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1.
J Fish Dis ; 45(1): 185-202, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747501

RESUMO

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD), caused by the myxozoan endoparasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, is of serious ecological and economical concern to wild and farmed salmonids. Wild salmonid populations have declined due to PKD, primarily in rivers, in Europe and North America. Deep lakes are also important habitats for salmonids, and this work aimed to investigate parasite presence in five deep Norwegian lakes. Kidney samples from three salmonid species from deep lakes were collected and tested using real-time PCR to detect PKD parasite presence. We present the first detection of T. bryosalmonae in European whitefish in Norway for the first time, as well as the first published documentation of the parasite in kidneys of Arctic charr, brown trout and whitefish in four lakes. The observed prevalence of the parasite was higher in populations of brown trout than of Arctic charr and whitefish. The parasite was detected in farmed, but not in wild, charr in one lake. This suggests a possible link with a depth of fish habitat and fewer T. bryosalmonae-infected and PKD-affected fish. Towards a warmer climate, cold hypolimnion in deep lakes may act as a refuge for wild salmonids, while cold deep water may be used to control PKD in farmed salmonids.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Nefropatias , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Salmonidae , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Lagos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 205-218, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816407

RESUMO

Despite vaccination, pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has been the economically most important virus disease in salmon farming in Ireland, Scotland, and Norway. A vaccine based on DNA plasmid has been authorized to be used in Norwegian aquaculture since 2018. DNA vaccination of plasmids expressed subcellular viral proteins have been shown its particular protective effect against SAV3 that surface expression of the E2 protein with the whole viral protein construct, yielding a more effective vaccine. The chapter describes methods to design and test the sublocalization of expressed viral protein and the performance evaluation of vaccines against SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus , Alphavirus , Doenças dos Peixes , Salmonidae , Vacinas de DNA , Alphavirus/genética , Alphavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Alphavirus/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Virais
3.
J Fish Dis ; 45(1): 219-224, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551133

RESUMO

The salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall and Bravo 2000) is a common ectoparasite of farmed salmonids in Chile. Sea lice can negatively impact the growth of hosts, adversely affecting aquaculture productivity. Unlike Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838), whose life cycle parameters have been well studied due to its importance in the Northern Hemisphere, for C. rogercresseyi no single source exists that quantifies the parameters required to model this ectoparasite's life cycle. Given that different species of sea lice have substantially different biological characteristics, it is important to parameterize the life cycle of C. rogercresseyi using appropriate observational data, rather than simply trying to adapt parameters developed for L. salmonis. Using data from existing literature, we quantified the development and survival rates for each stage in the C. rogercresseyi life cycle. We illustrate how development rates are affected by water temperature and explore the important impacts of salinity on rates of survival. We present equations that can be used to model development periods and survival proportions given certain water temperature and salinity profiles. While key parameters to quantitatively model the life cycle of C. rogercresseyi are presented, further research is required to adequately model the complete population dynamics of this ectoparasite on Chilean salmon farms and consequently to support decision-making to achieve effective control and mitigation.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Salmonidae , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Salmão
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150844, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627878

