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1.
J Sex Med ; 18(9): 1615-1631, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unusual sexual interests are largely intercorrelated, yet not much is known about underlying patterns of clusters between various sexual interests. AIM: To identify underlying clusters of unusual sexual interests using exploratory factor analysis. METHODS: We conducted exploratory factor analysis with self-reported interest in a wide variety of unusual sexual acts for an online, international sample (N = 669; 61% female), and for women and men separately. Factor regression weights were correlated to self-reported sex life satisfaction, sexual outlet, and psychiatric symptoms. OUTCOMES: Participants rated the attractiveness of 50 unusual sexual activities, and reported on their sex life satisfaction (Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale), sexual outlet, and symptoms regarding ADHD (Adult ADHD Self-Report Screening Scale for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, and stress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale). RESULTS: We identified 5 factors of unusual sexual interests that were largely comparable for women and men: submission/masochism, forbidden sexual activities, dominance/sadism, mysophilia (attraction to dirtiness or soiled things), and fetishism. For women, unusual sexual interests related to more psychiatric symptoms and higher sexual outlet, whereas this relation was less explicit for men. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Different factors of unusual sexual interests may serve different underlying functions or motivations, for instance related to sexual, and emotional regulation. A better understanding of the nature of unusual sexual interests is important to be able to influence sexual interests that are unwanted or cause damage to others. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Strength of this study include its anonymity, the avoidance of sexual orientation effects, and the possibility to indicate only a slight endorsement toward sexual items. Limitations include the sample's generalizability and the truthfulness of online responding. CONCLUSION: Unusual sexual interests could be clustered into 5 factors that were largely comparable for women and men: submission/masochism, forbidden sexual activities, dominance/sadism, mysophilia, and fetishism. Schippers EE, Smid WJ, Huckelba AL, et al. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Unusual Sexual Interests. J Sex Med 2021;18:1615-1631.


Assuntos
Masoquismo , Sadismo , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Aggress Behav ; 47(6): 635-645, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402070

RESUMO

Research on the personality foundations of aggression typically implicates either (a) aspects of the so-called "Dark Tetrad" or (b) severe mental disturbance (psychosis). The appearance of psychotic symptoms in general populations is termed schizotypy. We conducted two studies to compare the effects of dark personalities and schizotypy on aggression. Study 1 used standard inventories to investigate the overlap of Dark Tetrad traits with schizotypy in a sample of 977 undergraduates. All tetrad traits except narcissism were positively associated with schizotypy, but only at moderate levels. Study 2 administered the same personality battery to 303 members of an online community sample: Aggression outcomes were measured with both self-reports and a behavioral measure-the Voodoo Doll Task. Regression analyses determined the unique contributions of the five personality variables. Two dark traits-psychopathy and sadism-were strong predictors of self-report aggression. Schizotypy added incrementally to the Dark Tetrad in predicting both self-report and behaviorally measured aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Sadismo
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069273

RESUMO

Children and adolescents are too often victims of sexual abuse and harassment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 150 million girls and 73 million children <18 have been victims of violence and sexual exploitation during their childhood. Data show that females are more likely to be a victim of abuse and violence than males (20% vs. 5-10%). Such abuses lead to long-term psychophysical and relational consequences and victims are often afraid of asking for support from both parents and professionals. This case report shows the story of a 17-year-old adolescent, Sara, involved by her mother in a strategic counseling process, to solve BDSM-type sexual addiction (slavery and discipline, domination and submission, sadism and masochism), self-aggressive behavior, and alcohol abuse issues. The strategic counseling process is structured in 15 sessions and was based on problem-solving techniques and corrective behavioral strategies. During the sessions, it emerged that Sara had been a victim of sexual violence at the age of 6 and that she had never talked about the rape with anyone. At the age of 12, she began to experience social anxiety and shame, feelings that led her to use alcohol and seek violent sexual partners and bondage relationships. During the counseling sessions, Sara elaborated on her trauma, becoming more aware of her resources and her desires, and she learned to manage the sense of guilt and shame associated with the violence suffered, through alternative strategies. At the end of the process, Sara normalized her relationship with sex and alcohol, regaining her identity.


