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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 478, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel anti-malarial cipargamin (KAE609) has potent, rapid activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Transient asymptomatic liver function test elevations were previously observed in cipargamin-treated subjects in two trials: one in malaria patients in Asia and one in volunteers with experimentally induced malaria. In this study, the hepatic safety of cipargamin given as single doses of 10 to 150 mg and 10 to 50 mg once daily for 3 days was assessed. Efficacy results, frequency of treatment-emerging mutations in the atp4 gene and pharmacokinetics have been published elsewhere. Further, the R561H mutation in the k13 gene, which confers artemisinin-resistance, was associated with delayed parasite clearance following treatment with artemether-lumefantrine in Rwanda in this study. This was also the first study with cipargamin to be conducted in patients in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a Phase II, multicentre, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation trial in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in five sub-Saharan countries, using artemether-lumefantrine as control. The primary endpoint was ≥ 2 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Grade increase from baseline in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST) during the 4-week trial. RESULTS: Overall, 2/135 patients treated with cipargamin had ≥ 2 CTCAE Grade increases from baseline in ALT or AST compared to 2/51 artemether-lumefantrine patients, with no significant difference between any cipargamin treatment group and the control group. Cipargamin exposure was comparable to or higher than those in previous studies. Hepatic adverse events and general safety and tolerability were similar for all cipargamin doses and artemether-lumefantrine. Cipargamin was well tolerated with no safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: This active-controlled, dose escalation study was a detailed assessment of the hepatic safety of cipargamin, across a wide range of doses, in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Comparison with previous cipargamin trials requires caution as no clear conclusion can be drawn as to whether hepatic safety and potential immunity to malaria would differ with ethnicity, patient age and or geography. Previous concerns regarding hepatic safety may have been confounded by factors including malaria itself, whether natural or experimental infection, and should not limit the further development of cipargamin. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03334747 (7 Nov 2017), other study ID CKAE609A2202.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gabão , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruanda , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
2.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(6): 1374-1378, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic injuries disproportionately affect populations in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where head injuries predominate. The Rwandan Ministry of Health (MOH) has dramatically improved access to emergency services by rebuilding its health infrastructure. The MOH has strengthened the nation's acute emergency response by renovating emergency departments (ED), developing the field of emergency medicine as a specialty, and establishing a prehospital care service: Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). Despite the prevalence of traumatic injury in LMIC and the evolving emergency service in Rwanda, data regarding head trauma epidemiology is lacking. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective cohort study at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTH-K) and used a linked prehospital database to investigate the demographics, mechanism, and degree of acute medical interventions amongst prehospital patients with head injury. RESULTS: Of the 2,426 patients transported by SAMU during the study period, 1,669 were found to have traumatic injuries. Data from 945 prehospital patients were accrued, with 534 (56.5%) of these patients diagnosed with a head injury. The median age was 30 years, with most patients being male (80.3%). Motor vehicle collisions accounted for almost 78% of all head injuries. One in six head injuries were due to a pedestrian struck by a vehicle. Emergency department interventions included intubations (6.7%), intravenous fluids (2.4%), and oxygen administration (4.9%). Alcohol use was not evaluated or could not be confirmed in 81.3% of head injury cases. The median length of stay (LOS) in the ED was two days (interquartile range: 1,3). A total of 184 patients were admitted, with 13% requiring craniotomies; their median in-hospital care duration was 13 days. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of Rwandan trauma patients, head injury was most prevalent amongst males and pedestrians. Alcohol use was not evaluated in the majority of patients. These traumatic patterns were predominantly due to road traffic injury, suggesting that interventions addressing the prevention of this mechanism, and treatment of head injury, may be beneficial in the Rwandan setting.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733389

