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Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(2): 165-175, jun. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-207431


This study examined the direct and indirect effects of communication patterns and forgiveness on physical and psychological morbidity, among young adults involved in a romantic relationship. Participants were 298 students, currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship, from a large university in the United States, who completed the Tendency to Forgive Scale, the Communication Patterns Questionnaire, and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Physical morbidity was directly predicted by mutuality communication. Destructive communication had an indirect effect on physical and psychological morbidity, via forgiveness. However, the indirect connection between destructive communication and psychological morbidity was only significant for female partners. Teaching constructive communication skills may be a key factor for interventions addressed to young adults in romantic relationships, in order to promote forgiveness, due to its potential positive influence in physical and psychological well-being (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Perdão , Amor , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Morbidade , Romantismo , Relações Interpessoais
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 92: 196-208, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240550


There have been constant and multiple endeavours to argue for Darwin's both epistemic and practical debt to Romanticism. Almost all of these arguments emphasise Darwin's theoretical and aesthetic associations with Alexander von Humboldt, who, from a prevailing Darwin-centred perspective, is in turn usually oversimplified as an undisputed incarnation of Romanticism. The antagonistic view, however, develops nothing other than another stereotype of Humboldt as an anti-idealistic, pro-French, and even highly Anglophone empiricist naturalist, and accordingly rejects the claim of a romantic Darwin in terms of his Humboldtian inheritance. In this paper, I will first portray a balanced figure of Humboldt in terms of both his critical incorporation of romantic philosophy and the idiosyncratic history of his science. Then, I will thematically compare Darwin with Humboldt and other romantics so as to elucidate Darwin's peculiar appropriation of romantic tenets. Three interrelated romantic themes are examined, along with a discrimination of different senses in which the term romanticism is used: a) the literature-science relation, b) the pursuit of the unity in and through multiplicity, and c) the epistemic role of imagination. On the basis of this triadic dissection, both Humboldt's and Darwin's adherence to and departure from romanticism are reevaluated.

Evolução Biológica , Hereditariedade , História do Século XIX , Filosofia/história , Romantismo , Vibração
J Anesth Hist ; 7(2): 27-31, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175110


Horace Wells is discussed in a literary manner as a classic tragic hero. Wells' apparent failed end is not the ultimate truth concerning him. His story helps us see and confront life. Many of the scientific, personal, and social issues he grappled with are relevant to us today such as human experimentation and drug addiction. His idealism and romantic pursuit are to be admired. We benefit today from the achievements of his daring and fateful quest.

Anestesia por Inalação/história , Obras de Ficção como Assunto , Literatura Moderna/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Óxido Nitroso/história , Romantismo/história , História do Século XX
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 9, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469787


Goethe's studies of natural form have occupied generations of scholars and the discussion on the relationship between Goethe's thought and evolutionary theory has never ceased since Haeckel's claims in the late nineteenth century. In scholarship which has aimed to address the question of change in Goethe's concept of nature, the focus has been primarily on his scientific writings. Aiming for a comprehensive understanding of Goethe's thought on reproduction, this article sets out to contribute to the ongoing debate by focusing on his literary text The New Melusine, a story centred on a dwarf figure. Examining texts by naturalists such as Buffon, Humboldt, and Darwin, the article demonstrates how Goethe, in the speculative framework of a literary text, explores patterns of transformation by means of sexual reproduction which did not make it into his better known scientific writings on plant morphology and comparative anatomy. I argue that the Melusine story becomes for Goethe a space to consider a new understanding of reproduction, its transformative power, and biopolitical possibilities, while at the same time providing an opportunity to reflect critically on its consequences for the individual.

