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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5914, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396383

RESUMO

Secondary plant metabolites remain one of the key sources of therapeutic agents despite the development of new approaches for the discovery of medicinal drugs. In the current study, chemical analysis, and biological activities of Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) methanolic extract were evaluated. Chemical analysis was performed using HPLC and GC-MS. Antiviral and anticancer effect were assessed using the crystal violet technique and activity against human liver cells (HepG2), respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested with the disc diffusion method. The obtained results showed that chlorogenic acid (2107.96 ± 0.07 µg/g), catechin (168 ± 0.58 µg/g), and gallic acid (15.66 ± 0.02 µg/g) were the main bioactive compounds identified by HPLC techniques. While, compounds containing furan moieties, as well as levoglucosenone, isochiapin B, dotriacontane, 7-nonynoic acid and tert-hexadecanethiol, with different biological activities were identified by GC-MS. Additionally, inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) scavenging was 79.25% at 2000 µg/mL, indicating its antioxidant activity with IC50 of 728.20 ± 1.04 µg/mL. The tested extract exhibited potential anticancer activity (58.90% toxicity) against HepG2 cells at 1000 µg/mL. Potential bacterial inhibition was observed mainly against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of growth inhibition ranging from 13 to 24 mm. While weak activities were recorded for fungi Candida albicans (10 mm). The extract showed mild antiviral activity against human coronavirus 229E with a selective index (SI) of 10.4, but not against human H3N2 (SI of 0.67). The molecular docking study's energy ratings were in good promise with the experiment documents of antibacterial and antiviral activities. The findings suggest that D. caffra juice extract is a potential candidate for further experiments to assess its use as potential alternative therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Salicaceae , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454128

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic residues have the potential for obtaining high value-added products that could be better valorized if biorefinery strategies are adopted. The debarking of short-rotation crops yields important amounts of residues that are currently underexploited as low-grade fuel and could be a renewable source of phenolic compounds and other important phytochemicals. The isolation of these compounds can be carried out by different methods, but for attaining an integral valorization of barks, a preliminary extraction step for phytochemicals should be included. Using optimized extraction methods based on Soxhlet extraction can be effective for the isolation of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. In this study, poplar bark (Populus Salicaceae) was used to obtain a series of extracts using five different solvents in a sequential extraction of 24 h each in a Soxhlet extractor. Selected solvents were put in contact with the bark sample raffinate following an increasing order of polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The oily residues of the extracts obtained after each extraction were further subjected to flash chromatography, and the fractions obtained were characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the samples was evaluated in their reaction with the free radical 2,2-Diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method). Polar solvents allowed for higher individual extraction yields, with overall extraction yields at around 23% (dry, ash-free basis). Different compounds were identified, including hydrolyzable tannins, phenolic monomers such as catechol and vanillin, pentoses and hexoses, and other organic compounds such as long-chain alkanes, alcohols, and carboxylic acids, among others. An excellent correlation was found between TPC and antioxidant activity for the samples analyzed. The fractions obtained using methanol showed the highest phenolic content (608 µg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg) and the greatest antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Populus , Salicaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Metanol/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química
3.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(6): 1648-1652, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678070

RESUMO

Hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from buds of P. nigra, P. deltoides and P. trichocarpa were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and subsequently evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. ABTS and DPPH assays evidenced that P. nigra showed the best antioxidant activity in line with its highest total phenolic content. The analysis of the anti-inflammatory activity clearly demonstrated that all extracts suppressed the production of key pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, Il-1ß and TNF-α) and HMGB1 inflammatory danger signal. These results show antioxidant and critical anti-inflammatory activities mediated by the extracts, emphasising their potentiality as therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Populus , Salicaceae , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Populus/química
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(7): 1803-1811, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924592

RESUMO

Phloretin-4-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), isolated from Homalium stenophyllum, was synthesized for the first time through aldol condensation and Schmidt glycosylation reactions aiming to develop a novel hydrophilic tyrosinase inhibitor. However, the specific rotation of synthetic 1 was found to be negative and different from that reported for natural product 1. Thus, L-glucoside 2 was chemically synthesized using the established synthetic route of 1, suggesting that the configuration of the natural product 1 was the same as that of 2, as their specific rotation and spectroscopic data were also the same. In addition, the evaluation of the inhibitory activity of 1 and 2 against tyrosinase indicated that 2 was 1.4 times more potent than 1, but they were both relatively weak. Therefore, the enantiomeric analogues 1 and 2 were proved to be unique tyrosinase inhibitors due to the chiral recognition from the tyrosinase active site.


