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1.
Zootaxa ; 5067(2): 224-236, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810748

RESUMO

Two new Diptacus species and one new Trimeroptes species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Diptilomiopidae) are described and illustrated from China: Diptacus suichangensis sp. nov. on Aralia chinensis L. (Araliaceae) and Diptacus pyracanthae sp. nov. on Pyracanthafortuneana (Maxim.) Li (Rosaceae), and Trimeroptes longlinensis sp. nov. on Carpinus sp. (Betulaceae). These new species were found to be vagrant on the lower surface of their associated plants leaves, albeit with no apparent damage observed.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Ácaros , Rosaceae , Animais , China , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
2.
Zootaxa ; 5057(3): 64-84, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811204

RESUMO

Five new species of phytoseiid mites in the subfamily Amblyseiinae are described from specimens collected from princess flower (Tibouchina urvilleana Cogn.: Melastomataceae), datura (Datura metel L.: Solanaceae), rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.: Rosaceae), and cinchona (Cinchona officinalis L.: Rubiaceae) from the northern hill zone of West Bengal in the Central Himalayan Mountain region, namely Amblyseiulella tibouchina sp. nov., Amblyseius rishyapensis sp. nov., Okiseius ramdhuracus sp. nov., Okiseius roseus sp. nov., and Typhlodromips cinchonai sp. nov.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Plantas Medicinais , Rosaceae , Rubiaceae , Animais , Índia
3.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup9a): XIIIi-XIIIx, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Providing a suitable environment to improve the healing process is the main target of wound dressing that also protects the wound from additional harms. In the present study, fabrication and characterisation of a new kind of electrospun wound dressing composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quince seed mucilage (QSM) is reported. METHOD: QSM was extracted from quince seeds, purified, freeze-dried and used to produce aqueous solutions containing different amounts of PVA and QSM. The wound dressings were fabricated via the electrospinning method and their characteristics were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, tensile and swelling test, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay against fibroblast cells. RESULTS: SEM images confirmed that proper, uniform, non-oriented nanofibres with an average diameter in the range of 60-240nm, depending on the QSM content had been fabricated. The tensile test showed that with increasing QSM content, the tensile strength of fibre increased while elongation at break was decreased, which was consistent with SEM images where the diameter of samples decreased by increasing QSM content. MTT assay showed significant biocompatibility against fibroblast cells; however, it was increased by increased QSM proportion. In addition, SEM images supported the proper adhesion of fibroblast cells on the sample one day after culturing. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings of the current study support the potential of PVA/QSM nanofibres as a proper candidate for biomedical applications, especially as a wound dressing.


Assuntos
Álcool de Polivinil , Rosaceae , Bandagens , Sementes , Cicatrização
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644364

