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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 849752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493529

RESUMO

The innate immune system can limit the growth of invading pathogens by depleting micronutrients at a cellular and tissue level. However, it is not known whether nutrient depletion mechanisms discriminate between living pathogens (which require nutrients) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (which do not). We stimulated SHK-1 cells with different PAMPs (outer membrane vesicles of Piscirickettsia salmonis "OMVs", protein extract of P. salmonis "TP" and lipopolysaccharides of P. salmonis "LPS") isolated from P. salmonis and evaluated transcriptional changes in nutritional immunity associated genes. Our experimental treatments were: Control (SHK-1 stimulated with bacterial culture medium), OMVs (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of outer membrane vesicles), TP (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of total protein extract) and LPS (SHK-1 stimulated with 1µg of lipopolysaccharides). Cells were sampled at 15-, 30-, 60- and 120-minutes post-stimulation. We detected increased transcription of zip8, zip14, irp1, irp2 and tfr1 in all three experimental conditions and increased transcription of dmt1 in cells stimulated with OMVs and TP, but not LPS. Additionally, we observed generally increased transcription of ireg-1, il-6, hamp, irp1, ft-h and ft-m in all three experimental conditions, but we also detected decreased transcription of these markers in cells stimulated with TP and LPS at specific time points. Our results demonstrate that SHK-1 cells stimulated with P. salmonis PAMPs increase transcription of markers involved in the transport, uptake, storage and regulation of micronutrients such as iron, manganese and zinc.


Assuntos
Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Salmão , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos , Micronutrientes , Piscirickettsia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7423, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523933

RESUMO

The microplastic that pollutes the ocean is a serious problem around the world. The bioplastic consisting of biopolymers which is degraded in nature, is one of the strategies to solve this problem. Although the bioplastics consisting of protein, polysaccharide, polylactic acid, etc., have been reported, which consist of DNA, one of the most important materials in the genetic process, have not been reported to the best of our knowledge. In addition, a large amount of DNA-containing materials, such as salmon milts, is discarded as industrial waste around the world. Therefore, we demonstrated the preparation of a bioplastic consisting of salmon milt DNA. The DNA plastic was prepared by the immersion of a DNA pellet in a formaldehyde (HCHO) solution and heating. As a result, the water-stable DNA plastics were obtained at the HCHO concentration of 20% or more. Particularly, the DNA plastic with a 25% HCHO treatment showed water-insoluble, thermally stable, and highly mechanical properties. These are due to the formation of a three-dimensional network via the crosslinking reaction between the DNA chains. In addition, since DNA in plastic possesses the double-stranded structure, these plastics effectively accumulated the DNA intercalator, such as ethidium bromide. Furthermore, the DNA plastics indicated a biodegradable property in a nuclease-containing aqueous solution and the biodegradable stability was able to be controlled by the HCHO concentration. Therefore, salmon milt DNA has shown the potential to be a biodegradable plastic.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Plásticos , Animais , DNA/química , Substâncias Intercalantes , Salmão , Água
4.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458155

RESUMO

Fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet, in part due to the content of long chain omega-3 fatty acids. However, both lean and fatty fish have beneficial health effects, suggesting that micronutrients and proteins may play a role. In a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial, five healthy male participants consumed 5.2 g of protein from either salmon fishmeal or whey. Blood samples were taken before and 30 and 60 min after intake. The concentration of glucose, lipids, hormones and metabolites, including 28 different amino acids and derivatives, were measured in serum or plasma. Cultured HepG2 cells were incubated with or without serum from the participants, and transcriptomic profiling was performed using RNA sequencing. The ingestion of both salmon fishmeal and whey reduced the glucose and triglyceride levels in serum. Protein intake, independent of the source, increased the concentration of 22 amino acids and derivatives in serum. Fishmeal increased the concentration of arginine, methionine, serine, glycine, cystathionine and 2-aminobutyric acid more than whey did. Incubation with postprandial serum resulted in large transcriptomic alterations in serum-fasted HepG2 cells, with the differential expression of >4500 protein coding genes. However, when comparing cells cultivated in fasting serum to postprandial serum after the ingestion of fishmeal and whey, we did not detect any differentially regulated genes, neither with respect to the protein source nor with respect to the time after the meal. The comparable nutrigenomic effects of fishmeal and whey do not change the relevance of fish by-products as an alternative food source.


