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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10679, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337816

RESUMO

Conspicuous carotenoid ornamentation is considered a signal of individual "quality" and one of the most intensely studied traits found to co-vary with parasitism. Since it has been suggested that only "high quality" individuals have enough resources to express excessive sexual ornaments and resist parasites, current theory struggles to explain cases where the brightest individuals carry the most parasites. Surprisingly little emphasis has been put on the contrasting routes to fitness utilized by different parasite species inhabiting the same host. Using Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) as model species, we hypothesized that skin redness and allocation of carotenoids between skin and muscle (redness ratio) will be positively and negatively associated with parasites using the fish as an intermediate and final host, respectively. Both pigment parameters were indeed positively associated with abundances of parasites awaiting trophic transmission (Diplostomum sp. and Diphyllobothrium spp.) and negatively associated with the abundance of adult Eubothrium salvelini tapeworms. These empirical data demonstrate that contrasting associations between carotenoid coloration and parasite intensities relates to the specific premises of different parasite species and life cycle stages.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Salmoniformes/fisiologia , Animais , Carotenoides , Masculino , Salmoniformes/parasitologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 234: 1-13, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200248

RESUMO

The dissimilar ecological behavior of species including, extent of mobility and feeding strategies, may predispose them to greater toxic effects. This hypothesis was tested by histological-based assessment of gills and liver of pelagic (Tilapia zilli) and benthic (Clarias gariepinus and Neochanna diversus) fish species of River Owan. The fish species were sampled monthly across seasons from river sites where they were observed to be most abundant. The pathologies were examined from light micrographs, and severity was evaluated by semi-quantitative analyses. Gill pathology of Tilapiazilli showed a moderate occurrence of shortened secondary lamellae, compared with Clarias gariepinus and Neochanna diversus which showed a high incidence of very distinct structural disruptions including epithelial lifting, collapsed secondary lamella structure due to pilaster disruption. Although hepatocellular damage, fibrotic biliary disruptions and parasite incidence were the most evident pathological features in liver of all species, parasite variety and lesion severity differed across species. Principal component analysis (PCA) associated benthic species with more severe gills and liver pathologies, indicating that, benthic species in the Owan riverscape were more at risks compared to pelagic species. As such, we successfully demonstrate that relative ecological risks and potential adverse health effects on fish species could be dependent on ecological behavior and preferences. Conservation efforts particularly for endangered species could be better developed if relative risks and vulnerability of species are understood.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Brânquias/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria , Praguicidas/análise , Salmoniformes , Alimentos Marinhos , Estações do Ano , Tilápia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 529, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has a highly seasonal feeding cycle that comprises long periods of voluntary fasting and a short but intense feeding period during summer. Therefore, the charr represents an interesting species for studying appetite-regulating mechanisms in fish. RESULTS: In this study, we compared the brain transcriptomes of fed and feed deprived charr over a 4 weeks trial during their summer feeding season. Despite prominent differences in body condition between fed and feed deprived charr at the end of the trial, feed deprivation affected the brain transcriptome only slightly. In contrast, the transcriptome differed markedly over time in both fed and feed deprived charr, indicating strong shifts in basic cell metabolic processes possibly due to season, growth, temperature, or combinations thereof. The GO enrichment analysis revealed that many biological processes appeared to change in the same direction in both fed and feed deprived fish. In the feed deprived charr processes linked to oxygen transport and apoptosis were down- and up-regulated, respectively. Known genes encoding for appetite regulators did not respond to feed deprivation. Gene expression of Deiodinase 2 (DIO2), an enzyme implicated in the regulation of seasonal processes in mammals, was lower in response to season and feed deprivation. We further found a higher expression of VGF (non-acronymic) in the feed deprived than in the fed fish. This gene encodes for a neuropeptide associated with the control of energy metabolism in mammals, and has not been studied in relation to regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis in fish. CONCLUSIONS: In the Arctic charr, external and endogenous seasonal factors for example the increase in temperature and their circannual growth cycle, respectively, evoke much stronger responses in the brain than 4 weeks feed deprivation. The absence of a central hunger response in feed deprived charr give support for a strong resilience to the lack of food in this high Arctic species. DIO2 and VGF may play a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and need to be further studied in seasonal fish.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Salmoniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmoniformes/genética , Estações do Ano , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Salmoniformes/metabolismo
4.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 27(5): 3303-5, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25693716