Assuntos
Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Salicaceae , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Floretina
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114649, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536517

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Homalium zeylanicum (Gardner) Benth (Salicaceae) leaves are being used as folklore medicine to treat diabetes by the local folk of Andhra Pradesh, India. The medicinal claim of this plant with hypoglycaemic effects was initially studied by the authors. Results demonstrated the important antioxidant activities of the hydroalcohol fraction of leaves of H. zeylanicum leaves (HAHZL) were positively correlated with phenols and flavonoids contents. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the previous findings, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of using HAHZL to treat hyperglycemia. We therefore investigated in vitro and in vivo glycemic response of HAHZL, and evaluation of possible mechanism of bioactive molecules in mitigating streptozotocin-induced cellular stress in experimental rats via attenuation of oxidative stress imparts inflammation. METHODS: GC-MS/MS analysis of HAHZL was carried out to identify bioactive constituents. In vitro antidiabetic (α-glucosidase, α-amylase) and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated. HFD/low-STZ-prompted diabetic Wistar rats were administered with HAHZL (300 and 400 mg/kg; oral) for 28 days. Blood serum, oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and antidiabetic markers of pancreas and liver were determined. Histopathological studies of liver and pancreas were performed to assess the protective role of HAHZL. RESULTS: GC-MS/MS study revealed 7 bioactive compounds e.g., Phenol, 4-ethenyl-, acetate (28.68%), hydroquinone (9.10%), n-hexadecanoic acid (0.55%), phytol (0.57%), arbutin (17.65%), Vitamin E (1.04%), ß-Sitosterol (1.54%) which possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. HAHZL showed significant in vitro glycemic response as evidenced by the inhibition of α-amylase, and α-glucosidase activities. Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that HAHZL exhibited competitive and mixed competitive inhibition towards α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. HAHZL at 400 mg/kg modulated the pathophysiology associated with HFD/STZ-induced type2 diabetes mellitus and significantly (p < 0.001) improved antihyperglycemic (SG, SI, HOMA-IR, and HbA1C), antidyslipidemic (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG), antioxidative (MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH, and 8-OHdG) and anti-inflammatory (TNF-α, and CRP) markers in serum, pancreas and liver. In vitro and in vivo test results were corroborated by the improvement of pancreatic and hepatic tissue architecture in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: HAHZL bearing bioactive components phenol, 4-ethenyl-,acetate, hydroquinone, n-hexadecanoic acid, arbutin, phytol, vitamin E and ß-sitosterol balanced glycemic level by normalising the levels of glycaemic indices, lipid profile, pancreas and liver functional markers in STZ-induced T2DM rats.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salicaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 535, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773988

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Populus and Salix belong to Salicaceae and are used as models to investigate woody plant physiology. The variation of karyotype and nuclear DNA content can partly reflect the evolutionary history of the whole genome, and can provide critical information for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the woody plant traits. Therefore, it is essential to study the chromosome number (CN) and genome size in detail to provide information for revealing the evolutionary process of Salicaceae. RESULTS: In this study, we report the somatic CNs of seventeen species from eight genera in Salicaceae. Of these, CNs for twelve species and for five genera are reported for the first time. Among the three subfamilies of Salicaceae, the available data indicate CN in Samydoideae is n = 21, 22, 42. The only two genera, Dianyuea and Scyphostegia, in Scyphostegioideae respectively have n = 9 and 18. In Salicoideae, Populus, Salix and five genera closely related to them (Bennettiodendron, Idesia, Carrierea, Poliothyrsis, Itoa) are based on relatively high CNs from n = 19, 20, 21, 22 to n = 95 in Salix. However, the other genera of Salicoideae are mainly based on relatively low CNs of n = 9, 10, 11. The genome sizes of 35 taxa belonging to 14 genera of Salicaceae were estimated. Of these, the genome sizes of 12 genera and all taxa except Populus euphratica are first reported. Except for Dianyuea, Idesia and Bennettiodendron, all examined species have relatively small genome sizes of less than 1 pg, although polyploidization exists. CONCLUSIONS: The variation of CN and genome size across Salicaceae indicates frequent ploidy changes and a widespread sharing of the salicoid whole genome duplication (WGD) by the relatives of Populus and Salix. The shrinkage of genome size after WGD indicates massive loss of genomic components. The phylogenetic asymmetry in clade of Populus, Salix, and their close relatives suggests that there is a lag-time for the subsequent radiations after the salicoid WGD event. Our results provide useful data for studying the evolutionary events of Salicaceae.