Assuntos
Salmão , Soro do Leite , Aminoácidos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Expressão Gênica , Glucose , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Salmão/metabolismo , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 247: 106150, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397383

RESUMO

The transportation of heavy crudes such as diluted bitumen (dilbit) sourced from Canadian oil sands through freshwater habitat requires the generation of information that will contribute to risk assessments, spill modelling, management, and remediation for the protection of aquatic organisms. Juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were exposed acutely (96 h) or subchronically (28 d) to the water-soluble fraction (WSFd) of Cold Lake Blend dilbit at initial total polycyclic aromatic compound (TPAC) concentrations of 0, 13.7, 34.7, and 124.5 µg/L. A significant induction (>3-fold) of hepatic liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was induced by 96 h in fish exposed to [TPAC] ≥ 34.7 µg/L and at ≥13.7 µg/L for a 28 d exposure. Exposure resulted in a typical physiological stress response and disturbance of ion homeostasis; this included elevations in plasma [cortisol], [lactate], [Na+], and [Cl-], and significant reductions in muscle [glycogen]. Critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was significantly reduced (28.4%) in the acute exposure at [TPAC] 124.5 µg/L; reductions of 14.2% and 35.4% were seen in fish subchronically exposed at the two highest concentrations. Reductions in Ucrit were related to significant reductions in aerobic scope (24.3-46.6%) at [TPAC]s of 34.7 and 124.5 µg/L, respectively. Exposure did not impair the ability to mount a secondary stress response following burst exercise, however, the time required for biochemical parameters to return to baseline values was prolonged. Alterations in critical systems supporting swimming, exercise recovery and the physiological stress response could result in decreased salmonid fitness and contribute to population declines if a dilbit spill occurs.


Assuntos
Salmão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Canadá , Peixes , Hidrocarbonetos , Lagos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Salmão/fisiologia , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Mar Drugs ; 20(4)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447901

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a common cause of cancer death in men. In advanced stages of prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is initiated. Despite ADT, prostate cancers invariably progress to become androgen independent. A growing body of evidence implicates iron dysmetabolism in prostate cancer progression. A bioactive peptide-rich salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) has previously been demonstrated to modulate iron homeostatic mechanisms. In the present study, the anticancer effect of SPH and bicalutamide co-treatment on LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell proliferation was investigated. Our results found that SPH potentiates the anti-proliferative effect of bicalutamide in a dose-dependent manner for both cell lines. In the presence of 160 µg/mL SPH, co-treatment with 1.0 µM bicalutamide decreased LNCaP cells' relative colony survival from 25% (1.0 µM bicalutamide monotreatment) to 2% after culturing for 12 days. For PC3 cells, the relative colony survival diminished from 52% (10.0 µM bicalutamide) to 32% at an SPH concentration of 160 µg/mL. Gene expression profiling, employing quantitative real-time PCR, revealed that the inhibitory effects were related to significant FTH1 up-regulation with a concomitant TFRC down-regulation. In conclusion, our results provide in vitro evidence that SPH potentiates the growth inhibitory effect of bicalutamide on prostate cancer cells by modulating iron homeostasis mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Androgênios , Anilidas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Homeostase , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Salmão , Compostos de Tosil
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 856896, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386699