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genome of Neosalanx tangkahkeiis was determined to be 16,550 bp in length with (A+T) content of 49.7%, and it consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The gene composition and the structural arrangement of the N. tangkahkeiis complete mtDNA were identical to most of other vertebrates. The sequence comparison showed that mitogenome of N. tangkahkeiis had a 99.9% of similarity with so-called N. taihuensis, indicating they are the same species and N. taihuensis is not a valid name.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Salmoniformes/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Composição de Bases , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , DNA Intergênico/química , DNA Intergênico/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA de Transferência , Salmoniformes/classificação
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24708116

RESUMO

In this study, we sequenced and determined the complete mitochondrial genome of clearhead icefish (Protosalanx hyalocranius). The circular mitochondrial genome (16,693 bp) contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region. All genes were encoded on the heavy strand with the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Salmoniformes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes de RNAr/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
6.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 41(5): 1155-71, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25995172

RESUMO

c-myc has a crucial function in growth control, differentiation, and apoptosis of vertebrate cells. Despite the important role of c-myc in mediating the biological effects, studies of c-myc gene expression and factors that control it in organisms other than mammals, such as fish, have been rare. In the current study, we asked whether c-myc mRNA of whitefish, a feasible organism for pollution monitoring in aquatic systems and a model in toxicological research, contains activity sites for regulatory motifs in its 5'- and 3'-UTRs, similar to those found in mammals. We were particularly interested in whether miRNA-34, a known negative regulator of c-myc's in mammals, is able to regulate c-myc in fish. To answer these questions, we determined the mRNA sequence of whitefish c-myc and inferred the structure of the protein that it codes for. We found that the active sites of mRNA and structures of the inferred c-myc protein are similar to those found in mammals and other fish. Remarkably, levels of c-myc mRNA expression were very high in ovaries compared to other tissues of whitefish, thus corroborating previous data in fish. Using bioinformatic searches on c-myc 3'-UTR, we confirmed the presence of two miRNA-34a (miR-34a) response elements. Luciferase reporter assay showed that activity of reporters containing either the miR response elements or entire c-myc 3'-UTR was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by ectopic expression of miR-34a. Therefore, we further investigated possible involvement of miR-34a in c-myc gene silencing by profiling the expression of both genes in livers of whitefish treated for 8, 24, 48 h with MC-LR, a potent c-myc inducer in mammals. Although the difference was only significant at p = 0.08, the expression of c-myc mRNA in challenged whitefish after 24 h of the treatment was notably higher than that in livers of control fish. Concurrently, we noticed slight but significant up-regulation of miR-34a after 24 and 48 h of the challenge (p < 0.05); however, we found no significant correlation of the c-myc mRNA levels and miR-34a expression. Together, these results suggest that miR-34a might regulate c-myc gene expression in whitefish liver; however, their involvement in MC-LR hepatotoxicity should be clarified in future studies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genes myc/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/fisiologia , Salmoniformes/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Genes myc/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
7.
Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol ; 49(2): 162-71, 2013.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23789402

RESUMO

Analysis of data on utrastructure of granulocytes of freshwater and marine bony fish of orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes showed that in all studied species there were revealed two types of granulocytes - neutrophils and eosinophils. The exception was the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix L. whose pronephros hemopoietic tissue was found to contain one type of the granulocytic line - neutrophils. The identification parameters of granular leukocytes are specific granules filling the cytoplasm. The main form of specific granules in neutrophils of bony fish of various phylogenetic groups is an elongated granule with different distribution of fibrils or a granule that has crystalloid formed from fibrils. The main form of eosinophil granules - large, electron-dense, homogenous.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/anatomia & histologia , Granulócitos/ultraestrutura , Rim Cefálico/ultraestrutura , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Salmoniformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cipriniformes/sangue , Cipriniformes/classificação , Eosinófilos/citologia , Eosinófilos/ultraestrutura , Granulócitos/citologia , Hematopoese Extramedular , Contagem de Leucócitos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/ultraestrutura , Perciformes/sangue , Perciformes/classificação , Filogenia , Salmoniformes/sangue , Salmoniformes/classificação
8.
Oecologia ; 171(1): 153-62, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22776906