Assuntos
Populus/metabolismo , Salicaceae/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Duplicação Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Populus/genética , Salicaceae/genética , Salix/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112891, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358899

RESUMO

Thirteen phenolic glycosides, together with fourteen various known compounds, were isolated from the methanolic extract of leaves of Flacourtia indica. Twelve of these were composed of gentisyl or salicyl alcohols, glycosylated on the phenol and acylated on the primary alcohol with various more or less oxidized forms of pyrocatechuic acid. A number of positions on the glucose or on the acid were further acylated by benzoic or cinnamic acid. In addition to these, a glucoside of a phenyl propanoid was also isolated. The gross structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS analyses. Several of these structures, for example, xylosmin, were previously described but it proved extremely difficult to conclude on their exact identity with the absence of clear data on absolute configuration in the literature.


Assuntos
Flacourtia , Salicaceae , Glucosídeos , Glicosídeos , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9471, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947883

RESUMO

The chloroplast is one of two organelles containing a separate genome that codes for essential and distinct cellular functions such as photosynthesis. Given the importance of chloroplasts in plant metabolism, the genomic architecture and gene content have been strongly conserved through long periods of time and as such are useful molecular tools for evolutionary inferences. At present, complete chloroplast genomes from over 4000 species have been deposited into publicly accessible databases. Despite the large number of complete chloroplast genomes, comprehensive analyses regarding genome architecture and gene content have not been conducted for many lineages with complete species sampling. In this study, we employed the genus Populus to assess how more comprehensively sampled chloroplast genome analyses can be used in understanding chloroplast evolution in a broadly studied lineage of angiosperms. We conducted comparative analyses across Populus in order to elucidate variation in key genome features such as genome size, gene number, gene content, repeat type and number, SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) abundance, and boundary positioning between the four main units of the genome. We found that some genome annotations were variable across the genus owing in part from errors in assembly or data checking and from this provided corrected annotations. We also employed complete chloroplast genomes for phylogenetic analyses including the dating of divergence times throughout the genus. Lastly, we utilized re-sequencing data to describe the variations of pan-chloroplast genomes at the population level for P. euphratica. The analyses used in this paper provide a blueprint for the types of analyses that can be conducted with publicly available chloroplast genomes as well as methods for building upon existing datasets to improve evolutionary inference.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Populus/genética , Salicaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711027

RESUMO

Plant community types are influenced by topographic factors, the physical and chemical properties of soil. Therefore, the study was carried out to investigate the relationships of soil and topographic factors on the distribution of species and plant community formation of the Dega Damot district in Northwestern Ethiopia. Vegetation and environmental data were collected from 86 plots (900 m2). Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) with R software were used to identify plant communities and analyze the relationship between plant community types and environmental variables. Five plant community types were identified: Erica arborea-Osyris quadripartita, Discopodium penninervium-Echinops pappii, Olea europaea -Scolopia theifolia, Euphorbia abyssinica-Prunus africana, Dodonaea anguistifolia-Acokanthera schimperi. The RDA result showed that the variation of species distribution and plant community formation were significantly related to altitude, organic matter, moisture content, slope, sand, pH, EC, total nitrogen and phosphorus. Our results suggest that the variation of plant communities (Community 1, 2, 3, and 4) were closely related to environmental factors, including altitude, moisture content, OM, slope, sand, pH, EC, soil nitrogen, and phosphorus, among which altitude was the most important one. However, all the measured environmental variables are not correlated to Dodonaea anguistifolia-Acokanthera schimperi community type. Therefore, it can be concluded that some other environmental variables may influence the species composition, which is needed to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Altitude , Florestas , Solo , Apocynaceae , Ericaceae , Etiópia , Olea , Salicaceae , Areia
10.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(3): 225-230, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781456

