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2.
Planta ; 257(2): 32, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602592

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A lncRNA MtCIR1 negatively regulates the response to salt stress in Medicago truncatula seed germination by modulating seedling growth and ABA metabolism and signaling by enhancing Na+ accumulation. Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of plant tolerance to varying abiotic stresses. A large number of lncRNAs that are responsive to abiotic stress have been identified in plants; however, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of plant responses to abiotic stress by lncRNAs are largely unclear. Here, we functionally characterized a salt stress-responsive lncRNA derived from the leguminous model plant M. truncatula, referred to as MtCIR1, by expressing MtCIR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana in which no such homologous sequence was observed. Expression of MtCIR1 rendered seed germination more sensitive to salt stress by enhanced accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) due to suppressing the expression of the ABA catabolic enzyme CYP707A2. Expression of MtCIR1 also suppressed the expression of genes associated with ABA receptors and signaling. The ABA-responsive gene AtPGIP2 that was involved in degradation of cell wall during seed germination was up-regulated by expressing MtCIR1. On the other hand, expression of MtCIR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced foliar Na+ accumulation by down-regulating genes encoding Na+ transporters, thus rendering the transgenic plants more sensitive to salt stress. These results demonstrate that the M. truncatula lncRNA MtCIR1 negatively regulates salt stress response by targeting ABA metabolism and signaling during seed germination and foliar Na+ accumulation by affecting Na+ transport under salt stress during seedling growth. These novel findings would advance our knowledge on the regulatory roles of lncRNAs in response of plants to salt stress.


Assuntos
Medicago truncatula , RNA Longo não Codificante , Estresse Salino , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
3.
Chemosphere ; 314: 137649, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587917

RESUMO

The global biomass production from agricultural farmlands is facing severe constraints from abiotic stresses like soil salinization. Salinity-mediated stress triggered the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may result in oxidative burst in cell organelles and cause cell death in plants. ROS production is regulated by the redox homeostasis that helps in the readjustment of the cellular redox and energy state in plants. All these cellular redox related functions may play a decisive role in adaptation and acclimation to salinity stress in plants. The use of nanotechnology like nanoparticles (NPs) in plant physiology has become the new area of interest as they have potential to trigger the various enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant capabilities of plants under varying salinity levels. Moreover, NPs application under salinity is also being favored due to their unique characteristics compared to traditional phytohormones, amino acids, nutrients, and organic osmolytes. Therefore, this article emphasized the core response of plants to acclimate the challenges of salt stress through auxiliary functions of ROS, antioxidant defense system and redox homeostasis. Furthermore, the role of different types of NPs mediated changes in biochemical, proteomic, and genetic expressions of plants under salt stress have been discussed. This article also discussed the potential limitations of NPs adoption in crop production especially under environmental stresses.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Estresse Oxidativo , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Salinidade
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614180

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) is a phytohormone-like substance and is profoundly involved in modulating nearly all aspects of plant development and acclimation to environmental stressors. However, there remain no studies about the effects of MT on tomato seed germination under salt stress. Here we reported that the overexpression of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase 1 (SlCOMT1) significantly increased both MT content and salt tolerance in the germinated seeds of a transgenic tomato relative to wild type (WT) samples. Physiological investigation showed higher amylase activity in the stressed overexpression seeds than WT, leading to the promoted starch decomposition and enhanced soluble sugar content. The stimulated production of osmolytes and enhanced activities of SOD, POD, and CAT, together with the significant reduction in H2O2 and O2·- accumulation, were revealed in the stressed overexpression seeds relative to WT, largely accounting for their lower membrane lipid peroxidation. qPCR assay showed that, upon salt stress, the transcript abundance of hub genes related to germination (SlCYP707A1, SlABA1, SlGA3ox2 and SlGA2ox4) and stress tolerance (SlCDPK1, SlWRKY33 and SlMAPK1) were distinctly altered in the overexpression samples when compared to WT, providing a molecular basis for MT-mediated improvement of seed salt tolerance. Altogether, our observations shed new insights into biological functions of SlCOMT1 and could expand its utilization in genetic improvement of tomato salt tolerance in future.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Germinação/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Sementes , Estresse Salino/genética , Melatonina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36614245

