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1.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834961

RESUMO

Nested PCRs with circovirus/cyclovirus pan-rep (replicase gene) primers detected eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) viruses in three (samples CN9E, CN16E and CN34) of 18 canine parvovirus-2-positive fecal samples from household dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis on the Caribbean island of Nevis. The complete genomes of CRESS DNA virus CN9E, CN16E and CN34 were determined by inverse nested PCRs. Based on (i) genome organization, (ii) location of the putative origin of replication, (iii) pairwise genome-wide sequence identities, (iv) the presence of conserved motifs in the putative replication-associated protein (Rep) and the arginine-rich region in the amino terminus of the putative capsid protein (Cp) and (v) a phylogenetic analysis, CN9E, CN16E and CN34 were classified as cycloviruses. Canine-associated cycloviruses CN16E and CN34 were closely related to each other and shared low genome-wide nucleotide (59.642-59.704%), deduced Rep (35.018-35.379%) and Cp (26.601%) amino acid sequence identities with CN9E. All the three canine-associated cycloviruses shared < 80% genome-wide pairwise nucleotide sequence identities with cycloviruses from other animals/environmental samples, constituting two novel species (CN9E and CN16E/34) within the genus Cyclovirus. Considering the feeding habits of dogs, we could not determine whether the cycloviruses were of dietary origin or infected the host. Interestingly, the CN9E putative Rep-encoding open reading frame was found to use the invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code with an alternative initiation codon (ATA) for translation, corroborating the hypothesis that cycloviruses are actually arthropod-infecting viruses. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the detection and complete genome analysis of cycloviruses from domestic dogs.


Assuntos
Circoviridae/classificação , Circoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Circoviridae/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , São Cristóvão e Névis , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204082

RESUMO

To date, there is a dearth of information on canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) from the Caribbean region. During August-October 2020, the veterinary clinic on the Caribbean island of Nevis reported 64 household dogs with CPV-2-like clinical signs (hemorrhagic/non-hemorrhagic diarrhea and vomiting), of which 27 animals died. Rectal swabs/fecal samples were obtained from 43 dogs. A total of 39 of the 43 dogs tested positive for CPV-2 antigen and/or DNA, while 4 samples, negative for CPV-2 antigen, were not available for PCR. Among the 21 untested dogs, 15 had CPV-2 positive littermates. Analysis of the complete VP2 sequences of 32 strains identified new CPV-2a (CPV-2a with Ser297Ala in VP2) as the predominant CPV-2 on Nevis Island. Two nonsynonymous mutations, one rare (Asp373Asn) and the other uncommon (Ala262Thr), were observed in a few VP2 sequences. It was intriguing that new CPV-2a was associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis on Nevis while found at low frequencies in sporadic cases of diarrhea on the neighboring island of St. Kitts. The nearly complete CPV-2 genomes (4 CPV-2 strains from St. Kitts and Nevis (SKN)) were reported for the first time from the Caribbean region. Eleven substitutions were found among the SKN genomes, which included nine synonymous substitutions, five of which have been rarely reported, and the two nonsynonymous substitutions. Phylogenetically, the SKN CPV-2 sequences formed a distinct cluster, with CPV-2b/USA/1998 strains constituting the nearest cluster. Our findings suggested that new CPV-2a is endemic in the region, with the potential to cause severe outbreaks, warranting further studies across the Caribbean Islands. Analysis of the SKN CPV-2 genomes corroborated the hypothesis that recurrent parallel evolution and reversion might play important roles in the evolution of CPV-2.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Mutação , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Parvovirus Canino/patogenicidade , Filogenia , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 237, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are usually the first responders during outbreaks and are instrumental in educating the populace about the prevention of different diseases and illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess the association between healthcare workers' characteristics and knowledge, attitudes and practices toward Zika virus. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that collected data from healthcare workers at 3 medical facilities using a validated self-administered questionnaire between July 2017 - September 2017. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sociodemographic and knowledge, attitudes, and practices. RESULTS: A total of 190 healthcare workers were analyzed. Of these, 60, 72.6 and 64.7% had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices toward Zika virus, respectively. Healthcare workers without a formal degree were less likely to have good knowledge of Zika virus (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0:49; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24-0.99) compared to those with a formal degree. Reduced odds for positive attitude towards Zika virus were observed in healthcare workers with low income as compared to those with high income (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI =0.13-0.75). Being younger than 40 years old was associated with poor Zika virus practices (AOR = 0:34; 95% CI = 0.15-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Significant association between healthcare workers' sociodemographic characteristics and Zika virus knowledge, attitudes and practices were observed. Public health interventions that seek to increase Zika virus awareness should aim to train healthcare workers who are younger, without formal degree and those earning low income.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Zika virus , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
4.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 179: 107526, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385401