Mitologia/história , Reprodução , Romantismo/história , Ciência na Literatura/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Literatura Moderna/história
Psicol. USP ; 32: e200005, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1340404


Resumo Mapeiam-se os processos históricos, estéticos e epistêmicos dos séculos XVIII e XIX que associam romantismo, literatura fantástica e psicanálise. Defende-se que o fantástico constitui um importante vetor por meio do qual elementos do romantismo foram incorporados ao modelo psicanalítico de aparelho psíquico. Parte-se da perspectiva de que a assimilação da influência romântica realizou-se de forma seletiva e criativa. Destacam-se alguns pontos de tensões e compromissos entre romantismo e o iluminismo, que foram retomados e transformados pelo fantástico e a psicanálise: as temáticas do amor, da loucura, da sexualidade, das superstições e dos mitos; o questionamento da relação entre o real e suas representações e entre pensamento e consciência; e a valorização do uso retórico da ironia. Aponta-se a abordagem psicanalítica do infamiliar (Unheimliche) como o momento mais sensível dessa interlocução.

Résumé Cet article cartographie les processus historiques, esthétiques et épistémiques des XVIIIe et XIXe siècles qui associent le romantisme, la littérature fantastique et la psychanalyse. On soutient que le fantastique constitue un vecteur important par lequel des éléments du romantisme ont été incorporés dans le modèle psychanalytique de l'appareil psychique. Cette perspective repose sur le fait que l'assimilation de l'influence romantique s'est déroulée de manière sélective et créative. On mit en évidence certains points de tension et de compromis entre le romantisme et les Lumières, repris et transformés par le fantastique et la psychanalyse : les thèmes de l'amour, de la folie, de la sexualité, des superstitions et des mythes ; la remise en cause du rapport entre le réel et ses représentations et entre la pensée et la conscience ; et l'usage rhétorique de l'ironie. On signale l'approche psychanalytique de l'Unheimliche comme le moment le plus sensible de cette interlocution.

Resumen Se cartografían los procesos históricos, estéticos y epistémicos del siglo XVIII y XIX que asocian el romanticismo, la literatura fantástica y el psicoanálisis. Se argumenta que lo fantástico es un importante vector a través del cual los elementos del romanticismo se han incorporado al modelo psicoanalítico del aparato psíquico. Se entiende que la asimilación de la influencia romántica se produjo de forma selectiva y creativa. Se destacan algunos puntos de tensión y compromiso entre el romanticismo y la ilustración que han sido asumidos y transformados por lo fantástico y el psicoanálisis: los temas del amor, la locura, la sexualidad, las supersticiones y los mitos; el cuestionamiento de la relación entre lo real y sus representaciones y entre pensamiento y conciencia; y la apreciación del uso retórico de la ironía. El enfoque psicoanalítico de lo ominoso (Unheimliche) se señala como el momento más sensible de esta interlocución.

Abstract This paper maps the historical, aesthetic, and epistemic processes of the 18th and 19th centuries that associate romanticism, fantastic literature and psychoanalysis. We argue that fantastic is an important vector through which elements of Romanticism were incorporated into the psychoanalytic model of the psyche. Assuming that such Romantic influences were assimilated selectively and creatively, we highlight some points of contention and compromise between romanticism and the Enlightenment that were later resumed and transformed by fantastic literature and psychoanalysis: the themes of love, madness, sexuality, superstitions and myths; the relationship between reality and its representations and between thought and consciousness; and the rhetorical use of irony. Finally, the text points to the psychoanalytic approach of the uncanny (Unheimliche) as the most sensitive moment of such exchange.

História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Psicanálise/história , Conhecimento , Romantismo/história , Literatura/história
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(2): 121-127, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185216


Background: The DARSI program (Developing Healthy and Egalitarian Adolescent Relationships) aims to prevent peer aggressive behaviors inside and outside social networks and educate adolescents on gender equality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the program on the reduction of sexist attitudes, myths of romantic love and aggressive behaviors in adolescents. Method: 191 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years (53.93% girls), assigned to an experimental group (3 classrooms) and two control groups (6 classrooms in two educational centers) participated in this study. A quasi-experimental design with control group was used and the effectiveness of the program was evaluated using a repeated measures factorial design. Results: Findings showed a significant decrease in the experimental group in hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, myths of romantic love, direct aggression, relational aggression, and cyber-aggression. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the evaluated program and the viability of joint interventions in the prevention of peer violence and teen dating violence are observed

