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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 176: 106810, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049285

RESUMO

Pedestrian vehicle conflicts at non-signalized crosswalks are a world-wide safety concern. Although the "pedestrian priority" policy is applied in some regions to improve pedestrian safety, its effect needs further investigation. This study proposes the Lane-based Distance-Velocity model (LDV) to investigate pedestrian-vehicle interaction at non-signalized crosswalks. Compared with the DV model, the LDV model considers the lateral distance between vehicles and pedestrians. Therefore, the LDV model extends the application of the DV model by allowing it to be applied not only on one-lane streets to multi-lane streets. The conflict severities of pedestrian-vehicle interaction in the LDV model are classified into four categories: safe-passage, mild-interaction, potential-conflict and potential-collision. Based on that, pedestrian crossing decisions are graded as safe-crossing, risky-crossing, and dangerous-crossing. The experimental data are collected at a non-signalized crosswalk through drone footage collected in Xi'an City (China) with a Machine Vision Intelligent Algorithm. The model is tested through a case study to evaluate pedestrian crossing safety when interacting with private cars and taxis. Results from the case study suggest that the proposed model works well in the pedestrian-vehicle interaction analysis. Firstly, 87.9% of drivers are willing to provide right-of-way to pedestrians when they have enough time to react and yield. Then, both the DV model and LDV model have reached consistent conclusions: the deliberate violation rate (DVR) of taxi drivers is 22.64%, which is double that of private car drivers. Last, taxis commit a higher percentage of pedestrians' dangerous or risky crossing situations than private cars. Relevant government departments can utilize the results of this study to manage urban traffic better and improve pedestrian safety.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Automóveis , Cidades , Humanos , Segurança , Caminhada
2.
Br J Community Nurs ; 27(9): 420-421, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070325

Assuntos
Segurança , Humanos
3.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 29(3): 279-280, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048416

Assuntos
Segurança , Humanos
4.
Nature ; 609(7926): 220, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071194
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078343

RESUMO

Road project sites are dangerous and crash-prone, with many hazards that can cause injuries and can result in the deaths of road users or site-workers. Work zones for road construction or maintenance can potentially contribute to increasing these crashes. Many studies have addressed this issue; however, there is a lack of similar studies in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study contributes to developing safety practices for road work zones in Saudi Arabia by identifying, analyzing, and controlling the main risk factors. A survey approach was used to identify risk factors and potential countermeasures from road users' and civil engineering experts' perceptions. The main findings showed that most participants believed that the presence of work zones on the road might increase the probability of crash occurrence and that the highest risk factor that could cause a crash in a work zone is related to driver behavior. Both groups agreed that strict action against contractors or consultants who have safety violations would enhance road safety in work zones. Considering the findings of this study, decision-makers should take strong action to implement and improve road safety practices.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Arábia Saudita
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081134

RESUMO

Despite the potential of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), there are still many open questions on how road capacity can be influenced and what methods can be used to assess its expected benefits in the progressive transition towards fully cooperative driving. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the benefits of CAV technologies by investigating mobility-related issues of automated vehicles operating with a cooperative adaptive cruise control system on roundabout efficiency using microscopic traffic simulation. The availability of the adjustment factors for CAVs provided by the 2022 Highway Capacity Manual allowed to adjust the entry capacity equations to reflect the presence of CAVs on roundabouts. Two mechanisms of entry maneuver based on the entry lane type were examined to compare the capacity target values with the simulated capacities. The microscopic traffic simulator Aimsun Next has been of great help in building the "what-if" traffic scenarios that we analysed to endorse hypothesis on the model parameters which affect the CAVs' capabilities to increase roundabouts' throughput. The results highlighted that the increasing penetration rates of CAVs have greater impacts on the operational performances of roundabouts, and provided a synthetic insight to assess the potential benefits of CAVs from an efficiency perspective.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Veículos Autônomos , Simulação por Computador , Segurança
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 176: 106794, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970000