RESUMO

In this study, we performed comprehensive pathology examinations on 83 Tripneustes ventricosus from 11 locations on St. Kitts to build baseline data necessary for disease diagnosis in this species. Gross abnormalities were observed in 23/83 (28%) urchins and included spine loss, visceral hyperpigmentation, test discoloration, and test ulceration. Ciliates were the only protists identified in this study via examination of tissue wet mounts and histology, documented in 50/83 (60%) urchins. Microscopic observations associated with visibly abnormal status included muscle necrosis, test and appendage inflammation, appendage (tube feet, spines, and pedicellariae) degeneration, severe coelomocytosis, and generalized hypermelanosis. Enterocyte intranuclear inclusion bodies, microbial aggregates, nerve pigmentation, enteric pigmentation, integument-associated crustaceans, and encysted metazoan parasites were of uncertain pathological significance. The etiology for any lesion was not microscopically apparent, contrasting literature implicating common marine bacteria in urchin diseases. This study highlights the importance of histopathology in urchin disease investigations and facilitates the recognition of disease in T. ventricosus.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Ouriços-do-Mar , Animais , São Cristóvão e Névis , Ouriços-do-Mar/anatomia & histologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/parasitologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 543, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito surveys that collect local data on mosquito species' abundances provide baseline data to help understand potential host-pathogen-mosquito relationships, predict disease transmission, and target mosquito control efforts. METHODS: We conducted an adult mosquito survey from November 2017 to March 2019 on St. Kitts, using Biogents Sentinel 2 traps, set monthly and run for 48-h intervals. We collected mosquitoes from a total of 30 sites distributed across agricultural, mangrove, rainforest, scrub and urban land covers. We investigated spatial variation in mosquito species richness across the island using a hierarchical Bayesian multi-species occupancy model. We developed a mixed effects negative binomial regression model to predict the effects of spatial variation in land cover, and seasonal variation in precipitation on observed counts of the most abundant mosquito species observed. RESULTS: There was high variation among sites in mosquito community structure, and variation in site level richness that correlated with scrub forest, agricultural, and urban land covers. The four most abundant species were Aedes taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegpyti and Deinocerites magnus, and their relative abundance varied with season and land cover. Aedes aegypti was the most commonly occurring mosquito on the island, with a 90% probability of occurring at between 24 and 30 (median = 26) sites. Mangroves yielded the most mosquitoes, with Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and De. magnus predominating. Psorophora pygmaea and Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis were only captured in scrub habitat. Capture rates in rainforests were low. Our count models also suggested the extent to which monthly average precipitation influenced counts varied according to species. CONCLUSIONS: There is high seasonality in mosquito abundances, and land cover influences the diversity, distribution, and relative abundance of species on St. Kitts. Further, human-adapted mosquito species (e.g. Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus) that are known vectors for many human relevant pathogens (e.g. chikungunya, dengue and Zika viruses in the case of Ae. aegypti; West Nile, Spondweni, Oropouche virus, and equine encephalitic viruses in the case of Cx. quinqefasciatus) are the most wide-spread (across land covers) and the least responsive to seasonal variation in precipitation.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Culicidae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Aedes/genética , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Culex/genética , Culex/fisiologia , Culex/virologia , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , São Cristóvão e Névis
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 540, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses (DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV) are transmitted in sylvatic transmission cycles between non-human primates and forest (sylvan) mosquitoes in Africa and Asia. It remains unclear if sylvatic cycles exist or could establish themselves elsewhere and contribute to the epidemiology of these diseases. The Caribbean island of St. Kitts has a large African green monkey (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) population and is therefore ideally suited to investigate sylvatic cycles. METHODS: We tested 858 AGM sera by ELISA and PRNT for virus-specific antibodies and collected and identified 9704 potential arbovirus vector mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were homogenized in 513 pools for testing by viral isolation in cell culture and by multiplex RT-qPCR after RNA extraction to detect the presence of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKVs. DNA was extracted from 122 visibly blood-fed individual mosquitoes and a polymorphic region of the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene (HMBS) was amplified by PCR to determine if mosquitoes had fed on AGMs or humans. RESULTS: All of the AGMs were negative for DENV, CHIKV or ZIKV antibodies. However, one AGM did have evidence of an undifferentiated Flavivirus infection. Similarly, DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV were not detected in any of the mosquito pools by PCR or culture. AGMs were not the source of any of the mosquito blood meals. CONCLUSION: Sylvatic cycles involving AGMs and DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV do not currently exist on St. Kitts.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Febre de Chikungunya/veterinária , Chlorocebus aethiops/virologia , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/veterinária , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroximetilbilano Sintase/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , São Cristóvão e Névis , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/imunologia
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2278-2281, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996451