RESUMO

Many studies have investigated the consequences of exposure to fine-grained suspended sediments (SS) on aquatic organisms. Exposure has two components-concentration and duration-and can be expressed as dose, where we define suspended sediment dose (SSD: mg·h·L-1) as the product of suspended sediment concentration (SSC: mg·L-1) and duration of exposure (DoE: h). We evaluated these three measurement endpoints for managing SS effects on salmonids by assembling and analyzing all published SS dose-response observations. Despite a prevalence in SS management guidelines for using SSC as a primary endpoint to manage SS effects on salmonids, SSC was found to be less effective than SSD or DoE as a predictor variable for the available dose-response observations. We used data visualization to identify trends and distinct response categories that were then evaluated using a logistic regression model that accounts for nested observations by study. The model estimates the probability of moving from behavioural to major physiological and lethal responses in the available literature, as explained by one or more predictor variables, including ln(SSC), ln(DoE), ln(SSD), and life stage (adult versus juvenile). Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used to compare model fit and classification performance, respectively, among alternative models. The best performing model as judged by AIC and ROC incorporated ln(SSD) as the predictor variable.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Salmonidae , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos
5.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 186, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sympatric speciation along ecological gradients has been studied repeatedly, in particular in freshwater fishes. Rapid post-glacial ecological divergence has resulted in numerous endemic species or ecologically distinct populations in lakes of the temperate zones. Here, we focus on the Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) complex, to study the genetic similarity among two pairs of sympatric autumn- and spring-spawning populations from post-glacial German Lakes Stechlin and Breiter Luzin. For comparison, we included a similar pair of sympatric populations from the Swedish Lake Fegen. We wanted to explore potential genetic similarities between the three sympatric cisco population pairs in the three lakes, to evaluate whether the pairs may have emerged independently in the three lakes, or whether two different species may have colonized all three lakes independently. Furthermore, we considered allopatric C. albula populations from three Polish, three Finnish, and four Swedish locations, added one Siberian population of the sister species C. sardinella and a Swedish C. maraena (whitefish) population. By genotyping nine microsatellite markers in 655 individuals from these 18 populations, we wanted to elucidate how strongly the cisco populations differ across a larger geographical area within Europe. Finally, we compared the genetic differences between the spring- and autumn-spawning populations of ciscoes in the two German lakes to infer the potentially deteriorating effect of strong anthropogenic pressure on the lakes. RESULTS: Dendrogram, Principal Coordinate Analysis and admixture analysis all indicated strong correspondence between population differentiation and geographical location for most cisco populations in Europe, including the Siberian population of C. sardinella. However, populations from some Swedish lakes deviated from this general pattern, by showing a distinct genetic structure. We found evidence for independent evolution of the three sympatric population pairs, because the populations co-occurring in the same lake were always most closely related. However, genetic differentiation was weak in the two German population pairs, but strong in the Swedish Lake Fegen, indicating that the weak differentiation in the German pairs reported earlier has eroded further. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers among populations of the Baltic cisco complex has evolved (and is maintained) by random genetic drift in isolated populations. However, earlier studies on the Swedish populations combining mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data indicate that also post-glacial immigration from separate glacial refugia has shaped the present genetic population structure. The low neutral differentiation of the German sympatric pairs in contrast to the Swedish pair suggests that recent anthropogenic effects on the lakes in Germany may put the endemic spring-spawners at risk to extinction.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Animais , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Lagos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Salmonidae/genética , Simpatria
7.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118196, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555795

RESUMO

Exposure of aquatic organisms to micro- and nano-sized plastic debris in their environment has become an alarming concern. Besides having a number of potentially harmful impacts for individual organisms, plastic particles can also influence the phenotype and performance of their offspring. We tested whether the sperm pre-fertilization exposure to nanoplastic particles could affect offspring survival, size, and swimming performance in the European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus. We exposed sperm of ten whitefish males to three concentrations (0, 100 and 10 000 pcs spermatozoa-1) of 50 nm carboxyl-coated polystyrene spheres, recorded sperm motility parameters using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and then fertilized the eggs of five females in all possible male-female combinations. Finally, we studied embryonic mortality, hatching time, size, and post-hatching swimming performance of the offspring. We found that highest concentration of plastic particles decreased sperm motility and offspring hatching time. Furthermore, sperm exposure to highest concentration of plastics reduced offspring body mass and impaired their swimming ability. This suggests that sperm pre-fertilization exposure to plastic pollution may decrease male fertilization potential and have important transgenerational impacts for offspring phenotype and performance. Our findings indicate that nanoplastics pollution may have significant ecological and evolutionary consequences in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Motilidade Espermática , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Fertilização , Masculino , Plásticos , Espermatozoides , Natação
8.
Mol Ecol ; 30(20): 4951-4954, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533856