Antecedentes: el programa DARSI (Desarrollando en Adolescentes Relaciones Saludables e Igualitarias) tiene como finalidad prevenir conductas agresivas entre iguales dentro y fuera de las redes sociales y formar a los adolescentes en igualdad de género. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos del programa en la disminución de actitudes sexistas, mitos del amor romántico y conductas agresivas en adolescentes. Método: en este estudio participaron 191 adolescentes, de 12 a 17 años (53,93% chicas), asignados a un grupo experimental (3 aulas) y dos grupos control (6 aulas de dos centros educativos). Se utilizó un diseño cuasi-experimental con grupo control y se evaluó la efectividad del programa mediante diseño factorial de medidas repetidas. Resultados: los resultados mostraron una disminución significativa en el grupo experimental en sexismo hostil, sexismo benevolente, mitos del amor romántico, agresión directa, agresión relacional y ciberagresión. Conclusiones: se constata la efectividad del programa evaluado y la viabilidad de intervenir conjuntamente en la prevención de la violencia entre iguales y la violencia de pareja en adolescentes

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Atitude , Relações Interpessoais , Romantismo , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Eficiência Organizacional
Psicothema ; 31(2): 121-127, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013235


BACKGROUND: The DARSI program (Developing Healthy and Egalitarian Adolescent Relationships) aims to prevent peer aggressive behaviors inside and outside social networks and educate adolescents on gender equality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the program on the reduction of sexist attitudes, myths of romantic love and aggressive behaviors in adolescents. METHOD: 191 adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years (53.93% girls), assigned to an experimental group (3 classrooms) and two control groups (6 classrooms in two educational centers) participated in this study. A quasi-experimental design with control group was used and the effectiveness of the program was evaluated using a repeated measures factorial design. RESULTS: Findings showed a significant decrease in the experimental group in hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, myths of romantic love, direct aggression, relational aggression, and cyber-aggression. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of the evaluated program and the viability of joint interventions in the prevention of peer violence and teen dating violence are observed.

Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Atitude , Relações Interpessoais , Romantismo , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Gac Med Mex ; 154(1): 105-110, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420523


Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, better known as Mary Shelley, and her romantic vision of the world gave life to an endless progeny of literacy stories; also originated the myth of the mortal creator who generate life from science. Unexpectedly the history has been considered as a myth, due to acts grounded in facts of certain "truthful;" such were galvanism and the study of the electrical potential in living beings by the two Italian physicians: Luigi Galvani and Giovanni Aldini. Also, is possible to proclaim direct influence on the work by the European folklore surrounding the theologian, alchemist Johann Konrad Dippel and physician who habited the Frankenstein's Castle from his birth, and further developing the "life elixir." The similarities between the novel and the life of the three historical figures suggests that Mary Shelley, belonging to a socially graceful and educated class, was aware of the scientific dispute over the understanding of electricity. Shelley's creative world, full of gothic and romantic hues, shows direct influence of alchemy speaking of the "spark of life" as well as works published by Galvani and Aldini.

Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (1797-1851), mejor conocida como Mary Shelley, con su visión romántica del mundo dio vida a una progenie interminable de historias en la literatura, y su escrito originó el mito del creador mortal que da vida a partir de la ciencia. Aunque parezca sorprendente, la historia ha llegado a considerarse un mito debido a los actos fundamentados en hechos de cierta forma «verídicos¼ que ayudaron a su origen, como fueron el galvanismo y el estudio del potencial eléctrico en los seres vivos llevados a cabo por dos italianos: Luigi Galvani y Giovanni Aldini. De igual manera, es posible aseverar la influencia directa sobre la obra por parte del folklore europeo de la época que rodeaba al teólogo, alquimista y médico Johann Konrad Dippel, quien hábitó el Castillo Frankenstein desde su nacimiento y además desarrollo el «elixir de la vida¼. La similitud que existe entre la novela y la vida de los tres personajes históricos hace pensar que la autora Mary Shelley, al pertenecer a una clase socialmente agraciada y educada, tuvo conocimiento de la disputa científica por el entendimiento de la energía eléctrica. El mundo creativo de Shelley, lleno de matices góticos y románticos, demuestra influencia directa de la alquimia al hablar de la «chispa de la vida¼, así como de los trabajos publicados por Galvani y Aldini.