RESUMO

Transmission of Schistosoma mansoni was interrupted on St. Kitts, a Caribbean island, in the 1950s. With no reported cases since that time and most Biomphalaria spp. snail populations eliminated based on surveys in the 1970s, S. mansoni has been considered eliminated on St. Kitts. In 2019, S. mansoni eggs were found in an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) that originated from St. Kitts. Nonhuman primate (NHP) infections have been considered incidental to human infections, with infections in NHPs resolving with the elimination of S. mansoni in the human population. An NHP with S. mansoni infection suggests that the NHP may be able to maintain a reservoir sylvatic cycle. Alternatively, S. mansoni transmission was not eliminated or S. mansoni has been reintroduced to St. Kitts. The occurrence of an infected NHP from St. Kitts supports the need for continuous monitoring in areas where S. mansoni is considered eliminated.


Assuntos
Chlorocebus aethiops/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças , Fezes , Humanos , Óvulo , São Cristóvão e Névis , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico
9.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 175: 107453, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798534

RESUMO

The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) is a highly commercial species and comprises the largest spiny lobster fishery in the world. Although populations have declined throughout its range, there is little known regarding its diseases and pathogens. The objectives of this study were to provide illustrated and standardized methods for postmortem examination, and to describe baseline gross and microscopic pathology for P. argus. From July 2017-March 2019, a postmortem examination including comprehensive histological assessment was performed on 313 fishery-caught lobsters. Epibionts and lesions observed include branchial cirriped infestation (69%), branchial encysted nemertean worm larvae (23%), tail fan necrosis (11%), skeletal muscle necrosis (7%), antennal gland calculi (6%), branchial infarction (2%), and microsporidiosis (0.6%). This report confirms the rare prevalence of microsporidiosis in P. argus and describes nemertean worm larvae in the gill. This study also reports a condition resembling excretory calcinosis in spiny lobster. The methods and data produced by this study facilitate disease diagnosis and sustainable stock management of P. argus.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Palinuridae/microbiologia , Palinuridae/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , São Cristóvão e Névis
10.
Int Wound J ; 17(5): 1142-1152, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744425

RESUMO

About one-third of admissions to the surgical unit annually are diabetes foot infections in need of amputation In St. Kitts and Nevis. However, the risk factors related to diabetes foot and amputation remain unknown. This study investigated factors associated with diabetic foot and amputation (DFA). Retrospective case control study design, and purposive and quota sampling method was used to recruit the participants. Patients with and without DFA were interviewed at two main hospitals, several primary health centres, and a private doctor's office during July and August 2018. Self-development questionnaires were applied to assess patients' demographic, physical and behaviour, foot care knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to DFA. Chi-square, t-test, and multiple logistic regressions were used to analyse the data. A total of 210 patients were evaluated, 89 had DFA, while 121 did not, with a mean age of 61.10 (SD = 11.85). Participants' responses indicated good knowledge, favourable attitudes, and adequate practices related to foot care. The two items of the questionnaire, ways to maintain blood flow in the lower extremities and wash their feet daily, had significant lower score in DFA group. In multiple logistic regression, knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to foot care were not a significant predictor of DFA. Being male was a predictor of DFA than female (OR = 3.53; 95% CI = 1.65-7.57; P < .01). Participants who were currently unemployed were less likely to have DFA than those who were employed (OR = 0.38; 95% Cl = 0.17-0.86; P < .05). Comparing patients with the longest experience of diabetes mellitus (31 years or more) with those who had diabetes for the shortest period of time (between 1 and 10 years) was less likely to have DFA (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.15-0.97; P = <.05). The combination of these independent variables could explain 29% of the variance in DFA. Based on these findings, strategies to prevent diabetic foot and amputation should focus on male and outdoor heavy worker, and longer duration of diabetes patients which are identified in this study.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Amputação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , São Cristóvão e Névis
11.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-5972