RESUMO

Identifying the molecular mechanisms contributing to phenotypic variation in natural populations is a major goal of molecular ecology. However, the multiple regulatory steps between genotype and phenotype mean that many potential mechanisms can lead to trait divergence. To date, the role of transcriptional regulation in local adaptation has received much focus, as we can readily measure mRNA quantity and have a reasonable grasp of how variation in the expression of many protein-coding genes can influence phenotype. Thus, studying the evolution of protein-coding gene mRNA abundance in candidate tissues has led to successes in detecting the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation (reviewed by Hill et al., 2021). However, the contribution of differential splicing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) to adaptive differentiation, as well as the loci controlling this variation, remains largely unexplored in wild populations. In their "From the Cover'" article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Jacobs and Elmer (2021) reanalyse muscle RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to quantify the relative contributions of variation in mRNA quantity (differentially expressed "DE" genes) and splice variant identity (differentially spliced "DS" genes) to parallel divergence of wild "benthic" and "pelagic" ecotypes of a salmonid fish, the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). They found little overlap in the identity and biological functions of DE and DS genes, suggesting that these two regulatory mechanisms act on different cellular traits to complementarily alter organismal phenotype. Furthermore, many DE and DS genes could be mapped to cis-acting QTL, arguing that some of this regulatory divergence is genetically based. DE and DS genes were also more likely to be "hub genes" than their nondivergent counterparts, hinting that this regulatory variation may have a variety of phenotypic effects. The comparison of three independently evolved pairs of benthic and pelagic charr uncovered greater than expected parallelism in both expression and splicing between ecotypes across different lakes, supporting a role for these molecular phenotypes in adaptive divergence. Overall, the findings of Jacobs and Elmer (2021) highlight the importance of alternative splicing as a potential mechanism underlying local adaptation and provide a framework for others hoping to make the most of their RNA-seq data.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Salmonidae , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Fenótipo , Truta
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 270, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) principles were proposed in 2016 to set a path towards reusability of research datasets. In this systematic review, we assessed the FAIRness of datasets associated with peer-reviewed articles in veterinary epidemiology research published since 2017, specifically looking at salmonids and dairy cattle. We considered the differences in practices between molecular epidemiology, the branch of epidemiology using genetic sequences of pathogens and hosts to describe disease patterns, and non-molecular epidemiology. RESULTS: A total of 152 articles were included in the assessment. Consistent with previous assessments conducted in other disciplines, our results showed that most datasets used in non-molecular epidemiological studies were not available (i.e., neither findable nor accessible). Data availability was much higher for molecular epidemiology papers, in line with a strong repository base available to scientists in this discipline. The available data objects generally scored favourably for Findable, Accessible and Reusable indicators, but Interoperability was more problematic. CONCLUSIONS: None of the datasets assessed in this study met all the requirements set by the FAIR principles. Interoperability, in particular, requires specific skills in data management which may not yet be broadly available in the epidemiology community. In the discussion, we present recommendations on how veterinary research could move towards greater reusability according to FAIR principles. Overall, although many initiatives to improve data access have been started in the research community, their impact on the availability of datasets underlying published articles remains unclear to date.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Salmonidae , Animais , Bovinos , Saúde Global
10.
J Exp Biol ; 224(15)2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350949

RESUMO

We compared the thermal sensitivity of oxidative muscle function between the eurythermal Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the more stenothermal Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus; which prefers cooler waters). Power output was measured in red skeletal muscle strips and myocardial trabeculae, and efficiency (net work/energy consumed) was measured for trabeculae, from cold (6°C) and warm (15°C) acclimated fish at temperatures from 2 to 26°C. The mass-specific net power produced by char red muscle was greater than in salmon, by 2-to 5-fold depending on test temperature. Net power first increased, then decreased, when the red muscle of 6°C-acclimated char was exposed to increasing temperature. Acclimation to 15°C significantly impaired mass-specific power in char (by ∼40-50%) from 2 to 15°C, but lessened its relative decrease between 15 and 26°C. In contrast, maximal net power increased, and then plateaued, with increasing temperature in salmon from both acclimation groups. Increasing test temperature resulted in a ∼3- to 5-fold increase in maximal net power produced by ventricular trabeculae in all groups, and this effect was not influenced by acclimation temperature. Nonetheless, lengthening power was higher in trabeculae from warm-acclimated char, and char trabeculae could not contract as fast as those from salmon. Finally, the efficiency of myocardial net work was approximately 2-fold greater in 15°C-acclimated salmon than char (∼15 versus 7%), and highest at 20°C in salmon. This study provides several mechanistic explanations as to their inter-specific difference in upper thermal tolerance, and potentially why southern char populations are being negatively impacted by climate change.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Animais , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Estresse Oxidativo , Temperatura
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149516, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391145

