic discrepancies among individuals from different populations in the common garden and genetic differentiation among populations. The central population with abundant genetic diversity and high phenotypic plasticity had a wide plantable range. But its biomass was reduced after being transferred to other latitudes. The suppressed expression of lignin biosynthesis genes revealed by RNA-seq was responsible for the biomass reduction. Moreover, using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we observed modification of DNA methylation in MADS-box genes that involved in the regulation of flowering time, which might contribute to the adaptation to new environments. CONCLUSIONS: Taking advantage of classical ecological experiments as well as multi-omics analyses, our work observed morphology differences and genetic differentiation among different populations of K. obovata, offering scientific advice for the development of restoration strategy with long-term efficacy, also explored phenotypic, transcript, and epigenetic responses of plants to transplanting events between latitudes.


Assuntos
Rhizophoraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizophoraceae/genética , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Plantas , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Lignanas/biossíntese , Fenótipo , Filogeografia , RNA-Seq
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148157, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091327

RESUMO

Ultragravity waves with a period of <1 s are often ignored in coastal engineering because they have little effect on coastal structures. In this study, we demonstrate that even though the height of short-period waves is small, the waves cause young mangroves to oscillate greatly. Indoor and onsite mangrove growth tests, oscillation tests, wave experiments, and theoretical analyses were conducted on a mangrove species (Kandelia obovata) to determine the oscillatory characteristics of young mangroves when exposed to small waves. Natural period of oscillation of the young mangrove shoots was less than 0.5 s. Their resonance occurred when the wave period was a multiple of the natural period of oscillation of the mangrove shoots. Because of resonance, the horizontal acceleration of the mangrove leaves was calculated to reach twice the acceleration of gravity. If these waves act for a long time, young leaves can fall. A test performed on a mangrove forest in Amami Island in Japan revealed that although the mangrove heights grew rapidly, their stem thickness did not change substantially. Thus, the young mangroves need to gain rigidity in a short period to withstand short-period waves. To increase the survival rate of the young mangroves, short-period waves, whose period is close to the natural period of oscillation of the mangrove stems, could be avoided by installing a small breakwater. However, stem oscillations may positively affect leaf photosynthesis because small waves have the same effect as a gentle breeze and can promote the growth of young mangroves. Therefore, further studies on ultragravity waves and the growth of young mangroves are required.


Assuntos
Rhizophoraceae , Japão , Folhas de Planta , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(7): e2100229, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085751

RESUMO

Marine derived fungus has gained increasing ground in the discovery of novel lead compounds with potent biological activities including anti-inflammation. Here, we first report the characterization of one new sorbicillinoid (1) and fourteen known compounds (2-15) from the ethyl acetate (AcOEt) extract of a cultured mangrove derived fungus Penicillium sp. DM815 by UV, IR, HR ESI-Q-TOF MS, and NMR spectra. We then evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of eleven sorbicillinoids (1-11) using cultured macrophage RAW264.7 cells. The results show that compound 9, and to a lesser degree compound 5, significantly inhibited the Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Consistently, compounds 5 and 9 significantly reduced the level of nitric oxide (NO), the product of iNOS, induced by LPS. We further show that these two compounds dose-dependently inhibited LPS-triggered iNOS expression and NO production, but had no effect on proliferation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of LPS. In conclusion, our study identifies novel and known sorbicillinoids as potent anti-inflammatory agents, holding the promise of developing novel anti-inflammation treatment in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Penicillium/química , Rhizophoraceae/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133568

RESUMO

Littoraria angulifera (Lamarck, 1822) is an estuarine gastropod of tropical occurrence, which lives mainly on trunks of mangrove tree species. This study aimed to evaluate the population attributes of this species, such as abundance, space-time distribution, sex ratio and recruitment in mangroves in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected monthly throughout 2018, on trunks of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle L. at two heights and on two horizontal levels. Specimens that were on the marine grass Spartina alterniflora Loisel were also collected. After counting, biometrics and sexing, the specimens were returned alive to the environment. The average size and weight of L. angulifera was higher (p<0.05) in places with taller and less sparse trees and the vertical distribution on the trunks showed a preference for strata close to the soil. Both results are related to shading and protection against desiccation. Females were more abundant than males, at an approximate sex ratio F: M of 1.4: 1. Recruits were observed throughout the period, showing continuous reproduction of the species with a recruitment peak in spring (September to November). The study revealed the importance of keep the mangroves intact to allow the maintenance of the natural stocks of the species.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Rhizophoraceae , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Árvores
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999795