RESUMO

More than 60% of the flora of the Galapagos Islands is introduced and some of these species have become invasive, severely altering ecosystems. An example of an affected ecosystem is the Scalesia forest, originally dominated by the endemic giant daisy tree Scalesia pedunculata (Asteraceae). The remnant patches of this unique forest are increasingly being invaded by introduced plants, mainly by Rubus niveus (blackberry, Rosaceae). To help large-scale restoration of this ecologically important forest, we seek to better understand the natural regeneration of S. pedunculata after invasive plant control. We monitored naturally recruited S. pedunculata saplings and young trees over five years in an area where invasive plant species are continuously being removed by manual means. We measured survival, height and growth of S. pedunculata saplings and young trees along permanent transects. Percent cover of surrounding plant species and of canopy shade directly above each S. pedunculata individual were determined, as well as distance to the next mature S. pedunculata tree. We identified potential factors influencing initial sapling survival and growth by applying generalized linear models. Results showed a rapid growth of saplings and young trees of up to 0.45 cm per day and a high mortality rate, as is typical for pioneer species like S. pedunculata. Sapling survival, growth and mortality seemed to be influenced by light availability, surrounding vegetation and distance to the next adult S. pedunculata tree. We concluded that natural regeneration of S. pedunculata was high only five months after the last herbicide application but that 95% of these recruits had died over the 5-year period. Further studies are needed to corroborate whether the number of surviving trees is sufficient to replace the aging adult trees and this way maintain remnants of the Scalesia forest. Urgent action is needed to help improve future restoration strategies to prevent further degradation of this rapidly shrinking threatened forest ecosystem.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Equador , Espécies Introduzidas , Rosaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 471, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterotrimeric G-proteins, composed of Gα, Gß and Gγ subunits, are important signal transmitters, mediating the cellular response to multiple stimuli in animals and plants. The Gγ subunit is an essential component of the G-protein, providing appropriate functional specificity to the heterotrimer complex and has been well studied in many species. However, the evolutionary history, expression pattern and functional characteristics of Gγ subunits has not been explored in the Rosaceae, representing many important fruit crops. RESULTS: In this study, 35 Gγ subunit genes were identified from the eight species belonging to the Rosaceae family. Based on the structural gene characteristics, conserved protein motifs and phylogenetic analysis of the Gγ subunit genes, the genes were classified into three clades. Purifying selection was shown to play an important role in the evolution of Gγ subunit genes, while a recent whole-genome duplication event was the principal force determining the expansion of the Gγ subunit gene family in the subfamily Maloideae. Gγ subunit genes exhibited diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns in Chinese white pear, including fruit, root, ovary and bud, and under abiotic stress conditions, the relative expression of Gγ subunit genes were up-regulated or down-regulated. In addition, seven of the Gγ subunit proteins in pear were located on the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm or nucleus. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study of the Gγ subunit gene family in eight Rosaceae species provided useful information to better understand the evolution and expression of these genes and facilitated further exploration of their functions in these important crop plants.


Assuntos
Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Pyrus/genética , Rosaceae/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 11053-11064, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495660

RESUMO

Aronia melanocarpa (MICHX.) ELLIOTT, which belongs to the Rosaceae family, has increasingly come into focus of research due to the high content of polyphenols. In addition to antioxidative properties, further health-promoting effects of these polyphenols are still of interest. Especially, the proanthocyanidins offer thereby huge opportunities due to their high structural heterogeneity. Therefore, the present study focuses on the topoisomerase inhibiting effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PACs), which are potentially depended on their degree of polymerization. The investigated PACs isolated from Aronia berries were characterized by chromatographic techniques and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Four PAC enriched fractions were obtained from Aronia pomace containing 47 PACs with a degree of polymerization from three to six. Due to the low yield of hexamers, the potential inhibiting effects against human topoisomerase were investigated for the trimer to pentamer fractions. The relaxation and decatenation assays were performed to examine the inhibiting effect on topoisomerases under cell-free conditions. Moreover, rapid isolation of topoisomerase cleavage complexes in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells was performed to evaluate the effect on topoisomerases in a cell-based system. The fractions demonstrated inhibitory potential on topoisomerases I and II. In sum, an increasing effect strength depending on the degree of polymerization was shown.


Assuntos
Photinia , Proantocianidinas , Rosaceae , Frutas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4782-4792, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581089