Potenciais de Ação , Eletrofisiologia/história , Literatura Moderna , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Romantismo
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 43(22): 1617-1618, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858188


: The librettos of several of the most famous Romantic operas contain references to disease. These operas can serve as valuable sources of information regarding how spinal deformities were understood during the nineteenth century by physicians and lay persons alike. Original librettos of the operas "Rigoletto" (1851) by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) and "La Esmeralda" (1836) by Louise Bertin (1805-1877) were analyzed. In both operas, spinal deformities of Rigoletto and Quasimodo are a central issue. In detail, Quasimodo could suffer from von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis, while Rigoletto could be affected by severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The plays are an expression of the nineteenth century attitude toward deformity: the hunchbacks are ridiculed and excluded from the society due to their deformity. Thus, they are forced by society to act as ugly and evil beings. Although both Rigoletto and Quasimodo show an intense love, at the end of each opera, they are defeated by loss of this love. This is an evident sign that, despite its willingness to tackle the subject, nineteenth-century society was not still ready to attribute success or human value to people affected by disabilities.Level of Evidence: 5.

Música/história , Romantismo/história , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(1): 13, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238855


Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature. This essay looks to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his English contemporary Erasmus Darwin to begin to reconstruct the rigorously materialist, naturalist, and empiricist theories of epigenesis (still) marginalized by Kantian argumentation. As theorists of environmental and social collaboration in the ontogeny of viable forms, Lamarck and Darwin illuminate features of our own epigenetic turn obscured by the rhetoric of "self-organization," allowing us to glimpse an alternative Romantic genealogy of the biological present.

Biologia/história , Empirismo/história , Vida , História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , Romantismo/história , Inglaterra , França , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
Dev Psychol ; 53(9): 1738-1749, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604025


The present study explored how romantic relationship qualities develop with age and relationship length. Eight waves of data on romantic relationships were collected over 10.5 years during adolescence and early adulthood from a community-based sample in a Western U.S. city (100 males, 100 females; M age Wave 1 = 15.83). Measures of support, negative interactions, control, and jealousy were derived from interviews and questionnaire measures. Using multilevel modeling, main effects of age were found for jealousy, and main effects of relationship length were found for each quality. However, main effects were qualified by significant age by length interactions for each and every relationship quality. Short relationships increased in support with age. In comparison, long-term adolescent relationships were notable in that they were both supportive and turbulent, with elevated levels of support, negative interactions, control, and jealousy. With age, long-term relationships continued to have high levels of support, but decreased in negative interactions, control, and jealousy. Present findings highlight how the interplay between age and relationship length is key for understanding the development of romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

Envelhecimento , Relações Interpessoais , Ciúme , Romantismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
Span. j. psychol ; 20: e24.1-e24.10, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-162589


Recent studies suggest that the online and offline behaviors young people display in romantic relationships are closely related. However, the differential effects of the dimensions of couple quality in the online context have not yet been explored in depth. The aim of this study was to explore online couple quality in young-adult relationships, and its association with romantic relationship satisfaction, also looking at effects of gender, age, and length of the relationship. 431 university students currently in a romantic relationship (68.2% females; mean age = 21.57) participated in this study. They completed different self-report measures to tap the online quality of their romantic relationships (online intimacy, control, jealousy, intrusiveness, cyberdating practices, and communication strategies) and level of satisfaction with those relationships. Results showed that participants more often reported online intimacy (Mmen = 2.49; Mwomen = 2.38) than the negative scales of online quality (mean ranged from .43 to 1.50), and all the online quality scales decreased with age (correlations ranged from -.12 to -.30) and relationship length (correlations ranged from -.02 to -.20). Linear regression analyses indicated that online intimacy (b = .32, p = .001) and intrusiveness (b = .11, p = .035) were positively related to relationship satisfaction, while cyberdating practices (b = -.20, p = .001) and communication strategies (b = -.34, p = .001) were negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Moreover, gender and relationship length moderated some of these associations. Results indicate that while online quality and relationship satisfaction are related, the impact of different online quality dimensions on relationship satisfaction differs depending on a participant's sex, age, and relationship length (AU)