RESUMO

The phytochemical investigation of the stems of Homalium stenophyllum afforded seven new phenolic glycosides (1-5 and 8-9) and two known compounds (6 and 7). Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric data and chemical hydrolysis. Additionally, their anti-inflammatory activities against the NO production in LPS-induced macrophages were evaluated.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos , Fenóis , Salicaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química
11.
Phytochem Anal ; 32(6): 891-898, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Casearia is an essential source of cytotoxic highly oxidised clerodane diterpenes, in addition to phenolics, flavonoids, and glycoside derivatives. Here we identify flavonoid-3-O-glycoside derivatives in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of the methanolic extract from leaves C. arborea leaves. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the EtOAc phase from the methanolic extract of C. arborea leaves using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-HRMS/MS) and molecular networking-based dereplication. Methodology We identified compounds not annotated in the GNPS platform by co-injection of standards in HPLC-DAD or by isolation and characterisation of the metabolites using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A workflow on the GNPS platform aided the organisation of spectral data and dereplication by annotations. We subjected the EtOAc phase to HPLC-DAD analysis using standard compound co-injection to corroborate the GNPS annotations. We isolated unidentified compounds with semi-preparative HPLC-DAD for structural identification using NMR. RESULTS: We annotated a molecular family of flavonoid-3-O-glycosides in the molecular networking created using the GNPS platform. These included avicularin, cacticin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, rutin, and a quercetin-3-O-pentoside cluster. We confirmed the annotations with standard compounds using HPLC-DAD co-injection analysis, besides identifying quercetin-3-O-robinobioside and kaempferol. We isolated three flavonoid-3-O-pentosides and characterised them using one- and two-dimensional NMR; we identified them as reynoutrin, guaijaverin, and avicularin. CONCLUSION: This work describes the isolation of kaempferol and nine known flavonoid-3-O-glycosides from the polar fraction of the methanolic extract (EtOAc) from C. arborea leaves using molecular networking to guide the chromatographic procedures. We identified eight compounds for the first time in Casearia that amplify and reinforce the genus' chemotaxonomy with the presence of glycosylated flavonoids.


Assuntos
Casearia , Salicaceae , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
12.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1651-1661, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496307

RESUMO

Idesia polycarpa Maxim. leaves are an excellent source of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and have drawn special attention due to their various biological activities. However, the effects of post-harvest treatment on the structure-activity relationships of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in leaves of I. polycarpa are still unknown. In the current study, we compared the contents of unstable compounds in leaves with four drying methods, namely sun-drying, freeze-drying, shade-drying, and oven-drying. We found that the four hydroxycinnamic acid derivative isomers of leaves were significantly affected after drying processing with four different drying methods. Consequently, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the variation of these compounds during the drying processes have been well elucidated: UV lighting induced the isomerization of 1-[(6'-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxy-2-phenol (1) and 1-[(4'-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxy-2-phenol (3) into 1-[(6'-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxy-2-phenol (2) and 1-[(4'-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxy-2-phenol (4). Also, heat (exceeding 20 °C) led to the rearrangement of the (E/Z)-p-coumaric acid moiety of compounds 3 and 4, of which the 4-O-acylglucoses changed into the 6-O-acylglucoses to generate compounds 1 and 2, respectively. Interestingly, the hepatocyte-free fatty acid accumulation in OA-induced steatosis-conditioned HepG2 cells decreased by 65.00%, 10.69%, and 47.00%, respectively, following treatment with compounds 2, 3 and 4, and compound 1 presented no lipid-lowering activity. In addition, the bioactivities of compounds 2 and 4 were substantially enhanced by 58.42% and 25.33% with the sun-drying method compared to the freeze-dying methods. Our study suggests that sun-drying processing is the best method among the four drying processing methods of I. polycarpa Maxim. leaves.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos , Folhas de Planta/química , Salicaceae/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liofilização , Células Hep G2 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(10): 4315-4320, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kei apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals of Kei apple. The fruit has increased concentrations of l-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids among other compounds. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) to induce alcoholic fermentation (AF). Acetous fermentation followed AF, using an acetic acid bacteria (AAB) consortium. RESULTS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae + Sp wines and vinegars had the highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and l-malic acid decreased during AF and acetous fermentation, and was highest in Sc wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity (VA) concentration was highest in Sp vinegars but was not significantly different from Sc and Sc + Sp vinegars. Gallic acid was highest in Sp wines and vinegars, whereas syringic acid was highest in Sc wines and vinegars. The Sc + Sp wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric, and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Highest concentrations of ferulic and sinapic acids were found in Sp and Sc wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant phenolic acid in both wines and vinegars. CONCLUSION: Saccharomyces cerevisiae + Sp and Sc fermentation had a positive effect on most phenolic acids; Sc + AAB had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids, whereas Sp + AAB resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids. The AAB selected had minimal performance with respect to VA production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection for acetous fermentation should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Salicaceae/microbiologia , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/análise , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Etanol/análise , Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Malatos/análise , Malatos/metabolismo , Salicaceae/metabolismo
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113139, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726679