Assuntos
Sadismo , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masoquismo , Comportamento Sexual
4.
J Sex Med ; 18(3): 556-564, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BDSM is an acronym describing bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism. Afflicting or receiving pain is usually an important part of the BDSM interaction. AIM: This research will focus on better understanding the aspect of pain within a BDSM interaction. METHODS: Submissive and dominant counterparts of 35 couples were recruited to participate in a BDSM interaction, of which 34 dominants and 33 submissives were included in the analyses. A non-BDSM interested control group (n = 27) was included to control for social interaction, of which 24 were included in the analyses. OUTCOMES: This research investigates the differences in (i) baseline pain thresholds, (ii) the impact of a BDSM interaction on those thresholds, and (iii) threshold moderating factors like pain cognition between submissive and dominant BDSM participants and control individuals. RESULTS: BDSM practitioners have a higher pain threshold overall and a BSDM interaction will result in a temporary elevation of pain thresholds for submissives. Additionally, pain thresholds in dominants will be dependent upon their fear of pain and tendency to catastrophize pain and submissives will experience less fear of pain than the control group. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: By further enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms behind a BDSM interaction in this way, we aspire to relieve the stigma these practitioners still endure. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: This is one of the first studies of its kind with a large sample size compared to similar research, which makes it a significant contribution to the field. It must be mentioned that there is a possible selection bias because recruitment was only done through the Flemish BDSM community and specifically those who visit clubs. Additionally, pain threshold remains a subjective measurement, which must be taken into account. CONCLUSION: This study helps shed further light on the biological processes behind a BDSM interaction through pain threshold measurements. Wuyts E, De Neef N, Coppens V, et al. Beyond Pain: A Study on the Variance of Pain Thresholds Within BDSM Interactions in Dominants and Submissives. J Sex Med 2021;18:556-564.


Assuntos
Limiar da Dor , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Masoquismo , Dor , Sadismo
5.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(3): 761-771, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650015

RESUMO

This commentary begins by describing the author's research and expert witness practice serving sex and gender minorities, especially practitioners of BDSM/kinky sex. Then, it reviews the three most common reasons that BDSM is legally prosecuted. First, consent: was this assault, rape, and/or kidnapping, or was it consensual kinky sex that either got out of hand or is now being strategically employed to punish the other partner? Second, age play: was this adult trying to have sex with children or was he (and it is virtually always men) intending to age play with an adult who is pretending to be an adolescent? Third, death by kinky sex: was this a person who murdered their lover or was this an accidental death? Finally, this article concludes with recommendations for kinksters who wish to assure consent and safe play, and for litigators involved in the prosecution of kinky sex.


Assuntos
Masoquismo/complicações , Sadismo/complicações , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Masculino , Masoquismo/mortalidade , Sadismo/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
J Sex Med ; 18(3): 549-555, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that participation in BDSM (bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, and/or sadism-masochism) is not associated with psychological distress or psychopathology but that sexual roles may be associated with personality characteristics, specifically interpersonal dominance and empathy. AIM: The present study examined potential differences between those who identify as dominant, switch, and submissive on interpersonal dominance and empathy. METHODS: Individuals who identified as members of the BDSM community were recruited online via a social networking site. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported demographic variables, the Personality Assessment Inventory, Dominance subscale, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Empathic Concern subscale. RESULTS: Participants were well distributed across sexual roles (n = 279; 25.4% dominant, 38% submissive, 36.6% switch), identified as primarily female (59.5%), primarily heterosexual (53.4%), and the most common age group was 25-34 years (27.2%). BDSM role was associated with scores on the Dominance subscale; dominant BDSM practitioners scored significantly higher on the Dominance scale than switches, who in turn scored significantly higher than submissives (dominant mean [M] = 61.44, standard deviation [SD] = 8.26; switch M = 53.99, SD = 11.18, P < .01; submissive M = 49.41, SD = 11.46, P < .01). There were no differences on the measure of empathy between dominant, submissive, and switch BDSM practitioners. On average, individuals who identified as submissives and switches scored in the average range on the Dominance scale compared with the normative sample, and individuals who identified as dominants scored higher but not in the markedly elevated range. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The study provides information on the relationship between interpersonal dominance as a personality trait and dominance as a sexual role and has implications for reducing stigma related to these practices. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: The study contributes to the growing literature suggesting that while BDSM roles may correspond with specific personality characteristics, they are not indicative of personalities significantly different than the general population's. The study also included individuals who identified as switch, a group often excluded from quantitative research in the BDSM community. The sample was, however, recruited exclusively online, and findings may not be applicable to all BDSM practitioners. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there are no differences in empathy between BDSM practitioner roles, and although there are differences in interpersonal dominance, these characteristics are not likely to be prominent in individuals' everyday interactions. Jansen KL, Fried AL, Chamberlain J. An Examination of Empathy and Interpersonal Dominance in BDSM Practitioners. J Sex Med 2021;18:549-555.


