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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; Nov. 2021. 29 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1343036

RESUMO

El documento contiene los criterios técnicos y procedimientos para la prevención y control de la Covid-19 en el Perú. Está R.M. deja sin efecto las R.M. N° 193-2020, R.M. N° 209-2020, R.M. N° 240-2020 y R.M. N° 270-2020.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde , Pandemias , COVID-19
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684346

RESUMO

The global food system is facing multiple problems, including rising food insecurity, degrading environments, and an increased incidence of diet-related chronic diseases. International organizations are thus calling for a transition toward territorialized food systems to alleviate some of these challenges. Yet, limited evidence supporting the benefits of territorialized food systems is available. Our objective was to summarize the current body of literature on territorialized food systems and their impacts on human health, food security, and the environment using a rapid review methodology. Articles were retrieved from three databases and analyzed using keywords and inclusion criteria corresponding to territorialized food systems, environment, human health, and food security. Six relevant publications were identified. While this limited evidence suggests that territorialized food systems may have positive effects on all three dimensions, data are not consistent across publications. For example, territorialized food systems may contribute to improved diet quality, provide agroecosystem services, and contribute to food security. However, food produced within these food systems may have a higher carbon footprint and be less available than industrially produced food. This rapid review also highlights the siloed nature of the current research on territorialized food systems and emphasizes the need for more holistic and interdisciplinary research.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Segurança Alimentar , Alimentos , Saúde , Clima , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Publicações
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684304

RESUMO

The last decade has seen nearly 20 papers reviewing the totality of the data on saturated fats and cardiovascular outcomes, which, altogether, have demonstrated a lack of rigorous evidence to support continued recommendations either to limit the consumption of saturated fatty acids or to replace them with polyunsaturated fatty acids. These papers were unfortunately not considered by the process leading to the most recent U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the country's national nutrition policy, which recently reconfirmed its recommendation to limit saturated fats to 10% or less of total energy intake, based on insufficient and inconsistent evidence. Continuation of a cap on saturated fat intake also fails to consider the important effects of the food matrix and the overall dietary pattern in which saturated fatty acids are consumed.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Saúde , Política Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
J Bioeth Inq ; 18(3): 389-394, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661847

RESUMO

The term "normal" is culturally ubiquitous and conceptually vague. Interestingly, it appears to be a descriptive-normative-hybrid which, unnoticedly, bridges the gap between the descriptive and the normative. People's beliefs about normality are descriptive and prescriptive and depend on both an average and an ideal. Besides, the term has generally garnered popularity in medicine. However, if medicine heavily relies on the normal, then it should point out how it relates to the concept of health or to statistics, and what, after all, normal means. Most importantly, the normativity of the normal needs to be addressed. Since the apparently neutral label "normal" can exclude, stigmatize, and marginalize people who are defined in contrast to it as abnormal, health professionals should think twice before using the term with patients. The present critical perspective advocates against using the term "normal," as long as no understanding of a person's individual normality has been attained. It advocates for the right to autonomously determine one's own normality. For health professionals I do not see worthwhile benefits of subscribing to the concept of (non-individual and normatively loaded) "normality" and imposing it on their patients. But I do see many risks.


Assuntos
Saúde , Humanos
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4250-4261, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472102

RESUMO

This study was planned and conducted to investigate the effects of egg consumption on metabolic syndrome components and potential mechanisms of action on humans. Egg, an important source of animal protein, is defined as a functional food containing various bioactive compounds that can affect the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. As a matter of fact, the egg can show immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, or antihypertensive effects with its bioactive components. It is claimed that egg consumption may protect individuals against metabolic syndrome by increasing HDL-C levels and reducing inflammation. The increase in egg consumption creates the perception that it may lead to cardiovascular diseases due to its cholesterol content. However, there is insufficient evidence as to whether dietary cholesterol-lowers LDL-C. The possible potential mechanisms of egg impact on human health, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central, www.ClinicalTrials.gov, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and selected websites including) and databases were examined in this regard. With a view to delving into the rather mysterious relationship between egg cholesterol and blood cholesterol, it is necessary to understand the absorption of cholesterol from the egg and to know the functioning of the intestinal microbiota. Studies conducted to date have generally yielded inconsistent results regarding egg consumption and risks of CVD, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ovos , Colesterol/sangue , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
9.
Mol Cell ; 81(18): 3708-3730, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547235