RESUMO

Fruit plants are severely constrained by salt stress in the soil due to their sessile nature. Ca2+ sensors, which are known as CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), transmit abiotic stress signals to plants. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the molecular regulatory role of CIPKs underlying salt stress tolerance in kiwifruit. In the current study, we have identified 42 CIPK genes from Actinidia. valvata (A.valvata). All the AvCIPKs were divided into four different phylogenetic groups. Moreover, these genes showed different conserved motifs. The expression pattern analysis showed that AvCIPK11 was specifically highly expressed under salt stress. The overexpression of AvCIPK11 in 'Hongyang' (a salt sensitive commercial cultivar from Actinidia chinensis) enhanced salt tolerance by maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis in the leaf and positively improving the activity of POD. In addition, the salt-related genes AcCBL1 and AcNHX1 had higher expression in overexpression lines. Collectively, our study suggested that AvCIPK11 is involved in the positive regulation of salt tolerance in kiwifruit.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Transcriptoma , Actinidia/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Filogenia , Estresse Salino/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2208351120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696447

RESUMO

In plants, the endomembrane system is tightly regulated in response to environmental stresses for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Autophagosomes, the double membrane organelles forming upon nutrient deprivation or stress induction, degrade bulky cytosolic materials for nutrient turnover. Though abiotic stresses have been reported to induce plant autophagy, few receptors or regulators for selective autophagy have been characterized for specific stresses. Here, we have applied immunoprecipitation followed by tandem mass spectrometry using the autophagosome marker protein ATG8 as bait and have identified the E3 ligase of the ufmylation system Ufl1 as a bona fide ATG8 interactor under salt stress. Notably, core components in the ufmylation cascade, Ufl1 and Ufm1, interact with the autophagy kinase complexes proteins ATG1 and ATG6. Cellular and genetic analysis showed that Ufl1 is important for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagy under persisting salt stress. Loss-of-function mutants of Ufl1 display a salt stress hypersensitive phenotype and abnormal ER morphology. Prolonged ER stress responses are detected in ufl1 mutants that phenocopy the autophagy dysfunction atg5 mutants. Consistently, expression of ufmylation cascade components is up-regulated by salt stress. Taken together, our study demonstrates the role of ufmylation in regulating ER homeostasis under salt stress through ER-phagy.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Estresse Salino
7.
Microbiol Res ; 268: 127295, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587534

RESUMO

Membrane cardiolipin (CL) phospholipids play a fundamental role in the adaptation of bacteria to various environmental conditions, including saline stress. Here, we constructed deletion mutants of two CL synthetase genes, clsA (UM270 ∆clsA) and clsB (UM270 ∆clsB), in the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens UM270, and evaluated their role in plant growth promotion under salt stress. UM270 ∆clsA and UM270 ∆clsB mutants showed a significant reduction in CL synthesis compared to the P. fluorescens UM270 wild-type (UM270 wt) strain (58% ∆clsA and 53% ∆clsB), and their growth rate was not affected, except when grown at 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Additionally, the root colonization capacity of both mutant strains was impaired compared with that of the wild type. Concomitant with the deletion of clsA and clsB genes, some physiological changes were observed in the UM270 ∆clsA and UM270 ∆clsB mutants, such as a reduction in indole acetic acid and biofilm production. By contrast, an increase in siderophore biosynthesis was observed. Further, inoculation of the UM270 wt strain in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown under salt stress conditions (100 and 200 mM NaCl) resulted in an increase in root and shoot length, chlorophyll content, and dry weight. On the contrary, when each of the mutants were inoculated in tomato plants, a reduction in root length was observed when grown at 200 mM NaCl, but the shoot length, chlorophyll content, and total plant dry weight parameters were significantly reduced under normal or saline conditions (100 and 200 mM NaCl), compared to UM270 wt-inoculated plants. In conclusion, these results suggest that CL synthesis in P. fluorescens UM270 plays an important role in the promotion of tomato plant growth under normal conditions, but to a greater extent, under salt-stress conditions.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Cardiolipinas , Cloreto de Sódio , Estresse Salino , Clorofila , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674767