RESUMO

Tyzjuan Wade is a 14 year old from St Kitts and Nevis who participated in a virtual COVID-19 Youth Dialog on adjusting to the “New Normal”, hosted by the PAHO/WHO Office for Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean Countries. In this video Tyzjuan explains how he adapted to living under a declared state of emergency in his country, which resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/organização & administração , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 443-447, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549577

RESUMO

Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei and endemic in tropical regions, principally Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In September 2017, after Hurricane Maria impacted the Dolphin Discovery facility in the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis, a juvenile male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) died within 96 hr of presenting with acute anorexia, lethargy, and respiratory distress. Histopathology demonstrated necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and lymphadenitis, with intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. B. pseudomallei was confirmed by bacteriological culture and DNA sequencing. This case emphasizes the challenges of melioidosis diagnosis, the importance of awareness for both early detection and efficacious treatment, and recognition in tropical regions where it has been either not reported or underreported. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of cetacean melioidosis in the Caribbean Islands, an often severe and fatal disease with increasing prevalence on the American continent.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolamento & purificação , Melioidose/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Masculino , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Melioidose/microbiologia , São Cristóvão e Névis
13.
Trials ; 21(1): 534, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccines may cause non-specific effects (NSEs) on morbidity and mortality through immune-mediated mechanisms that are not explained by the prevention of the targeted disease. Much of the evidence for NSEs comes from observational studies with a high risk of bias, and there is a clear need for new data from randomized controlled trials. Recently, it was proposed that rabies vaccine has protective NSEs in people and in animals. The aim of the proposed study is to determine whether rabies vaccine reduces the incidence rate of episodes of common infectious disease syndromes in a population of veterinary students on the island of St. Kitts. METHODS: The trial design is a single-site, two-arm, parallel-group, participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-sided comparative study, with an internal pilot study for blinded sample size re-estimation. Allocation to study arm is by block randomization stratified by sex within cohort with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The primary study outcome is the number of new weekly episodes of common infectious diseases including respiratory, diarrheal and febrile illnesses. A vaccine immunogenicity ancillary study is planned. DISCUSSION: Demonstration of a non-specific protective effect of rabies vaccine against unrelated respiratory, gastrointestinal and febrile illnesses would provide supportive evidence for the design of similar studies in children in populations with a high burden of these illnesses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03656198. Registered on 24 August 2018.


Assuntos
Imunidade Heteróloga , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase IV como Assunto , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , São Cristóvão e Névis
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104383, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473351

RESUMO

We report here high rates (75.38%, 49/65) of detection of genogroup I (GI) PBVs in diarrheic pigs on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. High quality gene segment-2 sequences encoding a significant region (~350 amino acid (aa) residues) of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were obtained for 23 PBV strains. The porcine PBV strains from St. Kitts exhibited high genetic diversity among themselves (deduced aa identities of 56-100%) and with other PBVs (maximum deduced aa identities of 64-97%), and retained the three domains that are conserved in putative RdRps of PBVs. The nearly complete gene segment-2 sequence (full-length minus partial 3'- untranslated region) of a porcine PBV strain (strain PO36 from St. Kitts) that is closely related (deduced aa identities of 96-97%) to simian and human GI PBVs was determined using a combination of the non-specific primer-based amplification method and conventional RT-PCR. The complete putative RdRp sequence of strain PO36 preserved the various features that are maintained in PBVs from various species. For the first time, several co-circulating PBV strains from pigs were characterized for a significant region (~350 aa) of the putative RdRp, providing important insights into the genetic diversity of PBVs in a porcine population. Taken together, these observations corroborated growing evidence that PBVs can be highly prevalent and show limited correlation globally with host species or geography. This is the first report on detection of PBVs in pigs from the Caribbean region.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Picobirnavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Picobirnavirus/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
16.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-03-26.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-331612
17.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024025