RESUMO

We isolated a novel strain, R1DC25T, described as Kaustia mangrovi gen. nov. sp. nov. from the sediments of a mangrove forest on the coast of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. This isolate is a moderately halophilic, aerobic/facultatively anaerobic Gram-stain-negative bacterium showing optimum growth at between 30 and 40 °C, at a pH of 8.5 and with 3-5 % NaCl. The genome of R1DC25T comprises a circular chromosome that is 4 630 536 bp in length, with a DNA G+C content of 67.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole-genome multilocus sequence analysis of 120 concatenated single-copy genes revealed that R1DC25T represents a distinct lineage within the family Parvibaculaceae in the order Rhizobiales within the class Alphaproteobacteria. R1DC25T showing 95.8, 95.3 and 94.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Rhodoligotrophos appendicifer, Rhodoligotrophos jinshengii and Rhodoligotrophos defluvii, respectively. The predominant quinone was Q-10, and the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, as well as several distinct aminolipids and lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, a combination of C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c and C16 : 0. On the basis of the differences in the phenotypic, physiological and biochemical characteristics from its known relatives and the results of our phylogenetic analyses, R1DC25T (=KCTC 72348T;=JCM 33619T;=NCCB 100699T) is proposed to represent a novel species in a novel genus, and we propose the name Kaustia mangrovi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Kaustia, subjective name derived from the abbreviation KAUST for King Abdullah University of Science and Technology; mangrovi, of a mangrove).


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Rhizophoraceae/microbiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Oceano Índico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química
15.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 513, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953329

RESUMO

The occurrence of natural root grafts, the union of roots of the same or different trees, is common and shared across tree species. However, their significance for forest ecology remains little understood. While early research suggested negative effects of root grafting with the risk of pathogen transmission, recent evidence supports the hypothesis that it is an adaptive strategy that reduces stress by facilitating resource exchange. Here, by analysing mangrove root graft networks in a non-destructive way at stand level, we show further evidence of cooperation-associated benefits of root grafting. Grafted trees were found to dominate the upper canopy of the forest, and as the probability of grafting and the frequency of grafted groups increased with a higher environmental stress, the mean number of trees within grafted groups decreased. While trees do not actively 'choose' neighbours to graft to, our findings point to the existence of underlying mechanisms that regulate 'optimal group size' selection related to resource use within cooperating networks. This work calls for further studies to better understand tree interactions (i.e. network hydraulic redistribution) and their consequences for individual tree and forest stand resilience.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhizophoraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 2079-2083, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982523

RESUMO

Nine secondary metabolites(S)-5-hydroxy-4-methylchroman-2-one(1), 4-methoxynaphthalene-1,5-diol(2), 8-methoxynaphthalene-1,7-diol(3), 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene(4),(2R,4S)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol(5),(2R,4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-5-ol(6), 7-O-α-D-ribosyl-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-chromen-4-one(7),(R)-3-methoxyl-1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-butan-1-one(8) and helicascolide A(9) were isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. JJM22 by using column chromatographies of silica gel and ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data, especially NMR and MS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by examining the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide(NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 2-4 showed inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Rhizophoraceae , Animais , Benzopiranos , Cladosporium , Fungos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular
17.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(8): 1672-1679, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864552

RESUMO

Mangrove reconstruction is an efficient approach for mangrove conservation and restoration. The present study aimed to explore the effects of mangrove reconstruction on sediment properties and bacterial community. The results showed that mangrove restoration greatly promoted sediment fertility, whereas the improvements were more obvious induced by Kandelia obovata when compared to Avicennia marina. In all the samples, the dominant top5 bacterial group were Proteobacteria (48.31-54.52%), Planctomycetes (5.98-8.48%), Bacteroidetes (4.49-11.14%) and Acidobacteria (5.69-8.16%). As for the differences among the groups, the relative abundance of Chloroflexi was higher in the sediments of K. obovata, while Bacteroidetes was more abundant in A. marina group. Furthermore, the two bacterial genera (Rhodoplanes and Novosphingobium) were more dominant in the sediments of K. obovata, while the sediments of A. marina contained higher abundance of Vibrio and Marinobacterium. Besides, bacterial community was highly correlated with mangrove species and sediment property and nutrient status. The results of this study would provide a better understanding of the ecological benefits of mangroves and highlighted the information on biogeochemical processes driven by mangrove restoration and microorganisms.