No disponible

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Romantismo , Estudantes/psicologia , Internet , Ciúme , Comunicação , Amor , Emoções/fisiologia , Análise de Dados/métodos , Modelos Lineares , Corte/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
CNS Spectr ; 21(3): 223-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27322690


Neuropsychiatry has had different meanings at different times in the history of clinical neuroscience. In this article, the origins of what has become today's neuropsychiatry are briefly explored, hopefully revealing a number of pioneers of the discipline, some of the names being familiar to many readers, others however being less recognized or even unknown to those who today would wish to carry the moniker of a neuropsychiatrist. It explores the rise of what I refer to as modern or today's neuropsychiatry, and empathizes a phenomenological approach to clinical understanding, and the fact that neuropsychiatry it is a discipline in its own right and not just a wing of psychiatry or a bridge between neurology and psychiatry.

Neuropsiquiatria/história , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/história , Epilepsia/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Intenção , Transtornos Mentais/história , Doença de Parkinson Pós-Encefalítica/história , Romantismo
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 9(1): 90-109, jun. 2016.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-883406


Este artigo apresenta o resultado de um levantamento bibliográfico realizado em uma pesquisa que objetiva compreender os relacionamentos amorosos de adolescentes na internet. Realizou-se uma investigação no PePSIC das produções entre 2002 e 2013. O levantamento apontou um número reduzido de trabalhos de psicologia sobre o tema e desatualização das redes sociais utilizadas como objeto de estudo. O número reduzido de trabalhos pode ser justificado tanto por limites do nosso instrumento de pesquisa quanto pela atualidade do tema. A desatualização das redes sociais revela o dinamismo próprio da internet. Entretanto, as subjetividades não se transformam com a mesma velocidade das tecnologias, demonstrando que tais pesquisas não se tornam obsoletas. É preciso considerar que a enorme presença da internet em todos os setores da vida humana justifica o incremento de pesquisas sobre o tema

This article presents the results of a bibliographical search conducted with the goal to understand the romantic relationships of teenagers on the internet. A research in PePSIC was conducted, and the productions between 2002 and 2013 were analyzed. This research revealed a small number of psychology works on the matter, as well as the outdating of the social networks used by them as objects of study. The reduced number of works was evidenced when confronted with data from interviews with university students, conducted at a second moment during this research. The reduced number of works can be justified both due to the limitation of our research tools and to the actuality of the theme. The downgrading of social networks reveals the dynamism of the internet. However, subjectivities are not transformed at the same speed as technologies, demonstrating that such research did not become obsolete. We need to consider that the large presence of the internet in all sectors of life justifies the development of the research on this topic

Rede Social , Romantismo , Internet , Emoções , Amor
Homeopatia Méx ; 85(702): 23-32, mayo-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | HomeoIndex - Homeopatia | ID: hom-11648


La historia de las ultradiluciones es un aspecto fascinante de la Homeopatía que merece atención. En este trabajo se hace un repaso a los antecedentes de la ideade potenciación y dinamización, aspectos que probablemente fueron influenciados por la herencia cultural de Oriente y Medio Oriente. (AU)

The history of ultradilutions is a fascinating aspect of homeopathy that deserves attention. This paper presents a review of the history of the potenciation anddynamization, aspects that were probably influenced by the heritage of the Orient and Middle East cultures. (AU)