RESUMO

In the within-intersection area, vehicles from different approaches make turning movements resulting in many conflict points. Hence, drivers are more prone to make mistakes in that area, which leads to severe crash outcomes. In the current roadway system, the Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras could be a cost-effective sensor to monitor the safety condition in the within-intersection area. This study proposed a framework named "Near Miss Event Detection System (NMEDS)" for road safety diagnostics using video data collected from CCTV cameras. The proposed framework combined the Mask-RCNN bounding box detection and Occlusion-Net detection algorithm to reconstruct vehicles' key points in a 3D view. Vehicles' key points including right-front headlight, left-front headlight, right-back taillight, and left-back taillight could be identified and transformed into a 2D bird's-eye view (i.e., real-world coordinate system) for safety analysis. A method was proposed to modify the occluded key points, which could not be observed by cameras due the turning movements in the within-intersection area. The post-encroachment time (PET) was calculated by using the trajectory data in the 2D view. The proposed framework was compared with two counterparts (i.e., bounding box detection only and key point detection only) by conducting an empirical study at a 4-leg intersection. The results suggested that the proposed framework could obtain more accurate vehicle trajectory and better autocorrelation analytics was conducted to identify the significantly dangerous locations in the within-intersection area. It is expected that the proposed methods could help diagnose road safety problems using CCTV cameras. Moreover, the proposed method could be incorporated with Connected Vehicle Systems and provide information to nearby drivers based on Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) technologies.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Segurança , Tecnologia , Televisão
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 176: 106795, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973329

RESUMO

The segmentation of highways is a fundamental step in estimating crash frequency models and conducting a before-after evaluation of engineering treatments, but the effects of segmentation approaches on the engineering treatment evaluations are not known very well. This study examined the effects of segmentation approaches on the before-after evaluation of engineering treatments. In particular, this study evaluated four segmentation approaches by applying the Empirical Bayes technique to a dataset for which the ground truth was known. Four segmentation approaches included Highway Safety Manual (HSM), Fixed (kilometre post), Fisher's, and K-means segmentation. This study utilized a 440 km stretch of rural two-lane two-way highway in Queensland, Australia, to prepare a dataset with known ground truth. The treatment under evaluation was a hypothetical treatment, which should yield a crash modification factor (CMF) of 1. For assigning hypothetical treatment, a total of fifteen datasets were prepared, including ten datasets based on the random assignment and five datasets based on the hotspot identification method. Following the before-after evaluation using the Empirical Bayes technique, the results showed that HSM and Fixed segmentation approaches predict the ground truth in both dataset types. From random assignment datasets, the estimated CMFs using HSM, Fixed, Fisher's, and K-means segmentation approaches deviated from the true CMF (i.e., 1) by 2.32 %, 5.30 %, 6.08 %, and 8.62 %, respectively. In the case of hotspots, the corresponding deviations of CMFs were 8.57 %, 9.37 %, 28.84 %, and 35.43 %, respectively. Overall, HSM segmentation best identified the actual treatment effect, followed by the Fixed segmentation. If the variables to define homogeneity for HSM segmentation are limited, then Fixed segmentation can yield reliable crash modification factors from the before-after treatment evaluations than the crash-based segmentation approaches.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , População Rural , Segurança
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 176: 106818, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037671

RESUMO

In the past decades, trees were considered roadside hazard. Street trees were removed to provide clear zone and improve roadside safety. Nowadays, street trees are considered to play an important role in urban design. Also, street tree is considered a traffic calming measure. Studies have examined the effects of urban street trees on driver perception, driving behaviour, and general road safety. However, it is rare that the relationship between urban street trees and pedestrian safety is investigated. In this study, a micro-level frequency model is established to evaluate the effects of tree density and tree canopy cover on pedestrian injuries, accounting for pedestrian crash exposure based on comprehensive pedestrian count data from a state in Australia, Melbourne. In addition, effects of road geometry, traffic characteristics, and temporal distribution are also considered. Furthermore, effects of spatial dependency and correlation between pedestrian casualty counts of different injury severity levels are accounted using a multivariate Bayesian spatial approach. Results indicate that road width, bus stop, tram station, on-street parking, and 85th percentile speed are positively associated with pedestrian casualty. In contrast, pedestrian casualty decreases when there is a pedestrian crosswalk and increases in tree density and canopy. Also, time variation in pedestrian injury risk is significant. To sum up, urban street trees should have favorable effect on pedestrian safety. Findings are indicative to optimal policy strategies that can enhance the walking environment and overall pedestrian safety. Therefore, sustainable urban and transport development can be promoted.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Segurança
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14808, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045144