RESUMO

Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) has been the most important infectious disease in Chilean salmon farming since the 1980s. It was one of the first to be described, and to date, it continues to be the main infectious cause of mortality. How can we better understand the epidemiological situation of SRS? The catch-all answer is that the Chilean salmon farming industry must fight year after year against a multifactorial disease, and apparently only the environment in Chile seems to favor the presence and persistence of Piscirickettsia salmonis. This is a fastidious, facultative intracellular bacterium that replicates in the host's own immune cells and antigen-presenting cells and evades the adaptive cell-mediated immune response, which is why the existing vaccines are not effective in controlling it. Therefore, the Chilean salmon farming industry uses a lot of antibiotics-to control SRS-because otherwise, fish health and welfare would be significantly impaired, and a significantly higher volume of biomass would be lost per year. How can the ever-present risk of negative consequences of antibiotic use in salmon farming be balanced with the productive and economic viability of an animal production industry, as well as with the care of the aquatic environment and public health and with the sustainability of the industry? The answer that is easy, but no less true, is that we must know the enemy and how it interacts with its host. Much knowledge has been generated using this line of inquiry, however it remains insufficient. Considering the state-of-the-art summarized in this review, it can be stated that, from the point of view of fish immunology and vaccinology, we are quite far from reaching an effective and long-term solution for the control of SRS. For this reason, the aim of this critical review is to comprehensively discuss the current knowledge on the interaction between the bacteria and the host to promote the generation of more and better measures for the prevention and control of SRS.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Piscirickettsia , Infecções por Piscirickettsiaceae , Animais , Salmão
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 162, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We describe the outcome of ultra-low-dose radiotherapy plus intravitreal methotrexate and rituximab injections for a patient with primary choroidal lymphoma who presented with nodular conjunctival salmon patches and extensive serous retinal detachment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old Iranian man presented with a nodular patch of bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye, and 1+ vitritis. A nearly complete shallow serous retinal detachment, retinal folds, and multifocal yellow choroidal infiltrates were seen during a fundus examination of the right eye. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed macular retinal folds and an uneven, undulating, "seasick" appearance of the choroidal surface with choriocapillaris compression, intraretinal and subretinal fluid, and clusters of optically dense material at the outer retinal level. An incisional biopsy of the conjunctival lesion confirmed the diagnosis of primary choroidal lymphoma with epibulbar involvement. The patient was treated with ultra-low-dose "boom-boom" radiation (4 Gy delivered in two fractions over two consecutive days) as well as intravitreal methotrexate and rituximab injections. After a year, the lesions had completely disappeared, with no adverse effects or recurrence. CONCLUSION: Ultra-low-dose (boom-boom) radiotherapy combined with intravitreal chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy may be an effective treatment for primary choroidal lymphoma with anterior epibulbar extension and diffuse subretinal fluid with favorable response and minimal side effects.


Assuntos
Linfoma , Descolamento Retiniano , Adulto , Animais , Túnica Conjuntiva , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Descolamento Retiniano/tratamento farmacológico , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Salmão , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6720, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469048

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) transgenesis can be used to manipulate the growth performance of fish and mammals. In this study, homozygous and hemizygous GH-transgenic amago salmon (Oncorhynchus masou ishikawae) derived from a single female exhibited hypoglycemia. Proteomic and signal network analyses using iTRAQ indicated a decreased NAD+/NADH ratio in transgenic fish, indicative of reduced mitochondrial ND1 function and ROS levels. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing revealed that approximately 28% of the deletion mutations in the GH homozygous- and hemizygous-female-derived mitochondrial DNA occurred in ND1. These fish also displayed decreased ROS levels. Our results indicate that GH transgenesis in amago salmon may induce specific deletion mutations that are maternally inherited over generations and alter energy production.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Oncorhynchus , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Herança Materna , Mutação , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Salmão/genética
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(8): 5071-5080, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353479

RESUMO

Two commonly used insecticides, bifenthrin and fipronil, can accumulate in the prey of juvenile Chinook salmon, yet the effects of dietary exposure are not understood. Therefore, to better characterize the effect of a dietary exposure route, juvenile Chinook salmon were fed chironomids dosed with a concentration of 9 or 900 ng/g of bifenthrin, fipronil, or their mixture for 25 days at concentrations previously measured in field-collected samples. Chinook were assessed for maximum swimming performance (Umax) using a short-duration constant acceleration test and biochemical responses related to energetic processes (glucose levels) and liver health (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity). Chinook exposed to bifenthrin and bifenthrin and fipronil mixtures had a significantly reduced swimming performance, although not when exposed to fipronil alone. The AST activity was significantly increased in bifenthrin and mixture treatments and glucose levels were increased in Chinook following a mixture treatment, although not when exposed to fipronil alone. These findings suggest that there are different metabolic processes between bifenthrin and fipronil following dietary uptake that may influence toxicity. The significant reductions in swimming performance and increased levels of biochemical processes involved in energetics and fish heath could have implications for foraging activity and predator avoidance in wild fish at sensitive life stages.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Salmão , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Pirazóis , Piretrinas , Salmão/metabolismo , Natação/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4475, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296749