RESUMO

This study investigated the protective effect of total triterpenoids from Chaenomeles speciosa against Helicobacter pylori(Hp)-induced gastritis in mice and explored its possible mechanism. The chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG) model mice were randomly divided into four groups of model, total triterpenoids from C. speciosa(50 and 100 mg·kg~(-1)) and triple therapy, with C57 BL/6 J mice without Hp infection taken as the normal group. Mice in the treatment groups were given corresponding drugs once a day for 4 weeks. Then the following indexes were detected: the contents of reactive oxygen species(ROS), monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), keratinocyte chemokines(KC), TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18, IL-4 and IL-10 in blood and gastric tissue, the activities and contents of LDH, MPO, SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and MDA in gastric tissue and the activities of ß-glucuronidase, ß-galactosidase, cathepsins B and D in blood, gastric tissue and lysosome. Besides, the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88(MyD88), Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax and Bad in gastric tissue were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot was employed to detect the protein expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-IKKß, p-IκBα, NOD-like receptor 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC), pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, thioredoxin-interacting protein(TXNIP), pro-IL-1ß, pro-IL-18, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bad, cytochrome C, apoptotic protease-activating factor-1(Apaf-1), pro-caspase-9, pro-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(PARP-1), cleaved-PARP-1 and cytosol and nucleus NF-κB p65 in gastric tissue. The results indicated that the total triterpenoids from C. speciosa significantly suppressed Hp proliferation, alleviated the damage to gastric mucosa and improved lymphocyte infiltration and gland atrophy. They were also effective in reducing the activities of ß-glucuronidase, ß-galactosidase, cathepsins B and D in blood and gastric tissue, elevating the activities of ß-glucuronidase and cathepsin D in lysosomal organelles, decreasing the contents of ROS, MCP-1, KC, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18 in blood, MDA content and MPO and LDH activities in gastric tissue and increasing the contents of IL-4 and IL-10 in blood and activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in gastric tissue. Other phenomena were also observed after the treatment with total triterpenoids from C. speciosa, including the down-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, Bax and Bad, the protein expression levels of p-IKKß, p-IκBα, NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, TXNIP, pro-IL-1ß, pro-IL-18, cytochrome C, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-PARP-1 and nuclear NF-κB p65, reduction of p-IKKß/IKKß and p-IκBα/IκBα ratios and up-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, up-regulation of pro-caspase-9, pro-caspace-3, cytosol NF-κB p65 protein expression levels and Bcl-2/Bax and Bcl-xl/Bad ratios in gastric tissue. These aforementioned results suggest that the total triterpenoids from C. speciosa have significant protective effects against CAG induced by Hp, and its mechanism may be related to enhancing the function of endogenous antioxidant system, suppressing the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced by Hp, correcting lysosomal dysfunction and inflammatory activation of TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway and thus inhibiting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.


Assuntos
Gastrite , Helicobacter pylori , Rosaceae , Triterpenos , Animais , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 645, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited access to genetic information has greatly hindered our understanding of the molecular evolution, phylogeny, and differentiation time of subg. Amygdalus. This study reported complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of subg. Amygdalus, which further enriched the available valuable resources of complete cp genomes of higher plants and deepened our understanding of the divergence time and phylogenetic relationships of subg. Amygdalus. RESULTS: The results showed that subg. Amygdalus species exhibited a tetrad structure with sizes ranging from 157,736 bp (P. kansuensis) to 158,971 bp (P. davidiana), a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa/IRb) that ranged from 26,137-26,467 bp, a large single-copy region that ranged from 85,757-86,608 bp, and a small single-copy region that ranged from 19,020-19,133 bp. The average GC content of the complete cp genomes in the 12 species was 36.80%. We found that the structure of the subg. Amygdalus complete cp genomes was highly conserved, and the 12 subg. Amygdalus species had an rps19 pseudogene. There was not rearrangement of the complete cp genome in the 12 subg. Amygdalus species. All 12 subg. Amygdalus species clustered into one clade based on both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood. The divergence time analyses based on the complete cp genome sequences showed that subg. Amygdalus species diverged approximately 15.65 Mya. CONCLUSION: Our results provide data on the genomic structure of subg. Amygdalus and elucidates their phylogenetic relationships and divergence time.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Rosaceae , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16441, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385515

RESUMO

The genus Chaenomeles has long been considered an important ornamental, herbal and cash crop and is widely cultivated in East Asia. Traditional studies of Chaenomeles mainly focus on evolutionary relationships at the phenotypic level. In this study, we conducted RNA-seq on 10 Chaenomeles germplasms supplemented with one outgroup species, Docynia delavayi (D. delavayi), on the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. After de novo assemblies, we generated from 40,084 to 49,571 unigenes for each germplasm. After pairwise comparison of the orthologous sequences, 9,659 orthologues within the 11 germplasms were obtained, with 6,154 orthologous genes identified as single-copy genes. The phylogenetic tree was visualized to reveal evolutionary relationships for these 11 germplasms. GO and KEGG analyses were performed for these common single-copy genes to compare their functional similarities and differences. Selective pressure analysis based on 6,154 common single-copy genes revealed that 45 genes were under positive selection. Most of these genes are involved in building the plant disease defence system. A total of 292 genes containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to develop SSR markers and compare their functions in secondary metabolism pathways. Finally, 10 primers were chosen as SSR marker candidates for Chaenomeles germplasms by comprehensive standards. Our research provides a new methodology and reference for future related research in Chaenomeles and is also useful for improvement, breeding and selection projects in other related species.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Rosaceae/genética , Transcriptoma , Genes de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16608, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400694