Assuntos
Empatia , Masoquismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Sadismo , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Addict Dis ; 39(3): 307-315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499773

RESUMO

Background: Research has shown that personality traits can have an important role in the development and maintenance of behavioral addictions. However, the relationship between dark personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, sadism, spitefulness) and 'study addiction' has yet to be investigated.Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of dark traits with study addiction among the total sample, males, and females separately, while adjusting for the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness).Methods: A total of 716 university students completed an online survey, including questions assessing the aforementioned variables.Results: Hierarchical regression analysis suggested that being female, neuroticism, conscientiousness, Machiavellianism, and sadism were positively associated with study addiction. However, dark personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, sadism) were significantly related to study addiction only in males but not in females.Conclusions: Findings of this preliminary study suggest that dark personality traits may be better at explaining male addictive studying patterns and that gender should be taken into account when investigating the role of personality in the development of study addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Narcisismo , Neuroticismo , Psicopatologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(5): 2163-2171, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156438

RESUMO

Sexual sadism is a paraphilia that focuses on domination, humiliation, and infliction of pain on a victim to stimulate sexual arousal. Although extensively described in psychology and forensic sciences, less is known about whether the harmful acts committed by sexual sadists are accompanied by deficits in moral judgment. A limited amount of behavioral research suggests moral insensitivity in sexual sadists; however, the neural networks underlying moral judgment in sadists have not been studied. In this pilot study, 21 incarcerated male sexual offenders with (n = 11) and without (n = 10) sexual sadism were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they viewed pictures that did or did not depict situations considered by most individuals to represent moral transgressions, and rated their degree of moral transgression severity. Results indicated primarily overlapping neural systems underlying moral judgment in sadists and non-sadists. However, non-sadists but not sadists showed a positive correlation between moral transgression severity ratings and activity in the anterior temporal cortex (ATC). This lack of ATC engagement in sadists might be a biomarker of altered moral judgment.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Sadismo , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Projetos Piloto , Sadismo/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(3): 1197-1206, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935177

RESUMO

Despite the gaining popularity in mainstream media of the phenomenon that is BDSM, empirical research on the motives and underlying psychological mechanisms driving BDSM practitioners is scarce. The current study focused on the potential driving roles of sensation seeking and coping styles in BDSM-related interests and behavior. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was completed by 256 Dutch-speaking BDSM practitioners (110 men, 135 women, 7 gender fluid, 2 genderless, 1 other not specified), 1 missing (this participant did not answer the question regarding gender, but did answer all other survey items) and a matched control group lacking any BDSM interest recruited from the general Belgian population (N = 300; 135 men, 158 women, 4 gender fluid, 3 genderless). The questionnaire consisted of several items surveying different BDSM identities and interest levels of BDSM-related activities, an adapted version of the Dutch Sensation Seeking Scale, and items querying seven coping styles. Compared to controls, BDSM practitioners reported significantly higher levels of sensation seeking for all dimensions (experience seeking, thrill seeking, and distraction seeking), as well as the use of more active coping skills such as problem solving and taking action. Gender differentiated which specific coping skills were being used with women seeking out more emotional support and comfort and reaching out more for help and advice in both the BDSM and control group, and men taking more action and seeking distraction in leisure. About 40% of the practitioners reported using BDSM itself as a coping strategy. Further research is needed to explore the link between coping and sexuality in general, and to other psychological processes that drive BDSM interests in order to destigmatize and normalize consensual BDSM-related activities within the general population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Masoquismo/psicologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(11): 1944-1947, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the concept of moderating effect of misanthropic beliefs in the relationship involving revenge tendencies, sadism and schadenfreude among clinical and non-clinical adults. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan, over a period of one year from 2017 to 2018, and comprised adults aged 22-65 years in both clinical and no-clinical settings enrolled from the University of Sargodha, Punjab Institute of Mental Health and the Fountain House. Data was collected using Vengeance, Misanthropic, Short Sadistic Impulse and Perceived Schadenfreude scales. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 500 subjects, 250 (50%) each were in the clinical and non-clinical groups. Misanthropic beliefs were found to moderate the relationship involving revenge attitude, sadism and schadenfreude in both groups (p<0,05). CONCLUSIONS: Misanthropic beliefs moderated the relationship involving revenge attitude, schadenfreude and sadism.