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inflammatory skin diseases presents high prevalence and lack of alternatives that can be used for self-care by the population. Casearia sylvestris is a plant used topically in different communities in Brazil, to treat wounds or promote cutaneous healing. To evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory activity for the crude hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris (HCE-CS) in the models of single or multiple administration of chroton oil to induce ear edema in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental study using male Swiss mice (25-35g) kept under constant conditions in the Laboratory of Experimental Neuroscience (LaNEx)-UNISUL. Edema was induced in both models, respectively, by the single or multiple application of croton oil (CO, 2.5%, in 20 µl) on the external surface of the ear. The different groups of animals (n = 8) received different treatments: vehicle, dexamethasone (DEXA) or different doses of HCE-CS. Edema was evaluated macroscopically for 6 h (early edema) or 8 days (late edema) after the first application of the CO and immediately after the animals were submitted to euthanasia for the collection of the samples (treated ears). For early edema, the tissue was biochemically evaluated for myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and levels of nitrite/nitrate. In the late edema model, the ears were histologically evaluated for general morphometry, degranulated and non-degranulated mast cells, as well as acanthosis. RESULTS: Topic treatment with HCE-CS significantly reduced the early and late edema, as well as MPO activity and tissue levels of nitrite/nitrate. Finally, in the late edema model there was a lower density of degranulated mast cells in relation to the vehicle treated group and decreased thickness of the epidermis (acanthosis). CONCLUSION: These results suggest a possible benefit of topical treatment with HCE-CS in inflammatory conditions of the skin.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Casearia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Salicaceae , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 968-980, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027519

RESUMO

Dioecy, the presence of separate sexes on distinct individuals, has evolved repeatedly in multiple plant lineages. However, the specific mechanisms by which sex systems evolve and their commonalities among plant species remain poorly understood. With both XY and ZW sex systems, the family Salicaceae provides a system to uncover the evolutionary forces driving sex chromosome turnovers. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to characterize sex determination in two Populus species, P. euphratica and P. alba. Our results reveal an XY system of sex determination on chromosome 14 of P. euphratica, and a ZW system on chromosome 19 of P. alba. We further assembled the corresponding sex-determination regions, and found that their sex chromosome turnovers may be driven by the repeated translocations of a Helitron-like transposon. During the translocation, this factor may have captured partial or intact sequences that are orthologous to a type-A cytokinin response regulator gene. Based on results from this and other recently published studies, we hypothesize that this gene may act as a master regulator of sex determination for the entire family. We propose a general model to explain how the XY and ZW sex systems in this family can be determined by the same RR gene. Our study provides new insights into the diversification of incipient sex chromosomes in flowering plants by showing how transposition and rearrangement of a single gene can control sex in both XY and ZW systems.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Modelos Genéticos , Salicaceae/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Genoma de Planta
16.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 234: 105023, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259819