RESUMO

Lipids play crucial roles in signal transduction, contribute to the structural integrity of cellular membranes, and regulate energy metabolism. Questions remain as to which lipid species maintain metabolic homeostasis and which disrupt essential cellular functions, leading to metabolic disorders. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding lipid metabolism with a focus on catabolism, synthesis, and signaling. Technical advances, including functional genomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, lipid-protein interaction maps, and advances in mass spectrometry, have uncovered new ways to prioritize molecular mechanisms mediating lipid function. By reviewing what is known about the distinct effects of specific lipid species in physiological pathways, we provide a framework for understanding newly identified targets regulating lipid homeostasis with implications for ameliorating metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Doença , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Saúde , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade/fisiologia , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591893

RESUMO

As the epidemiological transition progresses throughout sub-Saharan Africa, life lived with diseases is an increasingly important part of a population's burden of disease. The burden of disease of climate-sensitive health outcomes is projected to increase considerably within the next decades. Objectively measured, reliable population health data is still limited and is primarily based on perceived illness from recall. Technological advances like non-invasive, consumer-grade wearable devices may play a vital role in alleviating this data gap and in obtaining insights on the disease burden in vulnerable populations, such as heat stress on human cardiovascular response. The overall goal of this study is to investigate whether consumer-grade wearable devices are an acceptable, feasible and valid means to generate data on the individual level in low-resource contexts. Three hundred individuals are recruited from the two study locations in the Nouna health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS), Burkina Faso, and the Siaya HDSS, Kenya. Participants complete a structured questionnaire that comprises question items on acceptability and feasibility under the supervision of trained data collectors. Validity will be evaluated by comparing consumer-grade wearable devices to research-grade devices. Furthermore, we will collect demographic data as well as the data generated by wearable devices. This study will provide insights into the usage of consumer-grade wearable devices to measure individual vital signs in low-resource contexts, such as Burkina Faso and Kenya. Vital signs comprising activity (steps), sleep (duration, quality) and heart rate (hr) are important measures to gain insights on individual behavior and activity patterns in low-resource contexts. These vital signs may be associated with weather variables-as we gather them from weather stations that we have setup as part of this study to cover the whole Nouna and Siaya HDSSs-in order to explore changes in behavior and other variables, such as activity, sleep, hr, during extreme weather events like heat stress exposure. Furthermore, wearable data could be linked to health outcomes and weather events. As a result, consumer-grade wearables may serve as a supporting technology for generating reliable measurements in low-resource contexts and investigating key links between weather occurrences and health outcomes. Thus, wearable devices may provide insights to better inform mitigation and adaptation interventions in these low-resource settings that are direly faced by climate change-induced changes, such as extreme weather events.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recursos em Saúde , Saúde , Pesquisa , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nature ; 598(7880): 315-320, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526720

RESUMO

Despite contributing to healthy diets for billions of people, aquatic foods are often undervalued as a nutritional solution because their diversity is often reduced to the protein and energy value of a single food type ('seafood' or 'fish')1-4. Here we create a cohesive model that unites terrestrial foods with nearly 3,000 taxa of aquatic foods to understand the future impact of aquatic foods on human nutrition. We project two plausible futures to 2030: a baseline scenario with moderate growth in aquatic animal-source food (AASF) production, and a high-production scenario with a 15-million-tonne increased supply of AASFs over the business-as-usual scenario in 2030, driven largely by investment and innovation in aquaculture production. By comparing changes in AASF consumption between the scenarios, we elucidate geographic and demographic vulnerabilities and estimate health impacts from diet-related causes. Globally, we find that a high-production scenario will decrease AASF prices by 26% and increase their consumption, thereby reducing the consumption of red and processed meats that can lead to diet-related non-communicable diseases5,6 while also preventing approximately 166 million cases of inadequate micronutrient intake. This finding provides a broad evidentiary basis for policy makers and development stakeholders to capitalize on the potential of aquatic foods to reduce food and nutrition insecurity and tackle malnutrition in all its forms.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Internacionalidade , Alimentos Marinhos/classificação , Animais , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Peixes , Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Carne Vermelha , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
Nature ; 597(7875): 250-255, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497389

RESUMO

The cellular landscape of the human intestinal tract is dynamic throughout life, developing in utero and changing in response to functional requirements and environmental exposures. Here, to comprehensively map cell lineages, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and antigen receptor analysis of almost half a million cells from up to 5 anatomical regions in the developing and up to 11 distinct anatomical regions in the healthy paediatric and adult human gut. This reveals the existence of transcriptionally distinct BEST4 epithelial cells throughout the human intestinal tract. Furthermore, we implicate IgG sensing as a function of intestinal tuft cells. We describe neural cell populations in the developing enteric nervous system, and predict cell-type-specific expression of genes associated with Hirschsprung's disease. Finally, using a systems approach, we identify key cell players that drive the formation of secondary lymphoid tissue in early human development. We show that these programs are adopted in inflammatory bowel disease to recruit and retain immune cells at the site of inflammation. This catalogue of intestinal cells will provide new insights into cellular programs in development, homeostasis and disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/citologia , Feto/citologia , Saúde , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/citologia , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/embriologia , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/embriologia , Humanos , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/inervação , Linfonodos/embriologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Organogênese , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 245-248, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288572