Assuntos
Atitude , Sadismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psico USF ; 25(4): 725-736, out.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155085

RESUMO

Objetivou-se reunir evidências psicométricas da Comprehensive Assessment of Sadistic Tendencies (CAST) no Brasil. Os resultados da análise fatorial exploratória indicaram uma solução unifatorial, com adequada precisão, tendo itens com discriminação entre moderada e muito alta, cobrindo uma ampla faixa do traço latente. As correlações da CAST com a Tríade Sombria, amabilidade e conscienciosidade e com os fatores da escala de agressão são evidências de validade convergente, além do sadismo ter um incremento significativo na explicação do comportamento agressivo. Pensando no avanço dos estudos sobre a Tétrade Sombria, selecionaram-se os quatro itens mais informativos da CAST, acoplando-os aos 12 da Dirty Dozen, testados por meio de uma análise fatorial confirmatória, apresentaram indicadores de ajuste aceitáveis. No conjunto, os resultados reúnem evidências da adequação psicométrica da CAST, oferecendo uma versão curta e eficaz para avaliação da Tétrade Sombria. (AU)


The objective of the study was to collect psychometric evidence for the Comprehensive Assessment of Sadistic Tendencies (CAST) in Brazil. The results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated a unifactorial solution with adequate reliability and moderate to high discrimination items, covering a wide range of the latent trait. Correlations of the CAST with the Dark Triad, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and with the factors of the aggression scale are evidence of convergent validity. Moreover, sadism significantly increases the explanation of aggressive behavior. Bearing in mind the development of studies on the Dark Tetrad, the four most informative items of the CAST combined with the 12 items of the Dirty Dozen were tested using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis and presented acceptable indexes of fit. Overall, the findings gather evidence of psychometric suitability of the CAST and provide a short and efficient tool to assess the Dark Tetrad. (AU)


Se buscó reunir evidencias psicométricas de la Comprehensive Assessment of Sadistic Tendencies (CAST) en Brasil. Los resultados del Análisis Factorial Exploratorio indicaron una solución unifactorial, con adecuada precisión, teniendo ítems con discriminación moderada y muy alta, cubriendo una amplia parte del rasgo latente. Las correlaciones de la CAST con la Tríada Oscura, amabilidad y concienciosidad y con los factores de la escala de agresión son evidencias de validez convergente, además del sadismo tener un incremento significativo en la explicación del comportamiento agresivo. Considerando el curso de los estudios sobre la Tétrada Oscura, se seleccionaron los cuatro ítems más informativos de la CAST, acoplándolos a los 12 de Dirty Dozen, evaluados por medio de un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio, presentaron indicadores de ajuste aceptables. En el conjunto, los resultados reúnen evidencias de la adecuación psicométrica de la CAST, ofreciendo una versión corta y eficaz para la evaluación de la Tétrada Oscura. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Personalidade , Sadismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
12.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(5): 1173-1192, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744736

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to identify the effects of dark tetrad personality traits (such as narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and sadism) on counterproductive work behavior with the mediating role of psychological contract breach and the moderating effect of political skills. Previous researches have focused on the direct effect of the dark triad to measure the counterproductive work behavior of individuals. Recently, everyday sadism has been added to the dark triad and become dark tetrad personality traits. Therefore, this study examines the dark tetrad personality traits to study counterproductive work behavior. This study applied structural equation modeling using partial least square to test the hypotheses on a sample of 400 doctors from the health sector of Pakistan. The results of this study reveal that dark tetrad has a positive and significant effect on counterproductive work behavior, and psychological contract breach significantly partially mediates in the relationship between dark tetrad and counterproductive work behavior. Furthermore, findings show that the moderating effect of political skills also positively and significantly strengthening the link between dark tetrad and the psychological contract breach. The conclusion of this study is made an innovative contribution to the Pakistan health sector, researchers and policy makers to designing the relevant practical implications.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Personalidade , Médicos/psicologia , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Narcisismo , Paquistão , Psicopatologia , Sadismo/psicologia
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(7): 441-446, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364769