RESUMO

We used 4 years of publicly available data (2016-2019) on chemical usage at salmon sites with information on production, stocking, locations and environmental conditions to explore patterns of anti-sea lice treatments in a Canadian province. Results show that sequential chemical treatments are prevalent, emamectin benzoate (EMB) with azamethiphos being the most used combination with a decrease in ivermectin usage. Relatively high rates of usage of EMB per fish biomass may point to potential lice resistance patterns with information needed on mechanisms and local populations. Lower or no chemical usage at some sites indicate less sea lice infestations likely influenced by localized site conditions (coves), and a lessened need for medication due to the usage of cleaner fish and possibly other non-chemical methods (not documented in this report). The year/climate influenced chemical input only in sites with higher treatment levels likely due to effects on sea lice growth and reproduction. Observed differences between years are warmer surface temperature in the fall, a higher freshwater input in spring, and stronger wind conditions for 2017 and 2018 with more medication usage for these two years. The lack of significant effect of site distances calculated in zones of influence based on 24 h potential connectivity patterns highlight the need to refine the resolution of hydrodynamic processes.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Praguicidas , Salmo salar , Animais , Aquicultura , Canadá , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Salmão
12.
Chemosphere ; 298: 134174, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276115

RESUMO

The Sacramento River watershed, California, provides important rearing and migratory habitat for several species of conservation concern. Studies have suggested significant benefits for juvenile fish rearing in floodplain habitats of the watershed compared to the mainstem Sacramento River. However, the potential for contaminant exposure in each of these two habitats is poorly understood. Consequently, the present study aimed to determine the distribution and occurrence of bioavailable pesticides within two known salmon habitats using a suite of approaches including exhaustive chemical extraction, single-point Tenax extraction (SPTE) and ex situ passive sampling. Sediment samples were collected from sites within both habitats twice annually in 2019 and 2020, with inundation of the floodplain and high flows for both areas in 2019 and low flow conditions observed in 2020. Sediment characteristics including total organic carbon, black carbon and particle size distribution were determined to elucidate the influence of physical characteristics on pesticide distribution. Using exhaustive extractions, significantly greater sediment concentrations of organochlorines were observed in the floodplain compared to the Sacramento River in both years, with bioaccessible organochlorine concentrations also significantly greater in the floodplain (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Using both SPTEs and exhaustive extractions, significantly fewer pesticides were detected across both sites under low flow conditions as compared to high flow conditions (Poisson regression, p < 0.05). Sediment characteristics including percent fines and black carbon had significant positive relationships with total and bioaccessible pyrethroid and organochlorine concentrations. Fewer analytes were detected using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers as compared to SPTEs, suggesting greater sensitivity of the Tenax technique for bioavailability assessments. These findings suggest that threatened juvenile fish populations rearing on the floodplain may have greater exposure to organochlorines than fish inhabiting adjacent riverine habitats, and that pesticide exposure of resident biota may be exacerbated during high-flow conditions.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carbono , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Salmão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(2): 461-469, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301620

RESUMO

Anadromous Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are known for their homing behavior based on olfactory imprinting, which is formed during their seaward migration. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE/Snare) complex is a minimum unit of vesicle exocytosis from the pre-synaptic membrane. Its component genes (synaptosome-associated protein 25, syntaxin 1, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2) are more strongly expressed in the olfactory nervous system (olfactory epithelium, olfactory bulb, and telencephalon) at the migration stages related to olfactory imprinting and/or retrieval in salmon. This study focused on the mRNA synthesis of synaptophysin (Syp), one of the Snare regulatory factors. syp is strongly expressed in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) olfactory nervous system during the seaward migration and temporarily increased during the homeward migration. In reference to our previous studies, these expression changes were similar to the snare genes in the chum salmon. Therefore, syp and Snare component genes were synchronously expressed reflecting the development and short-term plasticity of the olfactory nervous system that is essential for olfactory imprinting.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus keta , Salmão , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Exocitose , Expressão Gênica , Oncorhynchus keta/genética , Oncorhynchus keta/metabolismo , Proteínas SNARE/genética , Proteínas SNARE/metabolismo , Salmão/genética , Sinaptofisina/genética , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290382

RESUMO

Swimming behavior of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts affects transit time, route selection and survival in complex aquatic ecosystems. Behavior quantified at the river reach and junction scale is of particular importance for route selection and predator avoidance, though few studies have developed field-based approaches for quantifying swimming behavior of juvenile migratory fishes at this fine spatial scale. Two-dimensional acoustic fish telemetry at a river junction was combined with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate in situ emigration swimming behavior of federally-threatened juvenile Chinook salmon smolts. Fish velocity over ground was estimated from telemetry, while the hydrodynamic model supplied simultaneous, colocated water velocities, with swimming velocity defined by the vector difference of the two velocities. Resulting swimming speeds were centered around 2 body lengths/second, and included distinct behaviors of positive rheotaxis, negative rheotaxis, lateral swimming, and passive transport. Lateral movement increased during the day, and positive rheotaxis increased in response to local hydrodynamic velocities. Swim velocity estimates were sensitive to the combination of vertical shear in water velocities and vertical distribution of fish.