RESUMO

Introduction: the blended SORT-IT model uses a combination of online modules and teleconferences with local and international mentors to teach operational research. We modified SORT-IT to create the Acute Care Operational Research (ACOR) course directed to anesthesiology residents in Kigali, Rwanda. This course takes students from an initial research idea through submitting a paper for publication. Our viewpoint on entering this study was that ACOR participants would have adequate resources to complete the course, but be hampered by cultural unfamiliarity with the blended teaching approach. Methods: we conducted a qualitative analysis of the experiences of all those who participated in the ACOR course to understand obstacles and improve future course iterations. Six anesthesiology residents participated in the first iteration of the course, with 4 local mentors and 2 secondary mentors, one of whom was based at the University of Virginia, with a total of 12 participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants and mentors, which were independently coded for topics by two reviewers. Results: there was a 50% publication rate for those enrolled in the course and an expected 100% acceptance rate for those who completed the course. Some reported benefits to the course included improved research knowledge, societal improvements, and knowledge exchange. Some reported obstacles to successful course completion included time limitations, background knowledge, and communication. Of note, only 4 out of 12 participants recognized cultural barriers. Conclusion: although successful in the sense that all participants completed their research project, ACOR did not fully solve the main issues hindering research training. Our results show that research training in low-resource settings needs a continuing and formal focus on the factors that hinder participants´ success: mentorship and time.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Internato e Residência , Mentores , Pesquisa Operacional , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ruanda , Estudantes de Medicina
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769730

RESUMO

Most maternal and perinatal deaths could be prevented through timely access to skilled birth attendants. Women should access appropriate obstetric care during pregnancy, labor, and puerperium. Maternity waiting homes (MWHs) permit access to emergency obstetric care when labor starts. This study compared maternal and perinatal outcomes among MWH users and non-users through a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected through obstetric chart reviews and analyzed using STATA version 15. Of the 8144 deliveries reported between 2015 and 2019, 1305 women had high-risk pregnancies and were included in the study. MWH users had more spontaneous vaginal deliveries compared to non-users (38.6% versus 16.8%) and less cesarean sections (57.7% versus 76.7%). Maternal morbidities such as postpartum hemorrhage occurred less frequently among users than non-users (2.13% versus 5.64%). Four women died among non-users while there was no death among users. Non-users had more stillbirths than users (7.68% versus 0.91%). The MWH may have contributed to the observed differences in outcomes. However, many women with high risk pregnancies did not use the MWH, indicating a probable gap in awareness, usefulness, or their inability to stay due to other responsibilities at home. Use of MWHs at scale could improve maternal and perinatal outcomes in Rwanda.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruanda/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1258, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemovigilance is an important element of blood regulation. It includes collecting and evaluating the information on adverse events resulting from the use of blood and blood components with the aim to improve donor and patient safety. We describe the results of the pilot of the integrated GBT+ Blood for the haemovigilance function in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: We piloted the integrated WHO Global Benchmarking Tool plus Blood (GBT+ Blood) to assess the haemovigilance function of national regulatory authorities (NRAs) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Liberia, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Data obtained from documents and face to face interviews were used to determine the status of implementation and performance of the following six indicators; legal provisions regulations and guidelines, organisation and governance, human resources, regulatory processes, transparency and accountability and finally, monitoring progress and assessing impact, by estimating median scores across 20 sub-indicators. In addition, a cluster analysis was performed. RESULTS: The countries showed inter-organisation variability in implementation and performance of the haemovigilance function. The overall median score (all sub-indicators) was 44 % (range: 7.5 % - 70 %). The lowest average performance scores were for the arrangement for effective organisation and coordination (35 %) and human resources (35 %) indicators. The highest average scores were observed for the mechanism to promote transparency and mechanism to monitor regulatory performance indicators (50 % and 60 %, respectively). We identified clusters of best-implemented sub-indicators from the procedures for haemovigilance and poorly implemented sub-indicators from the legal provisions, regulations and guidelines for haemovigilance and human resources. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of sub-indicators and performance of haemovigilance systems varied greatly for all countries with a few countries performing reasonably well in the implementation of some sub-indicators under procedures for haemovigilance. Most countries were poorly implementing sub-indicators in the legal provisions, arrangement for effective organisation and human resources indicators. The legislative provisions in most countries were at a nascent stage. There is a need to set up targeted and customised technical support coupled with prioritised interventions to strengthen the capacities of NRAs.