RESUMO

Internet trolling is commonly defined as disruptive online behavior, intended to provoke and distress others for amusement. Previous research has shown that gender (specifically, male), trait psychopathy, and trait sadism significantly predict engaging in trolling. In this study, we sought to replicate and extend previous research by exploring the role of self-esteem in predicting trolling, and possible interactions between self-esteem and personality. Participants (n = 400, 67.5 percent women, average age = 24.97 years [SD = 8.84]) completed an online questionnaire, including measures of psychopathy, sadism, self-esteem, and trolling behaviors. Results corroborated previous research showing gender (male) to be a significant predictor of trolling, and trait psychopathy and sadism to be significant positive predictors. Although self-esteem had no additional value on top of trait psychopathy and sadism in explaining trolling, there was a significant interaction between self-esteem and trait sadism. A moderation analysis indicated a positive relationship between self-esteem and trolling, but only when trait sadism was high. These results portray the troll as a callous individual may enjoy causing psychological harm, particularly if their self-esteem is high. These results contribute to building the psychological profile of trolls and provide future directions for research exploring trolling behaviors.


Assuntos
Internet , Sadismo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sex Med ; 17(4): 784-792, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BDSM is an abbreviation used to reference the concepts of bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, sadism, and masochism, enacted by power exchanges between consensual partners. AIM: To shed light upon the rewarding biological mechanisms associated with BDSM interactions. METHODS: A group of 35 BDSM couples (dominant and submissive counterparts) were recruited and tested during a BDSM interaction, with an additional control group of 27 non-BDSM interested people tested in a normal social interaction. OUTCOMES: We compared the evolution of the stress and reward hormone levels of cortisol, beta-endorphins, and endocannabinoids (2AG and anandamide) in a group of BDSM practitioners before and after an active BDSM interaction with the levels in control individuals. RESULTS: We showed that submissives showed increases in cortisol and endocannabinoid levels due to the BDSM interaction, with dominants only showing increased endocannabinoid levels when the BDSM interaction was associated with power play. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study effectively provides a link between behavior that many think of as aberrant on one hand, and biological pleasure experience on the other, in the hope that it may relieve some of the stigma these practitioners still endure. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: It is one of the first and largest studies of its kind, but is still limited in sample size and only represents a specific population of Flemish BDSM practitioners. CONCLUSION: Even though this is one of the first studies of its kind, we can conclude that there is a clear indication for increased pleasure in submissives when looking at biological effects of a BDSM interaction, which was related to the increases in experienced stress. Wuyts E, De Neef N, Coppens V, et al. Between Pleasure and Pain: A Pilot Study on the Biological Mechanisms Associated With BDSM Interactions in Dominants and Submissives. J Sex Med 2020;17:784-792.


Assuntos
Masoquismo/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 131-146, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969026

RESUMO

Nineteenth-century art historian John Addington Symonds coined the term hæmatomania (blood madness) for the extremely bloodthirsty behaviour of a number of disturbed rulers like Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya (850-902) and Ezzelino da Romano (1194-1259). According to Symonds, this mental pathology was linked to melancholy and caused by an excess of black bile. I explore the historical credibility of this theory of 'wild melancholy', a type of melancholia that crucially deviates from the lethargic main type. I conclude that in its pure form Symonds' black bile theory of hæmatomania was never a broadly supported perspective, but can be traced back to the nosology of the ninth-century physician Ishaq ibn Imran, who practised at the Aghlabid court, to which the sadistic Ibrahim II belonged.