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the membrane nanodomain protein AtFlot1 is involved in vesicular transport pathways and regulation of the P-type H+-ATPase content in plasma membrane of A. thaliana under salt stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed changes in the endosomal system of A. thaliana root cells due to knockout mutation SALK_205125C (Atflot1ko). Immunoblotting of the plasma membrane-enriched fractions isolated from plant organs with an antibody to the H+-ATPase demonstrated changes in the H+-ATPase content in plasma membrane in response to the Atflot1ko mutation and salt shock. Expression levels of the main H+-ATPase isoforms, PMA1 and PMA2, as well as endocytosis activity of root cells determined by endocytic probe FM4-64 uptake assay, were unchanged in the Atflot1ko mutant. We have shown that AtFlot1 participates in regulation of the H+-ATPase content in the plasma membrane. We hypothesized that AtFlot1 is involved in both exocytosis and endocytosis, and, thus, contributes to the maintenance of cell ion homeostasis under salt stress. The lack of a pronounced Atflot1ko phenotype under salt stress conditions may be due to the assumed ability of Atflot1ko to switch vesicular transport to alternative pathways. Functional redundancy of AtFlot proteins may play a role in the functioning of these alternative pathways.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/genética , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Estresse Salino
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672943

RESUMO

During the response of plants to water stresses, aquaporin (AQP) plays a prominent role in membrane water transport based on the received upstream signals. Due to the importance of the AQP gene family, studies have been conducted that investigate the function and regulatory system of these genes. However, many of their molecular aspects are still unknown. This study aims to carry out a genome-wide investigation of the AQP gene family in Triticum turgidum using bioinformatics tools and to investigate the expression patterns of some members in response to salt stress. Our results show that there are 80 TtAQP genes in T. turgidum, which are classified into four main groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Several duplications were observed between the members of the TtAQP gene family, and high diversity in response to post-translational modifications was observed between TtAQP family members. The expression pattern of TtAQP genes disclosed that these genes are primarily upregulated in response to salt stress. Additionally, the qPCR data revealed that TtAQPs are more induced in delayed responses to salinity stress. Overall, our findings illustrate that TtAQP members are diverse in terms of their structure, regulatory systems, and expression levels.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Filogenia , Estresse Salino/genética , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 134-143, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634508

RESUMO

The transcription factors of the AP2/ERF family are involved in plant growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we found RAP2.6, a transcription factor which belongs to the ERF subfamily, was responsive to salt stress in Arabidopsis. Under salt stress conditions, rap2.6 mutant seedlings were the sensitivity deficiency to salt stress which was reflected in higher germination rate and longer root length compared to the wild type. Also, the expressions of salt-related gene including SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, NHX1, NHX3, NHX5 and HKT1 in rap2.6 mutant seedlings were lower than the wild type under salt stress. rap2.6 mutant adult lacked salt stress tolerance based on the results of the phenotype, survival rates and ion leakage. Compared to wild type, rap2.6 mutant adult accumulated more Na+ in leaves and roots while the salt-related gene expressions were lower. In addition, the photosynthetic electron transport and PSII energy distribution in rap2.6 mutant plant leaves had been more seriously affected under salt stress conditions compared to the wild type. In summary, this study identified essential roles of RAP2.6 in regulating salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Salino , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
11.
PeerJ ; 11: e14673, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710858

RESUMO

Prohexadione calcium (Pro-Ca), as a growth retardant, can effectively alleviate the damage of salt stress to plants. In order to explore the effects of NaCl stress on the physiological characteristics and panicle traits of rice plants as well as the alleviating effect of Pro-Ca at the booting stage, we performed pot experiments on two rice cultivars: conventional rice 'Huanghuazhan' and hybrid rice 'Xiangliangyou900'. Rice plants were treated with 0.3% NaCl 48 hours after Pro-Ca (100 mg L-1) treatment to study the effects of Pro-Ca on the physiological characteristics of the leaves and panicles, as well as the panicle and yield traits of rice under salt stress. Our analysis indicated that NaCl treatment inhibited the morphological growth parameters and photosynthetic efficiency, destroyed the antioxidant defense systems of leaves and panicles, increased soluble protein and proline in both rice cultivars. Foliar application of Pro-Ca significantly increased the leaf area, uppermost internode length, panicle length, panicle weight, number of primary branches, number of grains per panicle, seed setting rate and yield under salt stress. Pro-Ca application significantly affected chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), and apparent mesophyll conductance (AMC) in NaCl-treated rice cultivars compared with NaCl treatment alone. Moreover, Pro-Ca also increased ascorbic acid (AsA) content, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and further increased the accumulation of soluble protein and proline in leaves and panicles. These results illustrated that foliar application of Pro-Ca at the booting stage could alleviate the damage caused by NaCl stress by regulating the physiological and metabolic processes of rice plants, thereby enhancing the stress resistance of the plants, increasing total rice yield in salt stress conditions.