RESUMO

There is growing interest among the public and scientific community toward the use of probiotics to potentially restore the composition of the gut microbiome. With the aim of preparing eco-friendly probiotic edible films, we explored the addition of probiotics to the seed mucilage films of quince, flax, and basil. These mucilages are natural and compatible blends of different polysaccharides that have demonstrated medical benefits. All three seed mucilage films exhibited high moisture retention regardless of the presence of probiotics, which is needed to help preserve the moisture/freshness of food. Films from flax and quince mucilage were found to be more thermally stable and mechanically robust with higher elastic moduli and elongation at break than basil mucilage films. These films effectively protected fruits against UV light, maintaining the probiotics viability and inactivation rate during storage. Coated fruits and vegetables retained their freshness longer than uncoated produce, while quince-based probiotic films showed the best mechanical, physical, morphological and bacterial viability. This is the first report of the development, characterization and production of 100% natural mucilage-based probiotic edible coatings with enhanced barrier properties for food preservation applications containing probiotics.


Assuntos
Filmes Comestíveis , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Mucilagem Vegetal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Verduras , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Módulo de Elasticidade , Linho/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Teste de Materiais , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ocimum basilicum/química , Permeabilidade , Rosaceae/química , Sementes/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Água
11.
Physiol Plant ; 173(3): 1163-1178, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363225

RESUMO

The Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) protein belongs to a secondary transporter gene family, which plays a primary role in transporting many kinds of substrates such as organic compounds, secondary metabolites, and phytohormones. MATE protein members exist in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, evolution and comprehensive analysis of the MATE genes has not been performed in Rosaceae species. In the present study, a total of 404 MATEs genes were identified from six Rosaceae genomes (Prunus avium, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Malus domestica) and classified into eight main subfamilies (I-VII) based on structural and phylogenetic analysis. Microcollinearity analysis showed that whole-genome duplication events might play a vital role in the expansion of the MATE genes family. The Ka/Ks analysis, chromosomal localization, subcellular localization, and molecular characteristics (length, weight, and pI) were performed using various bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, different subfamilies have different introns-exons structures, cis-acting elements, and conserved motifs analysis, indicating functional divergence in the MATE family. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis and real-time qRT-PCR were conducted during Chinese pear fruit development. Moreover, PbMATE genes were significantly expressed under hormonal treatments of MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA (salicylic acid), and ABA (abscisic acid). Overall, our results provide helpful insights into the functions, expansion complexity, and evolutions of the MATE genes in Chinese pear and five Rosaceae species.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Rosaceae , China , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Rosaceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Allergy to nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) is the main cause of plant-food allergy in Spain. nsLTPs are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and have high cross-reactivity but extremely variable clinical expression. Little is known about the natural evolution of this allergy, which complicates management. The objective of this study was to assess the development of allergy to new plant foods in nsLTP-sensitized patients 10 years after diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred fifty-one patients showing specific IgE to nsLTP determined by ISAC (Thermofisher) were included. After clinical workup (i.e., anamnesis, skin test, and challenge when needed), these patients were divided into two groups: 113 patients allergic to one or more plant food (74.5%) and 38 patients not allergic to any plant food (25.1%). Ten years later, a telephone interview was conducted to check whether patients had developed additional allergic reactions to plant foods. RESULTS: Ten years after diagnosis, 35 of the 113 (31%) plant-food-allergic patients sensitized to nsLTP reported reactions to new, previously tolerated plant foods, mainly Rosaceae/Prunoideae fruits and nuts followed by vegetables, Rosacea/Pomoideae fruits, legumes, and cereals. Five out of 38 (13.2%) patients previously sensitized to nsLTP but without allergy to any plant food had experienced allergic reactions to some plant food: two to Rosaceae/Prunoideae fruits, two to Rosaceae/Prunoideae fruit and nuts, and one to legumes. CONCLUSION: Patients sensitized to nsLTP developed allergic reactions to other plant foods, mainly Rosaceae-Prunoideae fruits and nuts. This was more frequent among plant-food-allergic patients than among those who had never had plant-food allergy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Adulto , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frutas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Nozes/imunologia , Rosaceae/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos , Espanha , Verduras/imunologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224966