Assuntos
Bile , Transtorno Depressivo/história , Teoria Humoral , Psicologia/história , Mundo Árabe/história , Transtorno Bipolar/história , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Filosofia Médica/história , Teoria Psicológica , Sadismo/história
16.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 67: 101458, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sadistic pleasure - the enjoyment of harm-infliction to others - can have devastating interpersonal and societal consequences. The current knowledge on non-sexual, subclinical forms of sadistic pleasure is poor. The present study therefore focussed on the personality correlates of sadistic pleasure and investigated the relationship between the different subcomponents of psychopathy and both dispositional and state-level sadistic pleasure. METHOD: N = 120 males drawn from a community sample filled out questionnaires to assess their level of psychopathy and dispositional sadism. Then, participants engaged in a bug-grinder procedure in which they were led to believe that they were killing pill bugs. The positive affect they reported after ostensibly killing the bugs served as measures of sadistic pleasure. The bug-grinding task was repeated a second time after installing either a positive victim attitude combined with giving human names to the bugs, or a negative victim attitude combined with labeling the bugs with numbers. RESULTS: Although the Self-centred Impulsivity component of psychopathy had some relevance to sadism, it was the Coldheartedness subscale that showed the strongest relationship to sadistic pleasure. Specifically, increased Coldheartedness was uniquely related to more positive affect, along with less guilt after bug grinding. LIMITATIONS: Drawbacks of the study include the unique reliance on a male, community sample, and the potential impact of demand characteristics, including a suggestion that the participant put at least some bugs into the grinder. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the differential predictive value of psychopathy components for sadistic pleasure. Coldheartedness can be considered especially disturbing because of its unique relationship to harm-infliction of the most irreversible nature (i.e. killing), and gaining pleasure out of it.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Sadismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Prazer , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pers ; 88(4): 780-793, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on prior research linking masochism and antisocial behavior to sensation seeking, we hypothesized that masochistic and antisocial preferences are positively correlated. Besides sensation seeking, we tested whether disgust sensitivity (due to its inhibitory function) and shared social values (e.g., stimulation) accounted for the masochistic-antisocial link. We additionally examined the link in relation to broad personality factors. METHOD: Six online and laboratory studies (N = 2,999) with US-American and European samples. RESULTS: We consistently found positive correlations between masochistic enjoyment (e.g., enjoying the burn of spicy food, disgusting jokes, pounding heart, painful massage) and antisocial traits such as subclinical psychopathy, everyday sadism, and low Honesty-Humility. We observed behavioral correlations in that experienced pleasure of a painful event was positively related to causing another person to feel pain. Shared sensation seeking, low disgust sensitivity, and endorsement of social values such as social power, hedonism, and a stimulating life partially accounted for the masochistic-antisocial link. CONCLUSION: The extent to which a person enjoys threatening stimuli on the self is reliably related to how much a person enjoys and evokes others' suffering. Future research could explore the common core that underlies common masochistic and antisocial preferences beyond the mediators tested here.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Masoquismo/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Asco , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sadismo/fisiopatologia
19.
J Sex Res ; 57(6): 781-811, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617765

RESUMO

BDSM (bondage, discipline, dominance, submission, and sadomasochism) encompasses a diverse set of sexual interests. Research interests in BDSM have been historically underpinned by examining potential mental health issues, unhealthy fixations on specific sexual behaviors, and/or the presence of childhood trauma, as is predicted by psychopathological and psychoanalytic models. The objective of this scoping review was to provide an overview of the current landscape of BDSM research, including incidence rates, evidence for psychopathological, psychoanalytical, biological, and social etiological factors, demographics of BDSM practitioners, and the psychological correlates of those with BDSM interests. After the literature search and screening process, 60 articles were included. BDSM related fantasies were found to be common (40-70%) in both males and females, while about 20% reported engaging in BDSM. Results show little support for psychopathologic or psychoanalytic models. In the selected samples studied, BDSM practitioners appear to be white, well educated, young, and do not show higher rates of mental health or relationship problems. Research supports BDSM being used as a broadening of sexual interests and behaviors instead of a fixation on a specific interest. Future empirical research should focus on non-pathological models of BDSM, discrimination of BDSM practitioners, interpersonal relationships, and biological factors.


Assuntos
Dominação-Subordinação , Masoquismo/epidemiologia , Sadismo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Masoquismo/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Personalidade , Prevalência , Teoria Psicanalítica , Papel (figurativo) , Sadismo/etiologia
20.
J Pers Assess ; 102(6): 770-780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609650

RESUMO

Subclinical sadism has received substantial attention in recent research as a trait that predicts a variety of malevolent behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess the 'psychometric robustness and portability' of the Assessment of Sadistic Personality (ASP). We examined the convergent and discriminant validity, and invariance of translated versions of the ASP within community samples of Polish and Italian individuals. The study included 568 individuals (340 women and 228 men) residing in Italy (Mage = 23.57, SDage = 2.55) and 556 individuals (411 women, 144 men, 1 other) residing in Poland (Mage = 23.48, SDage = 4.60). For cultural invariance purposes, data from a Canadian sample comprising 638 students were used. To establish convergent and discriminant validity, participants completed measures of sadism, the Dark Triad, the Big Five, interpersonal reactivity, and maladaptive traits described in the DSM-5. Across both samples, convergent and discriminant validity were supported. Configural and partial metric invariance were satisfied, and following implementation of alignment optimization, latent mean differences were evaluated between countries. Results of the study supported the psychometric qualities of the ASP across different cultures and languages, and the utility of the ASP as a valid measure extending beyond university samples.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/normas , Sadismo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Polônia
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