Assuntos
Segurança do Sangue , Etiópia , Humanos , Quênia , Ruanda , Tanzânia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770086

RESUMO

There is broad consensus that successful and sustained larval source management (LSM) interventions, including bio-larviciding campaigns, require embeddedness in local community institutions. Ideally, these community structures should also be capable of mobilizing local resources to (co-)finance interventions. To date, farmer cooperatives, especially cooperatives of rice growers whose economic activity facilitates mosquito breeding, have remained under the radar in designing community-based bio-larviciding campaigns. This study explores the potential of rice farmer cooperatives in Bugesera district, Rwanda, to take up the aforementioned roles. To this purpose, we surveyed 320 randomly selected rice farmers who belonged to one of four rice cooperatives in the area and elicited their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for application of Bti, a popular bio-larvicide, in their rice paddies. Results from a (non-incentivized) bidding game procedure, which tested two alternative contribution schemes showed that financial contributions would be significantly different from zero and sufficient to carry a co-financing share of 15-25 per cent. A strong heterogeneity in mean WTP is revealed across cooperatives, in addition to variation among individual farmers, which needs to be anticipated when engaging farmer cooperatives in LSM.


Assuntos
Malária , Oryza , Animais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ruanda
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(11): 783-794D, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737471

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate vaccine hesitancy leading to underimmunization and a measles outbreak in Rwanda and to develop a conceptual, community-level model of behavioural factors. Methods: Local immunization systems in two Rwandan communities (one recently experienced a measles outbreak) were explored using systems thinking, human-centred design and behavioural frameworks. Data were collected between 2018 and 2020 from: discussions with 11 vaccination service providers (i.e. hospital and health centre staff); interviews with 161 children's caregivers at health centres; and nine validation interviews with health centre staff. Factors influencing vaccine hesitancy were categorized using the 3Cs framework: confidence, complacency and convenience. A conceptual model of vaccine hesitancy mechanisms with feedback loops was developed. Findings: A comparison of service providers' and caregivers' perspectives in both rural and peri-urban settings showed that similar factors strengthened vaccine uptake: (i) high trust in vaccines and service providers based on personal relationships with health centre staff; (ii) the connecting role of community health workers; and (iii) a strong sense of community. Factors identified as increasing vaccine hesitancy (e.g. service accessibility and inadequate follow-up) differed between service providers and caregivers and between settings. The conceptual model could be used to explain drivers of the recent measles outbreak and to guide interventions designed to increase vaccine uptake. Conclusion: The application of behavioural frameworks and systems thinking revealed vaccine hesitancy mechanisms in Rwandan communities that demonstrate the interrelationship between immunization services and caregivers' vaccination behaviour. Confidence-building social structures and context-dependent challenges that affect vaccine uptake were also identified.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinas , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Análise de Sistemas , Vacinação
9.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 640-653, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593587