RESUMO

In this work, a novel strategy was developed for separation and enrichment of sibiskoside by dummy molecular imprinting technology and magnetic separation technology. The structural analogue geniposide was selected as the dummy template, using 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, and acetonitrile as the porogen. The molecularly imprinted layer was formed on the surface of the magnetic carrier to prepare dummy template molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) with a core-shell structure. The DMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results of adsorption kinetics experiments and isothermal adsorption experiments showed that DMIPs can reach adsorption equilibrium in a short period of time and the maximum adsorption capacity can reach 14.67 mg/g. The imprinting factor was 2.08. Compared with the andrographolide, polydatin, arbutin, caffeic acid, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and quercetin, DMIPs have good adsorption capacity for the sibiskoside. And the reusability was better. After the adsorption of DMIPs, the purity of sibiskoside in the crude extracts from Sibiraea angustata increased to 78%. It provided a basis for the further development and utilization of Sibiraea angustata as well as the separation and enrichment of monoterpenes.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Glicosídeos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/química , Rosaceae/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
Planta ; 254(1): 14, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180013

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The chloroplast genomes of the five Crataegus species were shown to have a conserved genome structure. Complete chloroplast genome sequences were more suitable than highly variable regions for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of Crataegus species. Hawthorn, which is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine, is one of the most popular sour fruits and has high economic value. Crataegus pinnatifida var. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major are frequently adulterated with other Crataegus species on the herbal medicine market. However, most Crataegus plants are difficult to identify using traditional morphological methods. Here, we compared five Crataegus chloroplast (CP) genomes comprising two newly sequenced (i.e., C. pinnatifida var. pinnatifida and C. pinnatifida var. major) and three previously published CP genomes. The CP genomes of the five Crataegus species had a conserved genome structure, gene content and codon usage. The total length of the CP genomes was 159,654-159,865 bp. A total of 129-130 genes, including 84-85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes, were annotated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 96-103 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 48-70 long repeats in the five CP genomes. Combining the results of mVISTA and nucleotide diversity, five highly variable regions were screened for species identification and relationship studies. Maximum likelihood trees were constructed on the basis of complete CP genome sequences and highly variable regions. The results showed that the former had higher discriminatory power for Crataegus species, indicating that the complete CP genome could be used as a super-barcode to accurately authenticate the five Crataegus species.


Assuntos
Crataegus , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Rosaceae , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0250290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129603