RESUMO

Population dynamics are typically affected by a combination of density-independent and density-dependent factors, the latter of which have been conceptually and theoretically linked with how variable population sizes are over time-which in turn has been tied to how prone populations are to extinction. To address evidence for the occurrence of density dependence and its relationship with population size variability (pv), we quantified each of these for 126 populations of 8 species of Salmoniformes. Using random-effects models, we partitioned variation in the strength of density dependence and the magnitude of pv between and within species and estimated the correlation of density dependence and population size variability at both the between- and within-species levels. We found that variation in the strength of density dependence was predominately within species (I(2) = 0.12 [corrected] variation in population size variability was distributed both between and within species (I(2) = 0.40). Contrary to theoretical and conceptual expectations, the strength of density dependence and the magnitude of population size variability were positively correlated at the between species level (r = 0.90), although this estimate had 95 % credibility intervals (Bayesian analogues to confidence intervals) that overlapped zero. The within-species correlation between density dependence and population size variability was not distinguishable from zero. Given that density dependence for Salmoniformes was highly variable within species, we next determined the joint effects of intrinsic (density-dependent) and extrinsic (density-independent) factors on the population dynamics of a threatened salmonid, the Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi). We found that density-dependent and -independent factors additively contributed to population dynamics. This finding suggests that the observed within-species variability in density dependence might be attributable to local differences in the strength of density-independent factors.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Salmoniformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Densidade Demográfica
9.
Curr Biol ; 22(13): R531-3, 2012 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22790003

RESUMO

Transfer of information about predatory attacks between individuals allows schooling or flocking prey to evade predation without disrupting group integrity. But, predators can mitigate this effect by working together themselves.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Salmoniformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
10.
Curr Biol ; 22(13): 1213-7, 2012 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22683262

RESUMO

Predator-prey interactions are vital to the stability of many ecosystems. Yet, few studies have considered how they are mediated due to substantial challenges in quantifying behavior over appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Here, we employ high-resolution sonar imaging to track the motion and interactions among predatory fish and their schooling prey in a natural environment. In particular, we address the relationship between predator attack behavior and the capacity for prey to respond both directly and through collective propagation of changes in velocity by group members. To do so, we investigated a large number of attacks and estimated per capita risk during attack and its relation to the size, shape, and internal structure of prey groups. Predators were found to frequently form coordinated hunting groups, with up to five individuals attacking in line formation. Attacks were associated with increased fragmentation and irregularities in the spatial structure of prey groups, features that inhibit collective information transfer among prey. Prey group fragmentation, likely facilitated by predator line formation, increased (estimated) per capita risk of prey, provided prey schools were maintained below a threshold size of approximately 2 m(2). Our results highlight the importance of collective behavior to the strategies employed by both predators and prey under conditions of considerable informational constraints.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Ecossistema , Fatores de Risco , Salmoniformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
11.
Ecol Appl ; 21(3): 888-96, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21639052

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities have significantly altered freshwater fish communities. Extirpations of deepwater coregonines (Coregonus spp.), a diverse group of fish species, have left vast areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes devoid of a deepwater fish community. Currently, fisheries managers are considering restoring populations by reintroducing deepwater coregonines from Lake Superior and Lake Nipigon. However, little is known about the historical ecology of deepwater coregonines, and species characterization has proved difficult. We used stable isotope analysis of museum-preserved and contemporary specimens to investigate if (1) coregonine species historically occupied distinct niches and (2) the pattern of trophic niche partitioning has changed over the last century. Across all lakes, individual species occupied distinct trophic niches, confirming that these species were ecologically distinct. Understanding trophic niche partitioning helps resolve uncertainty about distinctness of species within and across lakes and may provide a better ecological basis for rehabilitation of Great Lakes food webs and ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Salmoniformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Demografia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Great Lakes Region
12.
J Fish Biol ; 78(1): 98-111, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21235548

RESUMO

Population genetic variation of Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena was examined to determine whether the dispersal strategy of this amphidromous species favours retention of larvae and juveniles in close proximity to their natal river, or mixing of populations via marine dispersal. Variation in microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers was unstructured and differentiation was indistinguishable from zero across four coastal rivers spanning approximately one-quarter of the continental range of the species. This result indicates that the marine larval and juvenile phase probably facilitates extensive gene flow among coastal rivers and agrees with a previous analysis of otolith chemistry that suggested larvae probably move into the sea rather than remain in estuaries. It appears likely that the dispersal strategy of P. maraena would enable recolonization of rivers that experience localized extinction provided that connectivity between freshwater habitats and the sea is sufficient to permit migration and that enough source populations remain intact to support viability of the wider population.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Rios , Salmoniformes/genética , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Geografia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Vitória
13.
J Fish Biol ; 77(7): 1702-8, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21078028