RESUMO

Fish from both aquaculture and wild capture are exposed to veterinary and medicinal antibiotics (ABs). This study explored the occurrence and probable source of 46 antibiotic residues in muscle of farmed salmon and wild trout from Chile. Results showed that at least one AB was detected in all studied samples. Diverse patterns were observed between farmed and wild specimens, with higher ABs concentrations in wild fish. Considering antimicrobial resistance, detected ABs corresponded to the categories B (Restrict), C (Caution) and D (Prudence) established by Antimicrobial Advice Ad Hoc Expert Group (European Medicines Agency). Multivariate statistic was used to verify differences between farmed and wild populations, looking for the probable source of ABs as well. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, enrofloxacin, amoxicillin, penicillin G, oxolinic acid, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and clarithromycin were associated with wild samples, collected during the cold season. Conversely, norfloxacin, sulfaquinoxaline, sulfadimethoxine, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, penicillin V, doxycycline, flumequine, oxacillin, pipemidic acid and sulfamethizole were associated with wild samples collected during the warm season. All farmed salmon samples were associated with ofloxacin, tetracycline, cephalexin, erythromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, sulfabenzamide, sulfamethazine, sulfapyridine, sulfisomidin, and sulfaguanidine. In addition, linear discriminant analysis showed that the AB profile in wild fish differ from farmed ones. Most samples showed ABs levels below the EU regulatory limit for edible fish, except for sulfaquinoxaline in one sample. Additionally, nitrofurantoin (banned in EU) was detected in one aquaculture sample. The differences observed between farmed and wild fish raise questions on the probable source of ABs, either aquaculture or urban anthropic activities. Further research is necessary for linking the ABs profile in wild fish with the anthropic source. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report showing differences in the ABs profile between wild and aquaculture salmonids, which could have both environmental and health consequences.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Salmonidae , Animais , Aquicultura , Chile , Salmão
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255497, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339467

RESUMO

The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus invaded Lake Contance in the 1940s and expanded in large numbers from an exclusively shoreline habitat into the pelagic zone in 2012. Stickleback abundance is very high in the pelagic zone in winter near the spawning time of pelagic whitefish Coregonus wartmanni, and it is hypothesized that this is triggered by the opportunity to consume whitefish eggs. Field sampling has qualitatively confirmed predation of whitefish eggs by stickleback, but quantification has proven difficult due to stormy conditions that limit sampling. One fundamental unknown is if freshwater stickleback, known as visual feeders, can successfully find and eat whitefish eggs during twilight and night when whitefish spawn. It is also unknown how long eggs can be identified in stomachs following ingestion, which could limit efforts to quantify egg predation through stomach content analysis. To answer these questions, 144 individuals were given the opportunity to feed on whitefish roe under daylight, twilight, and darkness in controlled conditions. The results showed that stickleback can ingest as many as 100 whitefish eggs under any light conditions, and some individuals even consumed maximum numbers in complete darkness. Furthermore, eggs could be unambiguously identified in the stomach 24 hours after consumption. Whitefish eggs have 28% more energy content than the main diet of sticklebacks (zooplankton) based on bomb-calorimetric measurements, underlining the potential benefits of consuming eggs. Based on experimental results and estimates of stickleback abundance and total egg production, stickleback could potentially consume substantial proportions of the total eggs produced even if relatively few sticklebacks consume eggs. Given the evidence that stickleback can feed on eggs during nighttime spawning and may thereby hamper recruitment, future studies aimed at quantifying actual egg predation and resulting effects on the whitefish population are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Ovos/análise , Luz , Comportamento Predatório , Salmonidae/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema
13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(10): 3487-3496, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427787

RESUMO

Co-infections are common in host-parasite interactions, but studies about their impact on the virulence of parasites/diseases are still scarce. The present study compared mortality induced by a fatal bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare between brown trout infected with glochidia from the endangered freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, and uninfected control fish during the parasitic period and after the parasitic period (i.e. glochidia detached) in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesised that glochidial infection would increase host susceptibility to and/or pathogenicity of the bacterial infection. We found that the highly virulent strain of F. columnare caused an intense disease outbreak, with mortality reaching 100% within 29 h. Opposite to the study hypothesis, both fresh ongoing and past infection (14 months post-infection) with glochidia prolonged the fish host's survival statistically significantly by 1 h compared to the control fish (two-way ANOVA: fresh-infection, F1, 82 = 7.144, p = 0.009 and post-infection, F1, 51 = 4.227, p = 0.044). Furthermore, fish survival time increased with glochidia abundance (MLR: post-infection, t = 2.103, p = 0.045). The mechanism could be connected to an enhanced non-specific immunity or changed gill structure of the fish, as F. columnare enters the fish body mainly via the gills, which is also the glochidia's attachment site. The results increase current knowledge about the interactions between freshwater mussels and their (commercially important) fish hosts and fish pathogens and also emphasise the importance of (unknown) ecosystem services (e.g., protection against pathogens) potentially associated with imperilled freshwater mussels.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Doenças dos Peixes , Salmonidae , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Ecossistema , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Flavobacterium
14.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 76: 105659, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242867