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction The research on the promotion of physical fitness of the human body by exercise has also attracted widespread attention in sports and rehabilitation medicine. Object This article uses ultrasound to study the bone density health of the human body, thereby establishing the relationship between sports and bone density health. We hope to use the research results of this article to improve people's awareness of sports health. Method We used ultrasound to test the bone mineral density of two groups of students (exercise group and non-exercise group) to explore the relationship between different sports items and the students' bone mineral density. Results There is a significant difference in bone density between the two groups of students. There is no gender difference in bone density. Conclusion Students need to strengthen physical exercise in the growth and development stage to improve bone density. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução A pesquisa sobre a promoção da aptidão física do corpo humano por meio do exercício também tem atraído atenção generalizada na medicina esportiva e de reabilitação. Objeto este artigo usa o ultrassom para estudar a saúde da densidade óssea do corpo humano, estabelecendo assim a relação entre esportes e saúde da densidade óssea. Esperamos usar os resultados da pesquisa deste artigo para aumentar a conscientização das pessoas sobre a saúde no esporte. Método Usamos ultrassom para testar a densidade mineral óssea de dois grupos de alunos (grupo de exercícios e grupo de não exercícios) para explorar a relação entre diferentes itens esportivos e a densidade mineral óssea dos alunos. Resultados Existe uma diferença significativa na densidade óssea entre os dois grupos de alunos. Não há diferença de gênero na densidade óssea. Conclusão Os alunos precisam fortalecer os exercícios físicos na fase de crescimento e desenvolvimento para melhorar a densidade óssea. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción La investigación sobre la promoción de la aptitud física del cuerpo humano mediante el ejercicio también ha atraído una amplia atención en la medicina deportiva y de rehabilitación. Objeto Este artículo utiliza la ecografía para estudiar la salud de la densidad ósea del cuerpo humano, estableciendo así la relación entre el deporte y la salud de la densidad ósea. Esperamos utilizar los resultados de la investigación de este artículo para mejorar la conciencia de las personas sobre la salud deportiva. Método Utilizamos ultrasonido para probar la densidad mineral ósea de dos grupos de estudiantes (grupo de ejercicio y grupo sin ejercicio) para explorar la relación entre diferentes artículos deportivos y la densidad mineral ósea de los estudiantes. Resultados Existe una diferencia significativa en la densidad ósea entre los dos grupos de estudiantes. No hay diferencia de género en la densidad ósea. Conclusión Los estudiantes necesitan fortalecer el ejercicio físico en la etapa de crecimiento y desarrollo para mejorar la densidad ósea. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esportes/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Saúde , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Modelos Teóricos
15.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e100, July-Sept. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280175

RESUMO

While pondering about a way to convey a message of hope, kindness and solidarity to my anesthesiology colleagues and to all the healthcare professionals and workers in Colombia and around the world, who are in the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic, I realized - once again- the severe impact it has had on our mental health and our lives. In the history of our generation and probably since 1918, mankind had not experienced the deleterious effect of a pandemic of such magnitude on our lives. A disrupting event of such magnitude invites us to reflect daily. So, I remembered that we, Colombian anesthesiologists, have a fantastic leader who sets an example for many of us, and who is renowned worldwide. A global leader in innovation and the creation of the future: Professor Alejandro Jadad. He used to speak often about pandemics, but pandemics of health and joy.


Mientras reflexionaba sobre una manera de transmitir un mensaje de esperanza, amabilidad y solidaridad a mis colegas de anestesiología y a todos los profesionales y trabajadores de la salud en Colombia y en todo el mundo, que se encuentran en la primera línea de la pandemia de COVID-19, me di cuenta: una vez de nuevo, el impacto severo que ha tenido en nuestra salud mental y nuestras vidas. En la historia de nuestra generación y probablemente desde 1918, la humanidad no había experimentado el efecto deletéreo de una pandemia de tal magnitud en nuestras vidas. Un acontecimiento perturbador de tal magnitud nos invita a reflexionar a diario. Entonces, recordé que nosotros, los anestesiólogos colombianos, tenemos un líder fantástico que es un ejemplo para muchos de nosotros y que es reconocido mundialmente. Líder mundial en innovación y creación de futuro: el profesor Alejandro Jadad. Solía ​​hablar a menudo de pandemias, pero de pandemias de salud y alegría.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Pandemias , Anestesiologia , Categorias de Trabalhadores , Sociedades , Saúde , Saúde Mental , Escala Richter , Anestesiologistas , História
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443541