RESUMO

Animal source foods (ASFs), including cow's milk, contain essential nutrients and contribute to a healthy diet, but frequency of intake is low among children in low- and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that an ASF social and behavior change communication (SBCC) intervention implemented by community health workers (CHWs) would increase child milk consumption and dietary diversity in households that received a cow from the Government of Rwanda's Girinka livestock transfer program. We tested the 9-month SBCC intervention among children aged 12-29 months at baseline in administrative cells randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Most mothers in the intervention group were exposed to CHWs' home visits (90.7%) or community-level activities (82.8%). At endline, more mothers in the intervention group compared with the control group knew that cow's milk was an ASF (90.1% vs. 81.7%, P=.03) and could be introduced to children at 12 months (41.7% vs. 18.7%, P<.001). More mothers in the intervention group compared with the control group knew they should feed their children ASFs (76.2% vs. 62.1%, P=.01) and give them 1 cup of cow's milk per day (20.6% vs. 7.8%, P<.001). Children's consumption of fresh cow's milk 2 or more times per week increased in the intervention group, although not significantly (8.0 percentage points, P=.17); minimum dietary diversity was unchanged. Children in the intervention group had increased odds of consuming cow's milk 2 or more times per week if their mothers recalled hearing that children should drink 1 cup of cow's milk per day during a CHW's home visit [odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 3.9)] or a community activity [OR 2.0, 95% CI (1.2, 3.5)]. Approximately half of the children had no milk during the past week because their households produced too little or sold what was produced. In poor households receiving a livestock transfer, strategies to further tailor SBCC and increase cow's milk production may be needed to achieve larger increases in children's frequency of milk consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gado , Animais , Bovinos , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leite , Ruanda
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surge capacity refers to preparedness of health systems to face sudden patient inflows, such as mass-casualty incidents (MCI). To strengthen surge capacity, it is essential to understand MCI epidemiology, which is poorly studied in low- and middle-income countries lacking trauma databases. We propose a novel approach, the "systematic media review", to analyze mass-trauma epidemiology; here piloted in Rwanda. METHODS: A systematic media review of non-academic publications of MCIs in Rwanda between January 1st, 2010, and September 1st, 2020 was conducted using NexisUni, an academic database for news, business, and legal sources previously used in sociolegal research. All articles identified by the search strategy were screened using eligibility criteria. Data were extracted in a RedCap form and analyzed using descriptive statistics. FINDINGS: Of 3187 articles identified, 247 met inclusion criteria. In total, 117 MCIs were described, of which 73 (62.4%) were road-traffic accidents, 23 (19.7%) natural hazards, 20 (17.1%) acts of violence/terrorism, and 1 (0.09%) boat collision. Of Rwanda's 30 Districts, 29 were affected by mass-trauma, with the rural Western province most frequently affected. Road-traffic accidents was the leading MCI until 2017 when natural hazards became most common. The median number of injured persons per event was 11 (IQR 5-18), and median on-site deaths was 2 (IQR 1-6); with natural hazards having the highest median deaths (6 [IQR 2-18]). CONCLUSION: In Rwanda, MCIs have decreased, although landslides/floods are increasing, preventing a decrease in trauma-related mortality. By training journalists in "mass-casualty reporting", the potential of the "systematic media review" could be further enhanced, as a way to collect MCI data in settings without databases.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Desastres Naturais , Projetos Piloto , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1064, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, Rwanda launched a 5-year hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination plan as per the World Health Organization global targets to eliminate HCV by 2030. To improve awareness of HCV status, strategies are needed to ensure easy access to HCV testing by as-yet unreached populations. HCV-self-testing, an innovative strategy, could further increase HCV testing uptake. This assessment explores perceptions around HCV self-testing among members of the public and healthcare workers in Rwanda. METHODS: A qualitative study was undertaken in Masaka District Hospital, comprising individual interviews, group interviews and participatory action research (PAR) activities. Purposive and snowball sampling methods guided the selection of informants. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the findings. RESULTS: The participants comprised 36 members of the public and 36 healthcare workers. Informants appreciated HCV self-testing as an innovative means of increasing access to HCV testing, as well as an opportunity to test privately and subsequently autonomously decide whether to seek further HCV care. Informants further highlighted the need to make HCV self-testing services free of charge at the nearest health facility. Disadvantages identified included the lack of pre/post-test counselling, as well as the potential psychosocial harm which may result from the use of HCV self-testing. CONCLUSION: HCV self-testing is perceived to be an acceptable method to increase HCV testing in Rwanda. Further research is needed to assess the impact of HCV self-testing on HCV cascade of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Autoteste , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ruanda , Uganda
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504821

RESUMO

Objective: Johnson & Johnson Global Public Health and the Ministry of Health of Rwanda strengthened the mental health awareness by providing an innovative, low-cost, easily accessible, and scalable remote training service (RTS) on mental health for Community Health Workers (CHWs). Methods: The RTS consisted of eight training modules shared via simple feature phones over a 4-week period. Quiz questions and baseline/endline assessments were included to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the training platform, the knowledge and self-confidence gained by the CHWs, and prospects for the sustainability of the platform. Results: Ninety-three percent of the CHWs completed at least four of the eight training modules, and 42% of the CHWs improved with a higher end score. The training content was considered interesting, easy to understand, and helpful to intervene appropriately to refer patients with signs of mental illness to a hospital and to provide community and family education on mental health topics. Conclusion: The RTS is feasible and acceptable for the delivery of mental health training on a large scale and contributed to strengthening the capacity in delivering mental health care at community level.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Ruanda
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5705, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588460