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of high intensity ultrasonication (HIU, 100, 150, 200, and 250 W) and treatment time (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 min) on the structure and emulsification properties of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) from Coregonus peled. These investigations were conducted using an ultrasonic generator at a frequency of 20 kHz (ultrasonic probe). Analysis of the carbonyl content and total number of sulfhydryl groups showed that HIU significantly improved the oxidative modification of MPs (P < 0.05). SDS-PAGE profiling showed significant degradation of the myosin heavy chain (P < 0.05). In addition, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that HIU altered these treated MP secondary structures, this was due to molecular unfolding and stretching, exposing interior hydrophobic groups. Particle size analysis showed that HIU treatment reduced particle sizes. Solubility, emulsification capacity, and emulsion stability were improved significantly, and each decreased with an increase in treatment time (up to 12 min), indicating aggregation with prolonged sonication. These results indicate that HIU could improve the emulsification properties of MPs from C. peled, demonstrating a promising method for fish protein processing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas Musculares/química , Salmonidae , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Emulsões , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1832): 20200092, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247499

RESUMO

So far, very few sex-determining genes have been identified in vertebrates and most of them, the so-called 'usual suspects', evolved from genes which fulfil essential functions during sexual development and are thus already tightly linked to the process that they now govern. The single exception to this 'usual suspects' rule in vertebrates so far is the conserved salmonid sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y chromosome), that evolved from a gene known to be involved in regulation of the immune response. It is contained in a jumping sex locus that has been transposed or translocated into different ancestral autosomes during the evolution of salmonids. This special feature of sdY, i.e. being inserted in a 'jumping sex locus', could explain how salmonid sex chromosomes remain young and undifferentiated to escape degeneration. Recent knowledge on the mechanism of action of sdY demonstrates that it triggers its sex-determining action by deregulating oestrogen synthesis that is a conserved and crucial pathway for ovarian differentiation in vertebrates. This result suggests that sdY has evolved to cope with a pre-existing sex differentiation regulatory network. Therefore, 'limited options' for the emergence of new master sex-determining genes could be more constrained by their need to tightly interact with a conserved sex differentiation regulatory network rather than by being themselves 'usual suspects', already inside this sex regulatory network. This article is part of the theme issue 'Challenging the paradigm in sex chromosome evolution: empirical and theoretical insights with a focus on vertebrates (Part I)'.


Assuntos
Salmonidae/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Animais
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148999, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280623

RESUMO

Hydropower plant operating conditions are expected to change to be more in tandem with intermittent power production so as to meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement, which in turn may negatively impact ecological conditions downstream of the hydropower plants. The current study investigates how highly flexible hydropower operating conditions may impact several salmonid species (European grayling, Atlantic salmon and brown trout) in the River Umeälven, a major river in northern Sweden; specifically, how changes in hydropeaking frequency may affect the area of the downstream watercourse that is hydraulically suitable for spawning (potential spawning area) and how changes in spill gate closing time may affect the propensity to stranding. River hydrodynamics were modeled using the open-source solver Delft3D, with a range of hydropeaking frequencies (from 10 to 60 starts and stops per day) and a range of spill gate closing times from (1-30 min). Increasing the hydropeaking frequency caused a reduction in potential spawning area, but also a reduction in dewatering of potential spawning area at low flows. Increasing spill gate closing time caused a decrease in propensity to stranding. Effects were dependent on both species and life-stage, and declined longitudinally with distance downstream from the spillway outlet. The modelling approach used here provides an effective method for predicting likely outcomes of flexible hydropower operating conditions, taking into account fish species and life-stages present and watercourse characteristics.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Animais , Centrais Elétricas , Rios , Suécia , Truta
17.
Food Chem ; 364: 130364, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171814