RESUMO

As the world is giving climate change a higher priority, several Coalitions are working on meeting a clean and green environment (SDG 13), focusing on new streets' design in total urban development. A previous study discussed the pedestrian mobility status in Riyadh city, with attention to sustainable mobility, considering the pedestrians' traveling patterns that use their cars rather than public transportation. This paper investigates the Ecomobility that seeks to promote the integration of passenging, cycling, wheeling, and walking. This approach will provide better health (SDG 3), clean air, mobility and accessibility, noise avoidance, greenhouse gas emission reduction, individual cost savings, and energy efficiency (SDG 11). It analyzes the pedestrians' traveling modes in Riyadh city through a case study of the Prince Sultan University's (PSU) community, then evaluates the pedestrians' environment quality in the campus surroundings. Analysis used a web-based survey referred to the PSU people, including Students, Faculty, and Staff. On the other hand, the pedestrian's environment quality was evaluated on-site built on well-constructed criteria. The assessment's results addressed the factors influencing pedestrian choices and underlined the barriers to transformation to Ecomobility. They revealed that around 73% of the respondents expressed willingness to transform to ecomobility modes. About 52% of the survey sample preferred the public bus option. For the non-motorized options, students preferred cycling and wheeling modes, while faculty members and staff preferred walking. Based on conclusions, recommendations are proposed to foster pedestrian ecomobility for sustainable urban development in Riyadh city.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Segurança , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Reforma Urbana , Caminhada
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915950

RESUMO

To meet the requirement from the economy and society, China's emergency rescue has been developing towards specialization and professionalization. The working environment for emergency responders is special accompanying with tremendous challenges and uncertainties. To promote the research on occupational health and personal protection is an important guarantee for the workers in China to realize the goal of "decent work". This paper reviews the hazards that affect the occupational health of emergency rescue workers, the research progress of adverse outcomes caused from exposure to these hazards, and the related development issues of personal protection. In order to ensure the safety and health of emergency rescue workers, the direction of further research on occupational health of emergency rescue workers is put forward.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Trabalho de Resgate , Segurança , Local de Trabalho , China , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Trabalho de Resgate/normas , Pesquisa , Segurança/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas
12.
J Safety Res ; 82: 1-12, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Motor-vehicle crashes at signalized intersections are a significant traffic safety problem. To address this problem, many Asian cities have installed signal countdown displays at signalized intersections, aiming to assist drivers to make correct decisions in response to traffic signals. METHOD: In this study, we assessed the short-term and long-term effects of green signal countdown timers (GSCTs) on road safety, using a combination of driving simulator experiments and naturalistic observations. RESULTS: In our driving simulator experiments, 80 participants drove at 50 km/h in scenarios in which a car either approached a signalized intersection alone or following another car. In naturalistic observations, short-term (1-week) and long-term (1-year) intersection safety in the presence and absence of GSCTs were compared. These observations revealed that GSCTs reduced the number of red-light-running violations over the short term, but not over the long term. In fact, GSCTs appeared to lead to an overall increase in rear-end crash risk at intersections, as their presence resulted in drivers exhibiting more sudden acceleration and braking, and altered intersection-crossing speeds and patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that GSCTs worsen safety at signalized intersections, and thus their removal should be considered.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito , Comportamento Perigoso , Humanos , Segurança
13.
J Safety Res ; 82: 159-165, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031243