RESUMO

COVID-19 transmission rates are often linked to locally circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe 203 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences analyzed from strains circulating in Rwanda from May 2020 to February 2021. In particular, we report a shift in variant distribution towards the emerging sub-lineage A.23.1 that is currently dominating. Furthermore, we report the detection of the first Rwandan cases of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern among incoming travelers tested at Kigali International Airport. To assess the importance of viral introductions from neighboring countries and local transmission, we exploit available individual travel history metadata to inform spatio-temporal phylogeographic inference, enabling us to take into account infections from unsampled locations. We uncover an important role of neighboring countries in seeding introductions into Rwanda, including those from which no genomic sequences were available. Our results highlight the importance of systematic genomic surveillance and regional collaborations for a durable response towards combating COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Ruanda/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048425, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548353

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Hypertension is the largest contributor to the Global Burden of Disease. In Rwanda, as in most low-income and middle-income countries, an increasing prevalence of hypertension and its associated morbidity and mortality is causing major healthcare and economic impact. Understanding healthcare systems context in hypertension care is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To study the hypertension healthcare context as perceived by healthcare providers using the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool. DESIGN: A cross-sectional cohort responded to the COACH questionnaire and a survey about hypertension training. SETTING: Three tertiary care hospitals in Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare professionals (n=223). PRIMARY OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The COACH tool consists of 49 items with eight subscales: resources, community engagement, commitment to work, informal payment, leadership, work culture, monitoring services for action (5-point Likert Scale) and sources of knowledge (on a 0-1 scale). Four questions surveyed training on hypertension. RESULTS: Responders (n=223, 75% women; 56% aged 20-35 years) included nurses (n=142, 64%, midwives (n=42, 19%), primary care physicians (n=28, 13%) and physician specialists (n=11, 5%)). The subscales commitment to work, leadership, work culture and informal payment scored between 4.7 and 4.1 and the community engagement, monitoring services for action and organizational resources scored between 3.1 and 3.5. Sources of knowledge had a mean score of 0.6±0.3. While 73% reported having attended a didactic hypertension seminar in the past year, only 28% had received long-term training and 51% had <3-year experience working with hypertension care delivery. The majority (99%) indicated a need for additional training in hypertension care. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for increased and continuous training in Rwanda. Healthcare responders stated a commitment to work and reported supportive leadership, while acknowledging limited resources and no monitoring systems. The COACH tool provides contextual guidance to develop training strategies prior to the implementation of a sustainable hypertension care programme.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
MEDICC Rev ; 23(3-4): 15-20, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516532

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact worldwide with regions experiencing varying degrees of severity. African countries have mounted different response strategies eliciting varied outcomes. Here, we compare these response strategies in Rwanda, South Africa and Zimbabwe and discuss lessons that could be shared. In particular, Rwanda has a robust and coordinated national health system that has effectively contained the epidemic. South Africa has considerable testing capacity, which has been used productively in a national response largely funded by local resources but affected negatively by corruption. Zimbabwe has an effective point-of-entry approach that utilizes an innovative strategic information system. All three countries would benefit having routine meetings to share experiences and lessons learned during the COVD-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Cuba , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 135, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Offspring of the parents with mental disorders are at higher risk to have the mental diseases throughout the world. This study examined the association between psychopathology of parents and the mental health of their offspring in Neuropsychiatric Hospital of Rwanda, Butare Branch. METHODS: A cross-sectional study made up of case and control offspring was conducted on the case group made up of 80 offspring born to parents with mental diseases and a control group of 80 offspring from parents without mental disease. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, α = 0.82), Posttraumatic stress disorders scale (PTSD, α = 0.73) and the Test of Psychological Problems (TPP, α = 0.93) were used. STATISTICA version 8 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Results indicated a significance difference between the two groups on depressive symptoms, psychological problems and PTSD symptomatology. The case group seemed to experience high level symptoms than the control group. Results indicated that, among the offspring born to parents with mental disease, there was a significant correlation between anxiety and depression symptoms (r = 0.71, p < .001), PTSD and eating disorder (r = 0.75, p < .001), domestic violence and PTSD (r = 0.78, p < .001), aggressive behavior and PTSD (r = 0.79, p < .001), somatoform disorders and PTSD (r = 0.98, p < .001). No significant association between the low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, mental disorders induced drug abuse and PTSD was found. CONCLUSION: Offspring of the parents with mental disorders had higher risk to develop mental diseases than the offspring born to the parents without mental diseases. Taking into account the assessment of parents' mental illness when taking care of the offspring's psychological disorders is needed in the neuropsychiatric hospital.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Pais , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(292): 252-254, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464363