RESUMO

This study tested the influence of energetic state on refuge use and dispersal in juvenile North Sea houting Coregonus oxyrinchus in an artificial stream. Food-deprived fish spent more time outside refuges than well-fed fish; however, the well-fed fish initiated dispersal faster than the food-deprived fish. The results may indicate state-dependent refuge use and dispersal in C. oxyrinchus.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Salmoniformes/fisiologia , Animais , Mar do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 57(2): 932-6, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20674753

RESUMO

This study examines phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic Western Australian Lepidogalaxias, and extends previous studies by including eight new taxa to enable re-examination phylogenetic relationships of lower euteleostean fishes at the ordinal level, based on mitochondrial genomes from 39 ingroup taxa and 17 outgroups. Our results suggest that Lepidogalaxias occupies a basal position among all euteleosts, in contrast with earlier hypotheses that variously suggested a closer relationship to esocid fishes, or to the galaxiid Lovettia. In addition our evidence shows that Osmeriformes should be restricted Retropinnidae, Osmeridae, Plecoglossidae and Salangidae. This reduced Osmeriformes is supported in our results as the sister group of Stomiiformes. Galaxiidae, which is often closely linked to Osmeriformes, emerges as sister group of a combined Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Salmoniformes, Esociformes and Argentiformes, and we give Galaxiiformes the rank of order to include all remaining galaxioid fishes (Galaxias and allied taxa, Aplochiton and Lovettia). Our results also support a sister group relationship between Salmoniformes and Esociformes, which are together the sister group of Argentiniformes.


Assuntos
Peixes/classificação , Peixes/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Esociformes/classificação , Esociformes/genética , Osmeriformes/classificação , Osmeriformes/genética , Salmoniformes/classificação , Salmoniformes/genética
15.
Parazitologiia ; 44(1): 52-60, 2010.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20349632

RESUMO

Hitherto data on the morphology of Tetraonchidae and their eggs obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were absent in the literature. In the present paper results of SEM study of two genera of Tetraonchidae, Tetraonchus and Salmonchus, are given. Fine morphological traits of eggs, larvae, and definitive individuals of Tetraonchidae, as well as patterns of their attachment to host gill, were established for the first time. A deep penetration of the worms into the branchial epithelium of the host was shown.


Assuntos
Esociformes/parasitologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Platelmintos/ultraestrutura , Salmoniformes/parasitologia , Animais , Brânquias/parasitologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Salmonidae/parasitologia , Sibéria
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 71(11): 1487-91, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19959900

RESUMO

Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) induced effective protection against experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease). Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions, such as erosion and hemorrhages on the skin, gill cover or mouth, were significantly suppressed in fish treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry pellets. Although F. psychrophilum was not re-isolated from gills and erosion lesions of the skin of dead fish, bacterial gyrB DNA could be amplified in these specimens from dead fish and surviving control fish using the polymerase chain reaction. The protective effect of the extract was not the results of direct killing of bacteria or antibiotic activity of the extract since no obvious reduction in the bacterial number was observed at 5 times to 5,000 times dilution of the humus extract having pH 5.45 to 7.40. These results clearly show that treating fish with humus extract is effective in preventing cold water disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium/fisiologia , Salmoniformes , Solo/análise , Administração Oral , Animais , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 364(1524): 1725-31, 2009 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19451123

RESUMO

In ecosystems, a single extinction event can give rise to multiple 'secondary' extinctions. Conservation effort would benefit from tools that help forecast the consequences of species removal. One such tool is the dominator tree, a graph-theoretic algorithm that when applied to food webs unfolds their complex architecture, yielding a simpler topology made of linear pathways that are essential for energy delivery. Each species along these chains is responsible for passing energy to the taxa that follow it and, as such, it is indispensable for their survival. To assess the predictive potential of the dominator tree, we compare its predictions with the effects that followed the collapse of the capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Barents Sea ecosystem. To this end, we first compiled a food web for this ecosystem, then we built the corresponding dominator tree and, finally, we observed whether model predictions matched the empirical observations. This analysis shows the potential and the drawbacks of the dominator trees as a tool for understanding the causes and consequences of extinctions in food webs.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Animais , Aves , Caniformia , Cetáceos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Biologia Marinha , Salmoniformes
18.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 82(5): 468-82, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19193116