Assuntos
Oryza , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Prolina/farmacologia
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(2): 77, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652029

RESUMO

Rhizobacteria that are helpful to plants can lessen the impacts of salt stress, and they may hold promise for the development of sustainable agriculture in the future. The present study was intended to explicate consortia of salt-tolerant plant-beneficial rhizobacteria for the amelioration of salinity stress in Arabidopsis plants. Inoculation with both the consortia positively influenced the growth of plants as indicated by total chlorophyll content, MDA content, and antioxidant enzyme activities under stressful conditions. Both the multi-trait consortia altered the expression profiles of stress-related genes including CSD1, CAT1, Wrky, Ein, Etr, and ACO. Furthermore, the metabolomic analysis indicated that inoculated plants modulated the metabolic profiles to stimulate physiological and biochemical responses in Arabidopsis plants to mitigate salt stress. Our study affirms that the consortia of salt-tolerant bacterial strains modulate the transcriptional as well as metabolic machinery of plants to protect them from salinity stress. Nevertheless, the findings of this study revealed that consortia are composed of salt-tolerant bacterial strains viz. Bacillus safensis NBRI 12M, B. subtilis NBRI 28B, and B. subtilis NBRI 33N demonstrated significant improvement in Arabidopsis plants under saline stress conditions.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Bacillus , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Bactérias/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 21, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt-alkali stress represents one of the most stressful events with deleterious consequences for plant growth and crop productivity. Despite studies focusing on the effects of salt-alkali stress on morphology and physiology, its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we employed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to understand how Na2CO3 stress inhibits rice seedling growth. RESULTS: Na2CO3 stress significantly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings. Through RNA-seq, many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were shown to be potentially involved in the rice seedling response to salt-alkali stress. After 1-day and 5-day treatments, RNA-seq identified 1780 and 2315 DEGs in the Na2CO3-treated versus -untreated rice seedling shoots, respectively. According to the gene ontology enrichment and the Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes annotation of DEGs, the growth-inhibition processes associated with salt-alkali stress involve a myriad of molecular events, including biosynthesis and metabolism, enzyme activity, and binding, etc. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the transcriptome analyses in the present work revealed several potential key regulators of plant response to salt-alkali stress, and might pave a way to improve salt-alkali stress tolerance in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Plântula , Oryza/metabolismo , Álcalis/farmacologia , Estresse Salino/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 883, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650251

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses that reduce plant growth and performance by changing physiological and biochemical processes. In addition to improving the crop, using nanomaterials in agriculture can reduce the harmful effects of environmental stresses, particularly salinity. A factorial experiment was conducted in the form of a completely randomized design with two factors including salt stress at three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and chitosan-salicylic acid nanocomposite at three levels (0, 0.1, and 0.5 mM). The results showed reductions in chlorophylls (a, b, and total), carotenoids, and nutrient elements (excluding sodium) while proline, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, total soluble protein, soluble carbohydrate, total antioxidant, and antioxidant enzymes activity increased with treatment chitosan-salicylic acid nanocomposite (CS-SA NCs) under different level NaCl. Salinity stress reduced Fm', Fm, and Fv/Fm by damage to photosynthetic systems, but treatment with CS-SA NCs improved these indices during salinity stress. In stress-free conditions, applying the CS-SA NCs improved the grapes' physiological, biochemical, and nutrient elemental balance traits. CS-SA NCs at 0.5 mM had a better effect on the studied traits of grapes under salinity stress. The CS-SA nanoparticle is a biostimulant that can be effectively used to improve the grape plant yield under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanocompostos , Vitis , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280246, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652493