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Roundabouts are a proven safety countermeasure for intersection safety. This study examined the safety effects of roundabout conversions in Carmel, Indiana, also known as the "Roundabout City." Doing so is of particular interest because Carmel has a high density of roundabouts and its drivers understand their effectiveness and are familiar with navigating them. This study also adds to the current state of knowledge about innovative double-teardrop roundabouts (i.e., linked roundabouts with teardrop-shaped central islands). METHOD: Negative binomial models accounting for correlation within site pairs were applied to evaluate the safety effects of converting conventional intersections to roundabouts on total crashes, injury crashes, and property-damage-only (PDO) crashes between study sites and control sites for different roundabout types (single-lane, multi-lane, and double-teardrop). We compared crash data from a 2-year period before the installation of the roundabouts with the 2-year period after the conversions. RESULTS: Injury crashes were 47% lower than what would have been expected without the roundabout conversions. The effects were strongest at the double-teardrop roundabouts, where injury crashes were significantly reduced by 84% and total crashes by 63%. Single-lane roundabouts experienced significant decreases of 51% in total crashes and 50% in PDO crashes (and a nonsignificant decrease of 50% in injury crashes). Multi-lane roundabouts were associated with increases in total and PDO crashes but a 15% decrease in injury crashes, though all were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the City of Carmel's roundabout program is associated with reductions in injury crashes, which indicates improvements to safety. Single-lane and double-teardrop roundabouts are associated with improvements in the occurrence and severity of crashes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Double-teardrop roundabouts should be considered for installation at interchange terminals to improve highway safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Indiana , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011955

RESUMO

Using smartphones during a task that requires an upright posture can be detrimental for the overall motor performance. The aim of this study was to determine the risks of accidents caused by the use of smartphones by pedestrians while walking in a controlled (laboratory) and a non-controlled (public street) environment. Two hundred and one participants, 100 men and 101 women, all young adults, were submitted to walking activities while texting messages and talking on the phone. The risk of accident was measured by the time and the number of steps necessary to walk a 20 ft distance. Assessments were performed with no external distractors (laboratory) and on a public street with vehicles, pedestrians, lights, and noises. Multivariate analysis of variance tests provided the main effect of task (using × not using smartphone), environment (laboratory × street), sex (men × women), and interactions. Significance was set at 5%. The results showed that using a smartphone while walking demanded a greater number of steps and time to perform the task (main effect of task: 0.84; p = 0.001). The risk of accident was higher on the streets where, due to traffic hazards, pedestrians performed the task faster and with a lower number of steps (the main effect of environment: 0.82; p = 0.001). There was no difference of risks between men and women (main effect of sex: 0.01; p = 0.225), whether in the laboratory or on the street (main effect of sex × environment: 0.01; p = 0.905). The task × environment interaction showed that using a smartphone on the street potentiates risks of accidents of pedestrians (main effect of task × environment: 0.41; p = 0.001). In conclusion, using a smartphone while walking can be risky for pedestrians, especially in a traffic environment. People should avoid using their smartphone while crossing streets.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança , Smartphone , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011983

RESUMO

To study the influence of traffic signs information volume (TSIV) on drivers' visual characteristics and driving safety, the simulation scenarios of different levels of TSIV were established, and 30 participants were recruited for simulated driving tests. The eye tracker was used to collect eye movement data under three-speed conditions (60 km/h, 80 km/h, and 100 km/h) and different levels of TSIV (0 bits/km, 10 bits/km, 20 bits/km, 30 bits/km, 40 bits/km, and 50 bits/km). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to select indicators sensitive to the influence of TSIV on the drivers' visual behavior and to analyze the influence of TSIV on the drivers' visual characteristics and visual workload intensity under different speed conditions. The results show that the fixation duration, saccade duration, and saccade amplitude are the three eye movement indicators that are most responsive to changes in the TSIV. The driver's visual characteristics perform best at the S3 TSIV level (30 bits/km), with the lowest visual workload intensity, indicating that drivers have the lowest psychological stress and lower driving workload when driving under this TSIV condition. Therefore, a density of 30 bits/km is suggested for the TSIV, in order to ensure the security and comfort of the drivers. The theoretical underpinnings for placing and optimizing traffic signs will be provided by this work.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Segurança , Carga de Trabalho
18.
San Salvador; MINSAL; 2 ed; ago. 17, 2022. 25 p. tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1392953