RESUMO

The δ2H and δ18O of 105 salmonids cultured in freshwater and seawater and from different regions were combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), and random forest (RF) to create discrimination models. To assess the stability of the discrimination models, seasonal variation in δ2H and δ18O in salmonids cultured in different systems was studied. δ2H and δ18O were significantly different between salmonids cultured in freshwater and seawater and from different geographical origins. δ2H and δ18O of salmonids cultured in an open system were vulnerable to seasonal effects. The KNN model had 100% accuracy for identifying the production methods of salmonids and was less affected by seasonal variation. The RF model had the highest accuracy for identifying the geographical origins of salmonids with an accuracy of over 80%. Thus, δ2H and δ18O were more effective for identifying the production methods of salmonids than their geographical origins.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Análise Discriminante , Isótopos , Espectrometria de Massas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Isótopos de Oxigênio
18.
Food Res Int ; 145: 110385, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112388

RESUMO

The flavor of salmonids is affected by species and origin. Sources of salmonid fish fillets are complex and difficult to identify and label fraud occasionally occurs in the market. In this study, headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS), electronic nose, electronic tongue and amino acid detection technologies were used to analyze flavor compounds in two salmonid species from different geographical origins. Fingerprints of volatile compounds of salmonid were constructed using HS-GC-IMS technology. Free amino acid (FAA) content differed in salmonids from different geographical origins. Regarding salmonid odor, HS-GC-IMS analysis results were basically consistent with those of the electronic nose. Regarding taste, the conclusions drawn from the electronic tongue were consistent with the amino acid test results. Therefore, our results demonstrate that flavor compounds can be used to distinguish salmonids from different geographical origins, providing a new dimension to food safety and authenticity. Furthermore, HS-GC-IMS, electronic nose and tongue can be used as tools in the market to identify food fraud.


Assuntos
Salmonidae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Nariz Eletrônico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Paladar , Língua , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
J Exp Biol ; 224(12)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137867

RESUMO

Characterizing the thermal preference of fish is important in conservation, environmental and evolutionary physiology and can be determined using a shuttle box system. Initial tank acclimation and trial lengths are important considerations in experimental design, yet systematic studies of these factors are missing. Three different behavioral assay experimental designs were tested to determine the effect of tank acclimation and trial length (hours of tank acclimation:behavioral trial: 12:12, 0:12, 2:2) on the temperature preference of juvenile lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), using a shuttle box. Average temperature preferences for the 12 h:12 h, 0 h:12 h, 2 h:2 h experimental designs were 16.10±1.07°C, 16.02±1.56°C and 16.12±1.59°C respectively, with no significant differences between experimental designs (P=0.9337). Ultimately, length of acclimation time and trial length had no significant effect on thermal preference.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Salmonidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Temperatura
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 448, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173864

RESUMO

 This paper reports heavy metal and metalloid accumulation in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L., 1758 complex) raised in freshwater and uncontaminated Sardinia system (Italy). Metals are widespread pollutants of aquatic systems, and their contamination can originate from anthropogenic activities such as industrial waste, agricultural and domestic environments, and geochemical release. Fish has a relevant position within the human diet; moreover, fishes can accumulate metals, making them a valuable tool as biomarkers for risk assessment studies. The concentration of 22 metals and metalloids after chemical digestion was assessed by inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) in both the guts and the edible part (EP, muscle + skin) of brown trout. The results, expressed as µg g-1, showed different levels of accumulation in the EP and guts, following the series Cu > Zn > Ba > Al > Sr > Fe > Pb and Fe > Al > Hg > As > Mn > Cu > Ba > B > Zn > Pb, respectively. PCA analysis showed a fairly good correlation between the total lipid and SAFA content and Cd, Hg, and Pb accumulation in the gut. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment, expressed as THQ (target hazard quotient), showed values far below 1 for all metals in muscles, while high As and Hg contamination of the gut draws attention to possible health risks which should be discarded from the fish before consumption. TR (target cancer risk) values showed alarmingly high values for As and Cd when the fish were consumed entirely (gut + EP), while Pb levels were far below the safety levels.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Salmonidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Análise Espectral , Truta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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