RESUMO

Electrical activity of the heart is assumed to be one of the key factors that set thermal tolerance limits for ectothermic vertebrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that in thermal acclimation--the duration of cardiac action potential and the repolarizing K+ currents that regulate action potential duration (APD)--the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current (I(Kr)) and the inward rectifier K+ current (I(K1)) are more plastic in eurythermal than in stenothermal fish species. The hypothesis was tested in six freshwater teleosts representing four different fish orders (Cadiformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, Salmoniformes) acclimated at +4 degrees C (cold acclimation) or +18 degrees C (warm acclimation). In cold acclimation, a compensatory shortening of APD occurred in all species regardless of thermal tolerances, life styles, or phylogenies of the fish, suggesting that this response is a common characteristic of the teleost heart. The strength of the response did not, however, obey simple eurythermy-stenothermy gradation but differed among the phylogenetic groups. Salmoniformes fish showed the greatest acclimation capacity of cardiac electrical activity, whereas the weakest response appeared in the perch (Perciformes) heart. The underlying ionic mechanisms were also partly phylogeny dependent. Modification of the I(Kr) current was al- most ubiquitously involved in acclimation response of fish cardiac myocytes to temperature, while the ability to change the I(K1) current under chronic thermal stress was absent or showed inverse compensation in Salmoniformes species. Thus, in Salmoniformes fish, the thermal plasticity of APD is strongly based on I(Kr), while other fish groups rely on both I(Kr) and I(K1).


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Clima Frio , Cipriniformes/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/metabolismo , Gadiformes/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Perciformes/fisiologia , Filogenia , Potássio/metabolismo , Salmoniformes/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Gene ; 434(1-2): 16-28, 2009 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18590946

RESUMO

Short and long retroposons, or non-LTR retrotransposons (SINEs and LINEs, respectively) are two groups of interspersed repetitive elements amplifying in the genome via RNA and cDNA-mediated reverse transcription. In this process, SINEs entirely depend on the enzymatic machinery of autonomous LINEs. The impact of retroposons on the host genome is difficult to overestimate: their sequences account for significant portion of the eukaryotic genome, while propagation of their active copies gradually reshapes it. In this way, the retropositional activity plays a role of important evolutionary factor. More than 100 LINE and nearly 100 SINE families have been described to date from the genomes of various eukaryotes, and it is salmonoid fishes (Actinopterygii: Salmonoidei) that are particularly noticeable for the diversity of transposons they host in their genomes, including two LINE and seven SINE families. Moreover, this group of ray-finned fish represents an excellent opportunity to study such a rare evolutionary phenomenon as lateral gene transfer, due to a great variety of transposons and other sequences salmons share with a blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Strigeiformes)--a parasitic helminth infecting various vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to structure all knowledge accumulated about salmonoid retroposons by now, as well as to complement it with the new data pertaining to the distribution of some SINE families.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Salmoniformes/genética , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Dados de Sequência Molecular
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 156(1-4): 293-302, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18781391

RESUMO

To ensure energy demands for reproduction are met, it is essential that marine birds breed during periods of peak food availability. We examined associations of the breeding chronology of common murres (Uria aalge) with the timing of the inshore arrival of their primary prey, capelin (Mallotus villosus) from 1980 to 2006 across a period of pervasive change in the Northwest Atlantic ecosystem. We also assessed the influence of ocean temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; an index of winter climate and oceanography) on these interactions. We found a lagged linear relationship between variations in murre breeding chronology and the timing of capelin arrival in the previous year. On a decadal level, we found a non-linear threshold relationship between ocean temperature and the timing of capelin arrival and murre breeding. Centennially anomalous cold water temperatures in 1991 generated a marked shift in the timing of capelin spawning inshore and murre breeding, delaying both by more than 2 weeks. By the mid-1990s, ocean temperatures returned to pre-perturbation levels, whereas the temporal breeding responses of capelin and murres were delayed for a decade or more. Oceanographic conditions (temperature, NAO) were poor predictors of the timing of capelin arrival inshore in the current year compared to the previous one. Our findings suggest that knowledge of the timing of capelin availability in the previous year provides a robust cue for the long-lived murres, allowing them to achieve temporal overlap between breeding and peak capelin availability.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Clima , Salmoniformes , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Canadá , Geografia , Modelos Lineares , Terra Nova e Labrador , Oceanografia , Reprodução/fisiologia
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