Assuntos
Salmão , Natação , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Rios , Salmão/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Água
15.
Science ; 375(6587): eabm9609, 2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324283

RESUMO

Amylin receptors (AMYRs) are heterodimers of the calcitonin (CT) receptor (CTR) and one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), AMY1R, AMY2R, and AMY3R. Selective AMYR agonists and dual AMYR/CTR agonists are being developed as obesity treatments; however, the molecular basis for peptide binding and selectivity is unknown. We determined the structure and dynamics of active AMYRs with amylin, AMY1R with salmon CT (sCT), AMY2R with sCT or human CT (hCT), and CTR with amylin, sCT, or hCT. The conformation of amylin-bound complexes was similar for all AMYRs, constrained by the RAMP, and an ordered midpeptide motif that we call the bypass motif. The CT-bound AMYR complexes were distinct, overlapping the CT-bound CTR complexes. Our findings indicate that activation of AMYRs by CT-based peptides is distinct from their activation by amylin-based peptides. This has important implications for the development of AMYR therapeutics.


Assuntos
Agonistas dos Receptores da Amilina/química , Receptores de Polipeptídeo Amiloide de Ilhotas Pancreáticas/química , Animais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Salmão
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 208: 333-342, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339495

RESUMO

Cartilage in the head of sturgeon or salmon has been gaining attention as a rich source of functional chondroitin sulfate (CS) or proteoglycans. Although the cartilage was found in the heads of other bony fishes, the structure of CS and its core protein, especially aggrecan, was not fully investigated. In this study, comprehensive analysis of CS and aggrecan in the head cartilage of 10 bony fishes including sturgeon and salmon was performed. The 4-O-sulfation to 6-O-sulfation ratio (4S/6S ratio; S: sulfate residue) of CS in Perciformes was ≧1.0, while the 4S/6S ratios of CS from sturgeons and salmon were less than 0.5. Dot blotting and proteomic analysis revealed that aggrecan was a major core protein in head cartilage of all bony fishes. These results suggest that the head cartilage of bony fishes is a promising source for the preparation of CS or proteoglycans as a health food ingredient.


Assuntos
Sulfatos de Condroitina , Proteoglicanas , Agrecanas/análise , Animais , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/química , Proteômica , Salmão/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4775, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347162

RESUMO

Parasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) threaten the economic and ecological sustainability of salmon farming, and their evolved resistance to treatment with emamectin benzoate (EMB) has been a major problem for salmon farming in the Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean, where wild salmon are far more abundant, has not seen widespread evolution of EMB-resistant lice. Here, we use EMB bioassays and counts of lice on farms from the Broughton Archipelago, Canada-a core region of salmon farming in the Pacific-to show that EMB sensitivity has dramatically decreased since 2010, concurrent with marked decrease in the field efficacy of EMB treatments. Notably, these bioassay data were not made available through public reporting by industry or by the federal regulator, but rather through Indigenous-led agreements that created a legal obligation for salmon-farming companies to provide data to First Nations. Our results suggest that salmon lice in the Pacific Ocean have recently evolved substantial resistance to EMB, and that salmon-louse outbreaks on Pacific farms will therefore be more difficult to control in the coming years.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Parasitos , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Oceano Pacífico , Salmão/parasitologia
18.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(4)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276004