RESUMO

Annexins (Anns) play an important role in plant development, growth and responses to various stresses. Although Ann genes have been characterized in some plants, their role in adaptation mechanisms and tolerance to environmental stresses have not been studied in extremophile plants. In this study, Ann genes in Schrenkiella parvula and Eutrema salsugineum were identified using a genome-wide method and phylogenetic relationships, subcellular distribution, gene structures, conserved residues and motifs and also promoter prediction have been studied through bioinformatics analysis. We identified ten and eight encoding putative Ann genes in S. parvula and E. salsugineum genome respectively, which were divided into six subfamilies according to phylogenetic relationships. By observing conservation in gene structures and protein motifs we found that the majority of Ann members in two extremophile plants are similar. Furthermore, promoter analysis revealed a greater number of GATA, Dof, bHLH and NAC transcription factor binding sites, as well as ABRE, ABRE3a, ABRE4, MYB and Myc cis-acting elements in compare to Arabidopsis thaliana. To gain additional insight into the putative roles of candidate Ann genes, the expression of SpAnn1, SpAnn2 and SpAnn6 in S. parvula was studied in response to salt stress, which indicated that their expression level in shoot increased. Similarly, salt stress induced expression of EsAnn1, 5 and 7, in roots and EsAnn1, 2 and 5 in leaves of E. salsugineum. Our comparative analysis implies that both halophytes have different regulatory mechanisms compared to A. thaliana and suggest SpAnn2 gene play important roles in mediating salt stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassicaceae , Filogenia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(2): 66, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604346

RESUMO

Soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress that contributes to soil degradation and crop yield reduction. Using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation can help to alleviate these deleterious effects. Most researches on AMF application are dealing with ecological restoration, whereas little consideration has been given to agriculture and legume production. The comparison of the efficacy of two AMF inoculums, one native originating from Algerian semiarid saline soils and one commercial inoculum, was carried out regarding their effects on the growth and the mineral nutrition of several legumes species, Medicago sativa, Medicago falcata, Trifolium repens and Trifolium alexandrinum, cultivated in semiarid Algerian saline soil under greenhouse conditions. Our results showed that native mycorrhizal inoculum enhanced shoot biomasses by 20%, mycorrhizal rate by 30%, shoot phosphorus content by 25% and K+/Na+ ratio by 45% for studied plants when compared with commercial inoculum. The best efficiency of the native AMF inoculum is probably due to the complementarity between the AMF strains which composed the inoculum. Funneliformis geosporum was the most abundant species recorded at the end of the experience in all plant roots especially with native inoculum. Our findings pointed out the effectiveness of native AMF inoculum application to promote agricultural production in semiarid saline soils.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Salinidade , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Verduras , Medicago , Estresse Salino , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
PeerJ ; 11: e14621, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643649

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major source of calorific intake in its various forms and is considered one of the most important staple foods. Improved wheat productivity can contribute substantially to addressing food security in the coming decades. Soil salinity is the most serious limiting factor in crop production and fertilizer use efficiency. In this study, 11 bacteria were isolated from wheat rhizosphere and examined for salt tolerance ability. WGT1, WGT2, WGT3, WGT6, WGT8, and WGT11 were able to tolerate NaCl salinity up to 4%. Bacterial isolates were characterized in vitro for plant growth-promoting properties including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, zinc solubilization, biofilm formation, and cellulase-pectinase production. Six isolates, WGT1, WGT3, WGT4, WGT6, WGT8, and WGT9 showed IAA production ability ranging from 0.7-6 µg m/L. WGT8 displayed the highest IAA production. Five isolates, WGT1, WGT2, WGT5, WGT10, and WGT11, demonstrated phosphate solubilization ranging from 1.4-12.3 µg m/L. WGT2 showed the highest phosphate solubilization. Nitrogen fixation was shown by only two isolates, WGT1 and WGT8. Zinc solubilization was shown by WGT1 and WGT11 on minimal media. All isolates showed biofilm formation ability, where WGT4 exhibited maximum potential. Cellulase production ability was noticed in WGT1, WGT2, WGT4, and WGT5, while pectinase production was observed in WGT2 and WGT3. Phylogenetic identification of potential bacteria isolates confirmed their close relationship with various species of the genus Bacillus. WGT1, WGT2, and WGT3 showed the highest similarity with B. cereus, WGT6 with B. tianshenii, WGT8 with B. subtilis, and WGT11 with B. thuringiensis. Biofertilizer characteristics of salt-tolerant potential rhizospheric bacteria were evaluated by inoculating wheat plants under controlled conditions and field experiments. B. cereus WGT1 and B. thuringiensis WGT11 displayed the maximum potential to increase plant growth parameters and enhance grain yield by 37% and 31%, respectively. Potential bacteria of this study can tolerate salt stress, have the ability to produce plant growth promoting substances under salt stress and contribute significantly to enhance wheat grain yield. These bacterial isolates have the potential to be used as biofertilizers for improved wheat production under salinity conditions and contribute to the sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Rizosfera , Estresse Salino , Triticum , Celulases , Fosfatos , Filogenia , Poligalacturonase , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia , Zinco
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 577-588, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522087