História Antiga , História Medieval , Dinamização , Potência , História da Homeopatia , Romantismo
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 53: 53-61, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26258495


There have been attempts to subsume Charles Darwin's theory of evolution under either one of two distinct intellectual traditions: early Victorian natural science and its descendants in political economy (as exemplified by Herschel, Lyell, or Malthus) and the romantic approach to art and science emanating from Germany (as exemplified by Humboldt and Goethe). In this paper, it will be shown how these traditions may have jointly contributed to the design of Darwin's theory. The hypothesis is that their encounter created a particular tension in the conception of his theory which first opened up its characteristic field and mode of explanation. On the one hand, the domain of the explanandum was conceived of under a holistic and aesthetic view of nature that, in its combination with refined techniques of observation, was deeply indebted to Humboldt in particular. On the other hand, Darwin fashioned explanations for natural phenomena, so conceived, in order to identify their proper causes in a Herschelian spirit. The particular interaction between these two traditions in Darwin, it is concluded, paved the way for a transfer of the idea of causal laws to animate nature while salvaging the romantic idea of a complex, teleological and harmonious order of nature.

Evolução Biológica , História Natural/história , Romantismo/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Seleção Genética , Reino Unido
Sociol Health Illn ; 37(8): 1173-90, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26147626


The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies.

Características Culturais , Fazendeiros , Mudança Social , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Teoria Fundamentada , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Romantismo , Sociologia
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 42(5): 201-27, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25179093


In the first part of this article we have analyzed the evidence supporting the recency hypothesis of schizophrenia and also what we can call the intimate nature of the disease. In this part we highlight the role of certain cultural aspects that have been ignored up to now, aspects that are associated with deep changes in the Weltanschauung and systems of beliefs on human nature brought up by the late Modernism, specifically by Romanticism. The description of the main characteristics of Romanticism, starting with the “discovery of intimacy”, leads to the conclusion that the characteristic alteration of subjectivity and ipseity of the disease appears to be a vulnerability factor when somebody has to face the new challenges raise Romanticism. The consideration of Hölderlin’s literary achievements and the deep psychological drama prevailing in them, makes explicit how the late modern human being finds in Romanticism the source of creativity and personal development but also the threat of his or her own destruction. Finally we link our hypothesis with recent genetic perspectives that consider sets of diseases associated to the same gene or genes (diseasome). In any case the process of associating the traits of Late Modernism and Romanticism with the core features of schizophrenia allows to consider the amalgamation of insanity with society, both at a general level an in what concerns individual patients, paving the way for novel therapeutic strategies.

Romantismo , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Cultura , Humanos , Mudança Social , Identificação Social
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 42(4): 133-58, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25017492


Descriptions of irrational, incomprehensible, or unconstrained behavior such as is common nowadays in patients suffering from severe mental disorders can be found in the Bible, in Mesopotamian scripts, in classical Greek and Roman literature, and in the writings of many non-Western cultures. However, the presence of full-blown features of schizophrenia as seen today in psychiatric settings is controversial. Typical symptoms, the expected onset, duration and outcome, the impact of the disease on psychic functioning and the associated disability of the disease are mostly absent in those texts. Torrey (1980) and Hare (1988) have claimed that the disease did not exist before the year 1800 (this is known as the recency hypothesis). This would be the consequence of biological factors such as viruses, genetic or dietary factors or environmental contaminants associated to civilization. Others have put the emphasis on industrialization and its repercussions on social conditions such as family structure and migration. After analyzing the many manifestations of insanity in literary characters, in medical texts and in key historical figures, the arguments presented in this paper tend to support the recency hypothesis. A review of the core characteristics of schizophrenia and its impact on selfhood, intersubjetivity and ipseity, topics relatively neglected in recent psychiatric literature, opens the doors to consider in a second part the relationship between the features of Romanticism, starting by the "discovery of intimacy", and its articulation with the disturbance of ipseity and selfhood characteristic of the disease.

Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Teoria Gestáltica , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Antiga , Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Romantismo , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/história