RESUMO

Cordycepin is an adenosine derivative isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, which has been used as an herbal complementary and alternative medicine with various biological activities. The general anti-cancer mechanisms of cordycepin are regulated by the adenosine A3 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3ß, leading to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Notably, cordycepin also induces autophagy to trigger cell death, inhibits tumor metastasis, and modulates the immune system. Since the dysregulation of autophagy is associated with cancers and neuron, immune, and kidney diseases, cordycepin is considered an alternative treatment because of the involvement of cordycepin in autophagic signaling. However, the profound mechanism of autophagy induction by cordycepin has never been reviewed in detail. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed the anti-cancer and health-promoting effects of cordycepin in the neurons, kidneys, and the immune system through diverse mechanisms, including autophagy induction. We also suggest that formulation changes for cordycepin could enhance its bioactivity and bioavailability and lower its toxicity for future applications. A comprehensive understanding of the autophagy mechanism would provide novel mechanistic insight into the anti-cancer and health-promoting effects of cordycepin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Saúde , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443668

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, there has been an alarming decline in the number of honey bee colonies. This phenomenon is called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Bee products play a significant role in human life and have a huge impact on agriculture, therefore bees are an economically important species. Honey has found its healing application in various sectors of human life, as well as other bee products such as royal jelly, propolis, and bee pollen. There are many putative factors of CCD, such as air pollution, GMO, viruses, or predators (such as wasps and hornets). It is, however, believed that pesticides and microorganisms play a huge role in the mass extinction of bee colonies. Insecticides are chemicals that are dangerous to both humans and the environment. They can cause enormous damage to bees' nervous system and permanently weaken their immune system, making them vulnerable to other factors. Some of the insecticides that negatively affect bees are, for example, neonicotinoids, coumaphos, and chlorpyrifos. Microorganisms can cause various diseases in bees, weakening the health of the colony and often resulting in its extinction. Infection with microorganisms may result in the need to dispose of the entire hive to prevent the spread of pathogens to other hives. Many aspects of the impact of pesticides and microorganisms on bees are still unclear. The need to deepen knowledge in this matter is crucial, bearing in mind how important these animals are for human life.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Colapso da Colônia/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Saúde
19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 209, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With trends towards longer life expectancy, lifetime with disability has also been prolonged. It is increasingly recognized that not only the person with disability but also those around them are affected. The relationship between functional limitation (FL) of the older adults and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of their spouse is of interest. So too is the determination of the factors aside from FL that influence HRQoL. METHODS: The sample was derived from the 2013 National Health Service Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province in China. Married couples aged ≥ 60 years were selected (n = 3463). The European quality of life five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale were used to measure HRQoL. RESULTS: Both wife and husband reported lower HRQoL if either the male or female partner had some or serious FLs (P < 0.001). Other factors associated with lower HRQoL of the spouse included age, lower educational level, presence of chronic disease, and lower household economic status. Family size was associated with wife's HRQoL only when the male had no FL and lived with another 1-2 persons, or when the male had some FLs and lived in a larger family (n ≥ 5). Residential status did not relate to the HRQoL of spouses regardless of FL status. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults in Shaanxi province who have partners with FLs tend to report poorer EQ-5D, suggesting that couples amongst whom one has FL may be particularly vulnerable to lower HRQoL.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Cônjuges , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Life Sci ; 284: 119898, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453942

RESUMO

AIMS: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a popular form of tobacco smoking. This is due to the misperception that WPS is less detrimental than cigarette smoking. This review aimed to present the adverse effects of WPS on health outcomes through utilizing animal models. MAIN METHODS: The design of the current study is systematic review. PubMed, HINARI, Google, and SCOPUS databases were searched for the adverse effects of WPS on general health in rodents. Certain key information was extracted and collected from the included studies. KEY FINDINGS: After screening different databases and removal of duplicates, 43 papers were included in this review. It was found that WPS was able to negatively affect the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in mice. Furthermore, WPS increased the levels of Tumor necrosis factor-α and 8-isoprostane, and DNA damage in mice lung homogenates. Additionally, chronic exposure to WPS increased the serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in mice; indicating injury to renal tissues. The negative effect of WPS extends to affect offspring rats following prenatal WPS, in which WPS in utero lead to remarkable increase in the levels of testosterone, estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormones in WPS exposed animals. SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review highlighted the adverse effects of WPS on health outcomes at cellular and biochemical levels in different tissues and organs of rodents. The current reviews' findings highlighted the great hazards presented by WPS in the selected rodents' model and the essential necessity for future improved management of WPS indoor consumption.


Assuntos
Saúde , Fumaça , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água , Animais , Humanos , Memória , Modelos Animais , Roedores
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