RESUMO

Idesia polycarpa is an oil-producing tree native to China and Northeast Asia. The fruits of I. polycarpa which are named oil grape are unique in that they contain large amounts saturated and unsaturated lipids. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) is a key enzyme catalyzing the final step of triacylglyceride (TAG) synthesis. However, expression and bioinformatics of DGAT2 in I. polycarpa are still blank. In order to further understand the lipogenesis of oil grape, we contrasted seven various growth periods fruits from seed formation to seed maturation. Lipid accumulation rates and final lipid content were significantly different among the different periods. We cloned and characterized the DGAT2 gene from fruits of I. polycarpa. A partial fragment of 239 bp of IpDGAT2 was amplified by PCR. We cloned the open-reading frame (ORF) of IpDGAT2 by RACE technique. The ORF of IpDGAT2 contains 984 bp and encodes 327 amino acids. The qPCR analysis manifested that IpDGAT2 was expressed in all oil grape growing periods and expression was highest on September 20 (seed maturation). In I. polycarpa fruits the expression of IpDGAT2 was positively correlated with the lipid accumulation rates. Rhodotorula glutinis expression analysis showed that IpDGAT2 have a diacylglycerol acyltransferase bio-functional. Heterologous expression of the 35S::IpDGAT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the isolated IpDGAT2 could catalyze lipid synthesis. The lipid content increased by 40 % in transgenic plants relative to the control. which suggests that high lipid content fruits can be created by the overexpression of IpDGAT2 in I. polycarpa.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Salicaceae/enzimologia , Biologia Computacional , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/química , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Frutas/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 1208726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144913

RESUMO

Idesia polycarpa Maxim. var. vestita Diels (I. polycarpa) is well known as an edible oil plant which contains abundant linoleic acid and polyphenols. The objective of this study was to maximize the by-product of defatted fruit of I. polycarpa. We found that the fraction D of ethyl acetate extract (EF-D) contained more polyphenols, which contribute to its strong antioxidant activity by antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP). Meanwhile, EF-D showed a significant lipid-lowering effect on oleic acid- (OA-) induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells through enhancing antioxidant activity, reducing liver damage, and regulating lipid metabolism, antioxidant, and inflammation-related gene expression. The SOD and T-AOC levels significantly increased, but the levels of MDA, AST, and ALT decreased obviously when treated with EF-D. In general, EF-D improved the antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased the hepatic injury activities. Besides, treatment with EF-D for NAFLD influenced lipid metabolism and inflammation by activating PPARα which was associated with the increased expression of CPT1 and decreased expression of SCD, NF-κB, and IL-1. Moreover, EF-D improved the oxidative stress system through activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant signal pathways and upregulated its target genes of HO-1, NQO1, and GSTA2. The results highlighted the EF-D from the defatted fruit of I. polycarpa regarding lipid-lowering, proving it to be a potential drug resource of natural products for treating the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Salicaceae/química , Acetatos/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Ácido Oleico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 162: 1127-1139, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599244

RESUMO

Regulation of gene expression related to chromatin modification at the transcriptional silencing and RNA interference (RNAi) at the post-transcriptional level. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) and Argonaute (AGO), along with Dicer-like (DCL) from the core components of RNAi, play integral roles in these processes. Here, 14 PtAGOs, 5 PtDCLs, and 9 PtRDRs were identified in P. trichocarpa and compared them with those of another Salicaceae willow (Salix suchowensis Cheng). Maximum-likelihood trees revealed that each AGO, DCL, and RDR family members were divided into four subfamilies. Forty-three orthologous pairs were identified between the P. trichocarpa and S. suchowensis RNAi-toolbox genes. Sixteen collinear gene pairs were detected in highly microsynteny regions with containing more than ten pairs of conserved flanking-genes, indicated that they were considered to have evolved from the large-scale duplication events. Many of the RNAi-toolbox genes were up-regulated, suggesting P. trichocarpa should have evolved specialized regulatory mechanisms in response to cold, salt, drought and heat stresses. Some RNAi-toolbox genes were most highly expressed in stem, suggesting these genes may function in the regulation of small RNAs during P. trichocarpa stem development. Our results provided the integrative analysis and highlighted the function and duplication of the RNAi-toolbox genes in P. trichocarpa.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Populus , Interferência de RNA , Salicaceae , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/genética , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Salicaceae/genética , Salicaceae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 260: 113099, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535241