RESUMO

Human activities and resource exploitation led to a massive decline of wild salmonid populations, consequently, numerous conservation programs have been developed to supplement wild populations. However, many studies documented reduced fitness of hatchery-born relative to wild fish. Here, by using both RNA sequencing and Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing of hatchery and wild-born adult Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) originating from two previously studied river systems, we show that early-life hatchery-rearing environment-induced significant and parallel gene expression differentiation is maintained until Coho come back to their natal river for reproduction. A total of 3,643 genes differentially expressed and 859 coexpressed genes were downregulated in parallel in hatchery-born fish from both rivers relative to their wild congeners. Among those genes, 26 displayed a significant relationship between gene expression and the median gene body methylation and 669 single CpGs displayed a significant correlation between methylation level and the associated gene expression. The link between methylation and gene expression was weak suggesting that DNA methylation is not the only player in mediating hatchery-related expression differences. Yet, significant gene expression differentiation was observed despite 18 months spent in a common environment (i.e., the sea). Finally, the differentiation is observed in parallel in two different river systems, highlighting the fact that early-life environment may account for at least some of the reduced fitness of the hatchery salmon in the wild. These results illustrate the relevance and importance of considering both epigenome and transcriptome to evaluate the costs and benefits of large-scale supplementation programs.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus kisutch , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Expressão Gênica , Oncorhynchus kisutch/genética , Rios , Salmão
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3441, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236892

RESUMO

Stocking programs have been widely implemented to re-establish extirpated fish species to their historical ranges; when employed in species with complex life histories, such management activities should include careful consideration of resulting hybridization dynamics with resident stocks and corresponding outcomes on recovery initiatives. Genetic monitoring can be instrumental for quantifying the extent of introgression over time, however conventional markers typically have limited power for the identification of advanced hybrid classes, especially at the intra-specific level. Here, we demonstrate a workflow for developing, evaluating and deploying a Genotyping-in-Thousands by Sequencing (GT-seq) SNP panel with the power to detect advanced hybrid classes to assess the extent and trajectory of intra-specific hybridization, using the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocking program in Skaha Lake, British Columbia as a case study. Previous analyses detected significant levels of hybridization between the anadromous (sockeye) and freshwater resident (kokanee) forms of O. nerka, but were restricted to assigning individuals to pure-stock or "hybrid". Simulation analyses indicated our GT-seq panel had high accuracy, efficiency and power (> 94.5%) of assignment to pure-stock sockeye salmon/kokanee, F1, F2, and B2 backcross-sockeye/kokanee. Re-analysis of 2016/2017 spawners previously analyzed using TaqMan® assays and otolith microchemistry revealed shifts in assignment of some hybrids to adjacent pure-stock or B2 backcross classes, while new assignment of 2019 spawners revealed hybrids comprised 31% of the population, ~ 74% of which were B2 backcross or F2. Overall, the GT-seq panel development workflow presented here could be applied to virtually any system where genetic stock identification and intra-specific hybridization are important management parameters.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética , Salmão , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Genótipo , Lagos , Salmão/genética
20.
Environ Pollut ; 303: 119102, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257807

RESUMO

Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of the Sacramento River system encounter many anthropogenically-induced stressors while rearing and migrating to the Pacific Ocean. Located in a prominent agricultural region, the watershed serves as a source of notable contaminants including pesticides. Salmon rearing in riverine and floodplain areas are potentially exposed to these compounds via dietary exposure, which can vary based on selected food webs. Previous studies have suggested that juvenile Chinook salmon rearing in riverine and floodplain environments of the Sacramento River watershed are characterized by different dietary preferences, with potential for contrasting pesticide exposure between habitats. To examine the potential for pesticide exposure, juvenile Chinook salmon and known dietary items were collected in the mainstem Sacramento River and an adjacent floodplain, the Yolo Bypass, in 2019 and 2020, and analyzed for 33 pesticides, including degradates and isomers. Organochlorine pesticides including the DDX group (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) were prevalent in all examined biota. There was a significantly greater number of total pesticide detections across all classes in zooplankton compared to macroinvertebrates, coupled with higher bifenthrin concentrations in zooplankton across regions and years, which may indicate different exposure potential depending on fish dietary preferences. Detection frequencies and concentrations of organochlorines were higher in prey items during flooding than in drought conditions, suggesting resuspension of legacy compounds. Significantly higher concentrations of organochlorines were recorded in floodplain rearing fish compared to the Sacramento River. These findings suggest that within these habitats, juvenile Chinook salmon feeding primarily on zooplankton within the water column may be exposed to a greater range of pesticides than those feeding on benthic macroinvertebrates, and that the benefits of floodplain rearing may come at a cost of increased organochlorine exposure.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , DDT , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Salmão , Zooplâncton
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