RESUMO

Soil salinity is known to improve cadmium (Cd) mobility, especially in arid soils. However, the mechanisms involved in how salt stress-associated metabolic profiles participate in mediating Cd transport in the soil-plant system remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of salinity-induced changes in soil metabolites on Cd bioavailability. Sodium salts in different combinations according to molar ratio (NaCl:Na2SO4=1:1; NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3=1:2:1; NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3:Na2CO3=1:9:9:1; NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3:Na2CO3=1:1:1:1) were applied to the Cd-contaminated soils, which increased soil Cd availability by 22.36% and the Cd content in wheat grains by 36.61%, compared to the control. Salt stress resulted in soil metabolic reprogramming, which might explain the decreased growth of wheat plants and increased Cd transport from the soil into wheat tissues. For example, down-regulation of starch and sucrose metabolism reduced the production of sugars, which adversely affected growth; up-regulation of fatty acid metabolism allowed wheat plants to maintain a normal intracellular environment under saline conditions; up-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was triggered, causing an increase in organic acid synthesis and the accumulation of organic acids, which facilitated the migration of soil Cd into wheat tissues. In summary, salt stress can facilitate Cd transport into wheat tissues by the direct effect of salt-based ions and the combined effect of altered soil physicochemical properties and soil metabolic profiles in Cd-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Solo/química , Cádmio/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cloreto de Sódio , Estresse Salino
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 394-405, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481708

RESUMO

The sugar transporter SWEET plays a role in plant growth, carbon allocation, and abiotic stress resistance. We examined the function of SWEET in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under water and salt stress. Bioinformatics, subcellular localization, yeast deficient complementation, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) were used to examine the function of SWEET in cassava. Twenty-eight MeSWEETs genes were found based on the conserved domain MtN3/saliva of SWEET transporters, two MeSWEET15a/b of them were identified by phylogenetic analysis, which were located on the cell membrane. They transfer sucrose, fructose, glucose, and mannitol from culture media to yeast cells, predominately transferring sucrose via bleeding fluid saps in plant. Leaf sucrose content was increased in MeSWEET15a/b-silenced cassava plants, resulting in changes in carbon distribution, with an increase in starch accumulation in the leaves and a decrease in starch accumulation in the roots. The silencing of MeSWEET15a/b genes led to tolerance to water and salt stress, consistent with a high accumulation of osmolytes, and low lipid membrane peroxidation. Changes in sugar distribution increased the expression of MeTOR and MeE2Fa in pTRV2-MeSWEET15a and pTRV2-MeSWEET15b cassava leaves. MeSWEET15a/b acts as pivotal modulators of sugar distribution and tolerance to water and high salt stress in cassava.


Assuntos
Manihot , Água , Água/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Manihot/genética , Manihot/metabolismo , Filogenia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Sacarose/metabolismo
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 651-663, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563571

RESUMO

The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in wheat plant tolerance to salinity stress (SS) brought about by hydrogen sulphide (H2S) via modifying the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle was studied. The SS-plants received either 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; H2S donor), or NaHS plus 0.1 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) through the nutrient solution. Salinity stress decreased plant growth, leaf water status, leaf K+, and glyoxalase II (gly II), while it elevated proline content, leaf Na+ content, oxidative stress, methylglyoxal (MG), glyoxalase I (gly I), the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities, contents of endogenous NO and H2S. The NaHS supplementation elevated plant development, decreased leaf Na+ content and oxidative stress, and altered leaf water status, leaf K+ and involved enzymes in AsA-GSH, H2S and NO levels. The SNP supplementation boosted the positive impact of NaHS on these traits in the SS-plants. Moreover, 0.1 mM cPTIO, scavenger of NO, countered the beneficial effect of NaHS by lowering NO levels. SNP and NaHS + cPTIO together restored the beneficial effects of NaHS by increasing NO content, implying that NO may have been a major factor in SS tolerance in wheat plants induced by H2S via activating enzymes connected to the AsA-GSH cycle.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Plântula/metabolismo
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