RESUMO

AIMS: The principal chaparral species in California, Adenostoma fasciculatum, an evergreen, sclerophyllous shrub, is broadly distributed and provides habitat and food resources for a large and diverse animal community. The effects of climate change, including elevated temperatures, fire frequency and severity, along with increased urban encroachment, have placed pressure on chaparral habitats in California. Our goal is to investigate aspects of reproductive ecology as a measure of the potential resiliency of A. fasciculatum. We focus on seed rain (all seed falling into the seed traps regardless of origin) and seed banks in the context of plant-animal interactions and regeneration. METHODS: Stand recovery following disturbance is achieved through both resprouting and germination from established persistent soil seed banks. In this study we focus on seed ecology using a series of experiments to document the length and quantity of seed rain, seed predation, parsing the importance of the community of granivores, and evaluating the connection between stand age and germination rate from soil seed banks. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Our research documented an 8-month seed rain duration with over 1 million seeds per m2, multiple seed predators including passerines (songbirds) and rodents, and points to the possibility of native ants playing a role in the seed dispersal process. This is important given the recent advancement of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepthema humile) into Californian chaparral. This research demonstrates a clear relationship between A. fasciculatum and both resident and migratory granivores in the chaparral. We documented that a 39-year-old stand had higher germination rates than those which were 16, 20, 41 and 71 years old and how seed banks play a major role in assuring resiliency following fire. These findings are important for wildland managers to assure the continued resiliency of A. fasciculatum.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , California , Ecologia/métodos , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Incêndios , Reprodução/fisiologia , Roedores , Banco de Sementes , Sementes/classificação , Solo
16.
Plant Reprod ; 34(3): 255-266, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165636

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Characterization of hybrid seed failure in Prunus provides insight into conserved or lineage-specific hybrid incompatibility mechanisms in plant species. Postzygotic hybrid incompatibility resulting from a cross between different species involves complex mechanisms occurring at various developmental stages. Embryo arrest, followed by seed abortion, is the first stage of such incompatibility reactions and inhibits hybrid seed development. In Prunus, a rosaceous woody species, some interspecific crosses result in fruit drop during the early stage of fruit development, in which inferior seed development may be accounted for the observed hybrid incompatibility. In this study, we investigated ovule development and the transcriptomes of developing ovules in inter-subgeneric crosses of Prunus. We conducted a cross of Prunus mume (subgenus Prunus), pollinated by P. persica (subgenus Amygdalus), and found that ovule and seed coat degeneration occurs before fruit drop. Transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes enriched in several GO pathways, including organelle development, stimulus response, and signaling. Among these pathways, the organelle-related genes were actively regulated during ovule development, as they showed higher expression in the early stage of interspecific crosses and declined in the later stage, suggesting that the differential regulation of organelle function may induce the degeneration of hybrid ovules. Additionally, genes related to ovule and seed coat development, such as genes encoding AGL-like and auxin response, were differentially regulated in Prunus interspecific crosses. Our results provide histological and molecular information on hybrid seed abortion in Prunus that could be utilized to develop new hybrid crops. Additionally, we compared and discussed transcriptome responses to hybrid seed failure in Prunus and other plant species, which provides insight into conserved or lineage-specific hybrid incompatibility mechanisms in some plant species.


Assuntos
Prunus , Rosaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Prunus/genética , Sementes/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070170

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Aronia melanocarpa, Chaenomeles superba, and Cornus mas leaf extracts as natural preservatives for pork meat products. Pork sausages were stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% N2 and 20% CO2) at 4 °C for 29 days. The total psychrotrophic counts (TPC) were determined during the storage period, along with the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The extracts improved the microbial quality of the meat products but to a lesser extent than sodium nitrate (III). They reduced the amounts of Enterobacteriaceae and LAB. The A.melanocarpa leaf extract showed the strongest preservative effect. The bacterial biodiversity of the meat products was investigated based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Two predominant bacteria phyla were identified, Proteobacteria and Firmucutes, mostly consisting of genera Photobacterium, Brochothrix, and Carnobacterium. The extracts also influenced microbial community in sausages decreasing or increasing bacterial relative abundance. The extracts significantly inhibited lipid oxidation and improved the water-holding capacity of the meat, with C. superba extract showing the strongest influence. In addition, A. melanocarpa and C. superba improved the redness (a*) of the sausages. The results of this study show that A. melanocarpa, C. superba, and C. mas leaf extracts can extend the shelf life of meat products stored in MAP at 4 °C.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Conservação de Alimentos , Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Carne de Porco/análise , Rosaceae/química , Animais , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cor , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sensação , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
18.
J Nutr Biochem ; 95: 108778, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004342