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Homalium zeylanicum (Gardner) Benth. is a medicinal plant traditionally used in controlling diabetes which thus far has been assessed by the authors only to a very limited extent. PURPOSE: To fill the research gap in the literature review, we investigated the antihyperglycemic effects of hydro alcohol fraction of bark of H. zeylanicum (HAHZB) by modulating oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type-2 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To understand the antioxidant capacity of HAHZB, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) were performed. GC-MS/MS analysis was performed to assess the bioactive components in HAHZB. HFD/STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated orally with HAHZB (300 and 400 mg/kg) for 28 days. After the end of the experiment, marker profiling and histopathological observation of blood and pancreas were examined. The study also highlights interaction between diabetes, oxidative stress and inflammation by examining the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g. TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) promotes DNA damage e.g. oxidation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in chronic hyperglycaemia. RESULTS: In ex vivo cellular antioxidant capacity of -CAP-e and ORAC assays, HAHZB showed remarkable free radical scavenging ability in a dose dependent manner. GC-MS/MS analysis identified 28 no. of compounds and out of which, oleic acid (1.03%), ethyl tridecanoate (11.77%), phytol (1.29), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (E,E)-(5.97%), stigmasterol (1.30%) and ß-sitosterol (2.86%) have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. HAHZB 400 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.001) improved the lipid profile (TC: 74.66 ± 0.59, HDL-C: 22.08 ± 0.46, LDL-C: 38.06 ± 0.69, and TG: 171.92 ± 1.01 mg/dL) as well as restoring antidiabetic markers (SG: 209.62 ± 1.05 mg/dL, SI: 15.07 ± 0.11 µIU/mL, HOMA-IR: 7.79 ± 0.04 %, and HbA1C: 8.93 ± 0.03 %) and renal functional markers (Tg: 291.26 ± 0.57 pg/mL, BUN: 23.79 ± 0.14 mg/dL, and Cr: 1.34 ± 0.04 mg/dL) in diabetic rats. Oxidative stress markers of pancreas (MDA: 3.65 ± 0.17 nM TBARS /mg protein, SOD: 3.14 ± 0.28 U/mg protein, CAT: 7.88 ± 0.23 U/mg protein, GSH: 12.63 ± 0.28 µM/g of tissue) were restored to normal as evidenced by histological architecture of pancreatic islet cells. The increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative DNA damage were significantly restored (TNF-α: 54.48 ± 3.19 pg/mL, CRP: 440.22 ± 7.86 ng/mL, and 8-OHdG: 63.65 ± 1.84 ng/mL) by HAHZB in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: The present findings confirm that the presence of bioactive compounds in HAHZB exert therapeutic protective effect by decreasing oxidative, inflammation and pancreatic ß-cell damage in oxidative stress induced diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salicaceae , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Dano ao DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar , Salicaceae/química , Estreptozocina
20.
J Nat Prod ; 83(4): 888-893, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191472

RESUMO

In the present work, the synthesis of acetylated salicins, which occur naturally in many Salicaceae species, is reported. The preparation of 2-O-acetylsalicin, 2-O-acetylchlorosalicin, and 2-O-acetylethylsalicin from peracetylated bromosalicin with selective acid-catalyzed deacetylation and one-pot nucleophilic substitution of bromine as the key steps is described. The base-catalyzed O-2 → O-6 acetyl migration afforded 6-O-acetylsalicin derivatives in good yields. Thus, the first synthesis of 6-O-acetylsalicin (fragilin) using acetyl group migration is reported as well as the synthesis of 6-O-acetylchlorosalicin and 6-O-acetylethylsalicin. The NaOMe-catalyzed deacetylation of acetylated glycosides gave salicin, chlorosalicin, and ethylsalicin recently reported from Alangium chinense.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Aspirina/síntese química , Salicaceae/metabolismo , Acetilação , Catálise , Estrutura Molecular , Salicaceae/química
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