RESUMO

En los presentes lineamientos se desarrollaran los siguientes componentes: los principios rectores para un retorno exitoso, factores de riesgo ante el Covid-19, disposiciones sanitarias en el ámbito laboral, medidas sanitarias generales, recomendaciones desde la salida del hogar, transporte, arribo y llegada al trabajo, medidas de higiene y desinfección, medidas de prevención de contagio, uso de equipo de protección personal, medidas de seguridad según el rol en el área laboral, mejoramiento de las condiciones de salud de los empleados, vigilancia y supervisión


The following components will be developed in these guidelines: the guiding principles for a successful return, risk factors against Covid-19, health provisions in the workplace, general health measures, recommendations from home, transportation, arrival and arrival. to work, hygiene and disinfection measures, contagion prevention measures, use of personal protective equipment, safety measures according to the role in the work area, improvement of the health conditions of employees, surveillance and supervision


Assuntos
Medidas de Segurança , Local de Trabalho , Setor Público , Setor Privado , COVID-19 , Segurança , Trabalho , El Salvador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 175: 106780, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933931

RESUMO

As one of the innovative technologies of intelligent transportation systems (ITS), Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) have been deployed gradually. Given that there will be a long transition period before reaching a fully CAVs environment, it is crucial to assess the potential impacts of CAVs on mixed traffic flow. Considering platoon formation process, this study develops a platoon cooperation strategy based on "catch-up" mechanism, and then analyzes the impact on fundamental diagram, traffic oscillation, and traffic safety within mixed traffic. Simulation results show that with an increasing market penetration rate (MPR) of CAVs, road capacity shows an increasing trend. Compared with base scenario, a clear increase in road capacity is also observed under platoon scenario. With an increasing MPR, traffic oscillation is shown to reduce largely. Furthermore, the proposed platoon strategy could dampen frequent shockwaves and shorten the propagation range of waves. Regarding traffic safety, multiple surrogate safety measures (SSMs) are used to evaluate the traffic risk: including Criticality Index Function (CIF), Potential Index for Collision with Urgent Deceleration (PICUD), and Deceleration Rate to Avoid a Crash (DRAC). With increasing MPR, collision risk identified by CIF and DRAC shows an increase tendency, while that identified by PICUD has no apparent trend. Furthermore, the platoon strategy is shown to increase the severity of traffic conflicts significantly. Overall, this study provides novel insights into CAVs deployment through the analysis of platoon strategy.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Segurança
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0266519, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994492

RESUMO

The friction coefficient between the tire and the road is one of the key parameters affecting road traffic safety. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the risk of skidding for the vehicles due to the friction evolution caused by the traffic polishing in the horizontal curve. Based on the reliability theory, an innovative dynamic risk assessment model is developed in the present study for passenger cars and trucks. The influence of two traffic characteristics for pavement friction is quantified: cumulative traffic volume (CTV) and annual average daily traffic of trucks (AADTT). The speed distribution on the horizontal curve of the motorway is obtained through field experiments as the basic parameter of the model. The Hasofer-Lind Method is adopted to solve the reliability and the risk probability of vehicle skidding. The results show that in the traffic characteristics, the AADTT has a significant impact on the pavement friction; When the AADTT on the road exceeds 2000 veh/d, the increasing CTV leads to friction decrease rapidly and therefore has a significant impact on the risk of horizontal curve. Especially for roads with more than 50 million vehicles of the CTV, the risk of the horizontal curve shows a sharp increase with CTV rising. The research results can provide reference for the road maintenance department to determine the timing of road maintenance.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Fricção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Segurança
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