RESUMO

The treatment of patients with obstructive airway diseases is based on the use of inhalation preparations. Some of them, mainly including pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), contain compressed gases - hydrofluoroalkanes, which generate carbon dioxide emissions, creating the so-called carbon footprint. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption of individual active substances, the types of inhalers used and calculation of the carbon footprint of therapies in patients with asthma in 2018 and 2019 in Poland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ratio of pMDI vs DPI (dry powder inhaler) data and the data on using in patients with asthma long-acting ß2-agonists (LABAs), short-acting ß2-agonists antagonists (SABAs), long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), LAMA+LABAs, LAMA+LABA+ICSs (inhaled corticosteroids) on Polish market during 2018 and 2019 were analyzed. The carbon footprint of such therapies was counted. Then, we studied the reduction of the carbon footprint for scenario A (reducing pMDI by 50%) and scenario B (reducing pMDI by 80%) in the following steps of analysis. RESULTS: The general structure of pMDI/DPI in Poland in asthma patients was not changed in 2019 vs 2018. The carbon footprint is primarily created by pMDI SABAs. In 2019 in Poland pMDI SABAs were 1.9 mio units (the same as in 2018), which generated 36.8 kt CO2e annually. Scenario A gives us a benefit of 17.4 kt CO2e reduction and scenario B brings us a benefit of 28.0 kt CO2e reduction of emissions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite Poland's ratification the Kigali amendment did not affect pMDI consumption by asthma patients and did not reduce the carbon footprint. The lower carbon footprint of DPIs should be considered alongside other factors when choosing inhalation devices.


Assuntos
Asma , Pegada de Carbono , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Humanos , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Ruanda
20.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1953250, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curative direct-acting antiviral treatment (DAA) has made it plausible to implement hepatitis C elimination interventions. However, poor hepatitis C knowledge among patients could impede the effectiveness of screening and treatment programs. OBJECTIVE: We assessed knowledge on hepatitis C among rural Rwandans initiating DAA treatment for hepatitis C in a prospective cohort. METHODS: We administered 15 true-false statements before treatment initiation and during one follow-up visit occurring either 1 or 2 months after treatment initiation. We assessed the average number of correct responses per patient, the proportion of correct responses to individual statements, pre-treatment predictors of knowledge, and whether post-initiation knowledge was associated with time since treatment initiation, quality of care, or adherence. RESULTS: Among 333 patients who answered knowledge questions before treatment initiation, 325 (97.6%) were re-assessed at a post-initiation visit. Pre-initiation, 72.1% knew hepatitis C was curable, 61.9% knew that hepatitis C could cause liver damage or cancer, and 42.3% knew that people with hepatitis C could look and feel fine. The average number of correct responses was 8.1 out of 15 (95% CI: 7.8-8.5), but was significantly lower among those with low educational attainment or with low literacy. Post-initiation, correct responses increased by an average of 2.0 statements (95% CI: 1.6, 2.4, p-value <0.001). Many patients still mistakenly believed that hepatitis C could be transmitted through kissing (66.5%), eating utensils (44.1%), handshakes (34.8%), and hugs (34.8%). Post-initiation knowledge is inversely associated with self-reported quality of care and unassociated with self-reported adherence. CONCLUSION: Although knowledge improved over time, key gaps persisted among patients. Accessible public education campaigns targeted to low-literacy populations emphasizing that hepatitis C can be asymptomatic, has severe consequences, and is curable could promote participation in mass screening campaigns and linkage to care. Visual tools could facilitate clinician-provided patient education.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruanda
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