Assuntos
Avicennia , Rhizophoraceae , Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806398

RESUMO

Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam is a mangrove plant that spread in many parts of the world. Though mangrove plant polyphenols have been reported to exhibit many biological activities, little is known about mangrove plant tannins. To explore the application value of tannins from B. gymnorhiza, analyses on the structure and biological activity of condensed tannins (CTs) from Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam were carried out. The results from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) and reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) showed that the CTs were dominated by procyanidins, with a small quantity of prodelphinidins and propelargonidins; and that the monomeric constituents of B. gymnorhiza tannins were catechin/epicatechin, gallocatechin/epigallocatechin and afzelechin/epiafzelechin. The CTs were reversible and mixed competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase and the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) was estimated to be 123.90 ± 0.140 µg/mL. The antioxidant activities of CTs from B. gymnorhiza leaves were evaluated, the IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt) (ABTS) scavenging activities were 88.81 ± 0.135 and 105.03 ± 0.130 µg/mL, respectively, and the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value was 1052.27 ± 4.17 mgAAE/g. In addition, the results from fresh-keeping assays on fresh-cut lotus root reveal that CTs from B. gymnorhiza had excellent effects on inhibiting the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), protecting fresh-cut lotus root from the oxidation of total phenolics and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and slowing the increase in total phenol content (TPC) at 4 °C during the whole storage period. Therefore, CTs showed good effects against the browning of fresh-cut lotus root. Together, these results suggested that B. gymnorhiza CTs are promising antibrowning agents for fresh-cut fruits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lotus/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizophoraceae/química , Taninos/farmacologia , Agaricales/enzimologia , Oxirredução , Proantocianidinas/análise , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Fish Biol ; 99(2): 644-655, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846974

RESUMO

Mangrove killifishes of the genus Kryptolebias have been historically classified as rare because of their small size and cryptic nature. Major gaps in distribution knowledge across mangrove areas, particularly in South America, challenge the understanding of the taxonomic status, biogeographical patterns and genetic structuring of the lineages composing the self-fertilizing "Kryptolebias marmoratus species complex." In this study, the authors combined a literature survey, fieldwork and molecular data to fill major gaps of information about the distribution of mangrove killifishes across western Atlantic mangroves. They found that selfing mangrove killifishes are ubiquitously distributed across the Caribbean, Central and South American mangroves and report 14 new locations in South America, extending the range of both the "Central clade" and "Southern clade" lineages which overlap in the Amazon. Although substantial genetic differences were found between clades, the authors also found further genetic structuring within clades, with populations in Central America, north and northeast Brazil generally showing higher levels of genetic diversity compared to the clonal ones in southeast Brazil. The authors discuss the taxonomic status and update the geographical distribution of the Central and Southern clades, as well as potential dispersal routes and biogeographical barriers influencing the distribution of the selfing mangrove killifishes in the western Atlantic mangroves.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Rhizophoraceae , Animais , Brasil , Ciprinodontiformes/genética , Filogeografia , Autofertilização
20.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(6): 875-884, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796984

RESUMO

A novel, aerobic, moderately halophilic Gram-positive actinomycete, strain MASK1Z-5T was isolated from a surface-sterilized branch of Bruguiera gymnoirhiza in Shankou Mangrove Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China. The taxonomic position of the strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain MASK1Z-5T tolerated up to 20% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7%), and grew at pH 5.0-12.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0), 20-37 °C (optimum 30 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MASK1Z-5T belonged to the genus Brachybacterium, and showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.0% to B. endophyticum M1HQ-2T. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid and three unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G + C content was calculated to be 71.8 mol% based on the whole genome sequence. The estimated values of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) based on whole genome sequences between strain MASK1Z-5T and B. endophyticum M1HQ-2T were 81.8% and 25.0%, respectively. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that strain MASK1Z-5T represents a novel species within the genus Brachybacterium, for which the name Brachybacterium halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MASK1Z-5T (= CGMCC1.18660T = JCM 34339T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Rhizophoraceae , Actinobacteria/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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