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance and lacks a specific treatment. Our previous studies demonstrated that freeze-dried Saskatoon berry powder (SBp) reduced high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in mice. The present study examined the effect of SBp and one of its active components, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), on hepatic steatosis in mice fed with HFHS diet for 10 weeks. HFHS diet significantly increased fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance, inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inbitor-1), alanine aminotransferase activity, and monocyte adhesion compared to control diet. In the liver, HFHS diet increased steatosis, lipid accumulation, collagen deposition, and the abundance of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, toll-like receptor-4, and macrophage marker. Supplementation with SBp (5%) or C3G in an amount corresponding to that in 5% SBp to HFHS diet had similar effects to reduced fasting plasma glucose, liver steatosis, enzyme activity, lipid, collagen and macrophage deposition, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, monocyte adhesion, markers related to liver steatosis, inflammation, oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral circulation and/or liver compared to mice fed with HFHS diet alone. No significant difference in the studied variables was detected between mice treated with HFHS+SBp and C3G diet. The results suggest that SBp or C3G administration attenuates HFHS diet-induced liver steatosis in addition to insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in mice. C3G may contribute to the beneficial effects of SBp.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Rosaceae/química , Adolescente , Animais , Glicemia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Pós
19.
Planta ; 253(6): 118, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961146

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene family in the seven Rosaceae species (including three pear cultivars) is characterized and three pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes are identified to regulate pollen tube growth in pear. Pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) participates in a variety of biological processes in plants. However, the information and function of PMEI genes in Rosaceae are largely unknown. In this study, a total of 423 PMEI genes are identified in the genomes of seven Rosaceae species. The PMEI genes in pear are categorized into five subfamilies based on structural analysis and evolutionary analysis. WGD and TD are the main duplication events in the PMEI gene family of pear. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicates that PbrPMEI23, PbrPMEI39, and PbrPMEI41 are increasingly expressed during pear pollen tube growth. Under the treatment of recombinant proteins PbrPMEI23, PbrPMEI39 or PbrPMEI41, the content of methylesterified pectin at the region 5-20 µm from the pollen tube tip significantly increases, and the growth of pear pollen tubes is promoted. These results indicate that PMEI regulates the growth of pollen tubes by changing the distribution of methylesterified pectin in the apex.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Rosaceae , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Pectinas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubo Polínico/genética , Pyrus/genética , Rosaceae/genética
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6652777, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987444

RESUMO

Background: The leaves of Hagenia abyssinica have been used in the management of diabetes mellitus in Ethiopian folk medicine. Thus, this study is aimed at investigating the in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the crude extract and solvent fractions of H. abyssinica leaves. Methods: The in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the plant extract were assessed using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA), p-nitro-phenyl-a-D glucopyranoside (p-NPG), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Each value of percent inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and DPPH scavenging effect was presented as means ± SEM (n = 3). Results: The α-amylase inhibitory activity of the crude extract and solvent fractions was found to be concentration-dependent. The strongest activity was exhibited by the crude extract at the highest concentration with a percentage inhibition of 74.52% (IC50, 14.52 µg/ml) followed by water fraction 68.24% (IC50, 16.31 µg/ml), ethyl acetate fraction 61.57% (IC50, 18.73 µg/ml), and chloroform fraction 56.87% (IC50, 21.57 µg/ml) of H. abyssinica leaves. In the α-glucosidase inhibition assay, the maximum activity was exhibited by the aqueous fraction 62.54% (IC50, 11.67 µg/ml) followed by ethyl acetate fraction 54.97% (IC50, 15.89 µg/ml), crude extract 46.79% (IC50, >16.5 µg/ml), and chloroform fraction 36.44% (IC50, >16.5 µg/ml). In the antioxidant assay, the crude extract exhibited the highest antioxidant activity 86.36% (IC50, 10.25 µg/ml) followed by water fraction 78.59% (IC50, 13.86 µg/ml), ethyl acetate fraction 71.58% (IC50, 16.34 µg/ml), and chloroform fraction 63.65% (IC50, 18.83 µg/ml). Conclusion: This study has revealed that H. abyssinica leaves possess noticeable in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais , Rosaceae/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
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