RESUMO

Many Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean experience a triple burden of malnutrition with high rates of obesity, undernutrition in children, and iron deficiency anemia in women of reproductive age, driven by an inadequate, unhealthy diet. This study aimed to map the complex dynamic systems driving unhealthy eating and to identify potential points for intervention in three dissimilar countries. Stakeholders from across the food system in Jamaica (n = 16), St. Kitts and Nevis (n = 19), and St. Vincent and the Grenadines (n = 6) engaged with researchers in two group model building (GMB) workshops in 2018. Participants described and mapped the system driving unhealthy eating, identified points of intervention, and created a prioritized list of intervention strategies. Stakeholders were also interviewed before and after the workshops to provide their perspectives on the utility of this approach. Stakeholders described similar underlying systems driving unhealthy eating across the three countries, with a series of dominant feedback loops identified at multiple levels. Participants emphasized the importance of the relative availability and price of unhealthy foods, shifting cultural norms on eating, and aggressive advertising from the food industry as dominant drivers. They saw opportunities for governments to better regulate advertising, disincentivize unhealthy food options, and bolster the local agricultural sector to promote food sovereignty. They also identified the need for better coordinated policy making across multiple sectors at national and regional levels to deliver more integrated approaches to improving nutrition. GMB proved to be an effective tool for engaging a highly diverse group of stakeholders in better collective understanding of a complex problem and potential interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Formulação de Políticas , Análise de Sistemas , Adolescente , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia , São Vicente e Granadinas/epidemiologia , Participação dos Interessados , Adulto Jovem
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 19: 100366, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057393

RESUMO

A 4-month-old intact male domestic shorthair kitten living in St Kitts, West Indies presented with respiratory distress, cachexia, and mucopurulent nasal discharge. Thoracic radiographs revealed a diaphragmatic hernia. The diaphragmatic hernia as well as subpleural pulmonary nodules suspicious for verminous pneumonia were identified during a postmortem examination. Histology showed multifocal to coalescing pyogranulomatous and eosinophilic pneumonia centered on larvae and morulated eggs. The lesion and nematode morphology were consistent with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Although Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has been reported worldwide, this is the first report of a metastrongyloid lungworm in cats in St. Kitts and for the West Indies. This case report should increase the awareness of A. abstrusus pneumonia in cats from St. Kitts and other locations in the eastern Caribbean.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fezes/parasitologia , Larva , Masculino , Metastrongyloidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo , São Cristóvão e Névis , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
19.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952167

RESUMO

We report high rates of detection (35.36%, 29/82) of genogroup-I (GI) picobirnaviruses (PBVs) in non-diarrheic fecal samples from the small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctata). In addition, we identified a novel PBV-like RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequence that uses an alternative mitochondrial genetic code (that of mold or invertebrate) for translation. The complete/nearly complete gene segment-2/RdRp gene sequences of seven mongoose PBV GI strains and the novel PBV-like strain were obtained by combining a modified non-specific primer-based amplification method with conventional RT-PCRs, facilitated by the inclusion of a new primer targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of PBV gene segment-2. The mongoose PBV and PBV-like strains retained the various features that are conserved in gene segment-2/RdRps of other PBVs. However, high genetic diversity was observed among the mongoose PBVs within and between host species. This is the first report on detection of PBVs in the mongoose. Molecular characterization of the PBV and PBV-like strains from a new animal species provided important insights into the various features and complex diversity of PBV gene segment-2/putative RdRps. The presence of the prokaryotic ribosomal binding site in the mongoose PBV genomes, and analysis of the novel PBV-like RdRp gene sequence that uses an alternative mitochondrial genetic code (especially that of mold) for translation corroborated recent speculations that PBVs may actually infect prokaryotic or fungal host cells.


Assuntos
Código Genético , Genoma Viral , Herpestidae/virologia , Picobirnavirus/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Picobirnavirus/classificação , Picobirnavirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , São Cristóvão e Névis
20.
Vet Pathol ; 56(5): 794-798, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170895

RESUMO

We identified multiple extraintestinal cystacanths during routine postmortem examination of 3 small Indian mongooses and 2 African green monkeys from the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. In mongooses, cystacanths were encysted or free in the subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, or peritoneal or pericardial cavities, whereas in the monkeys, they were in the cavity and parietal layer of the, tunica vaginalis, skeletal muscle, and peritoneal cavity. Morphological, histological, and molecular characterization identified these cystacanths as Oncicola venezuelensis (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae). There was minimal to mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation associated with the parasite in the mongooses and moderate inflammation, mineralization, hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the connective tissue between the testis and epididymis in 1 monkey. We identified a mature male O. venezuelensis attached in the aboral jejunum of a feral cat, confirming it as the definitive host. Termites serve as intermediate hosts and lizards as paratenic hosts. This report emphasizes the role of the small Indian mongoose and African green monkey as paratenic hosts for O. venezuelensis.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Herpestidae , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Animais , Helmintíase Animal/patologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , São Cristóvão e Névis/epidemiologia
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