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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149854, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525723

RESUMO

Collaborative approaches are seen as a promising way to strengthen Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) service delivery systems when challenges exceed the mandates and capabilities of any single entity. While collaborative approaches are well studied in high-income country contexts, current understanding of their application to international development contexts is limited. This paper uses fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to assess what conditions and pathways drove or impeded progress within eleven collaborative approaches for WASH service delivery in Eastern Africa. Evidence supported three main findings: (1) Government uptake of recommendations is necessary for progress but cannot be guaranteed solely by government participation in the collaboration, (2) different forms of problem identification are possible; problem scopes are often predefined to align with funders and partner government agendas, but flexible scopes that foster collective problem identification can reap benefits, and (3) hub convening power can be critical and convening power can be gained in different ways. Political dynamics, shifting priorities, and turnover undermine collaborative efforts, but collaborative approaches can still make progress in spite of turnover if funds are available for implementation of activities (i.e. in addition to funds for meetings and hub roles) and program implementers either facilitate collective problem identification or establish a hub with convening power. Yet even these tactics are vulnerable to instability, thus in highly unstable contexts, stakeholders and funders should be realistic from the outset about what they may be able to achieve. Building on existing theories of collaborative approaches, this work revealed that there is no single best design for collaborative approaches in WASH, rather, core elements worked together in different ways depending on the context.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Água , África Oriental , Higiene , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769584

RESUMO

Household hygiene is critical to prevent pathogen transmission at the household level. Assessing household hygiene conditions and their determinants are needed to improve hygiene conditions, especially in rural and less developed areas where the housing conditions are relatively worse than they are in urban areas. This study used data from 278 household interviews and observations in rural areas in the district of East Sumba, province East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The data were analyzed using statistical methods. In general, the household hygiene conditions in the study need to be improved. The main potential sources of pathogen transmission were from the surrounding environment, i.e., non-permanent floor and garbage, and personal hygiene, i.e., handwashing facilities with water and soap were only observed in the homes of four out of ten respondents. The presence of livestock roaming freely in the house's yard was another source of contamination. Easy access to water and wealth significantly influenced the hygiene conditions. Implementing low-cost interventions, i.e., cleaning the house of garbage and animal feces and cleaning nails, should be the priority in immediate intervention, while providing easier access to water supply, especially during the dry season, could be a long-term intervention. This paper also argues that analyzing household hygiene conditions or practices should be complemented by analyzing contextual determinants of the hygiene conditions or practices, so that we can develop more precise intervention by considering the local or household context.


Assuntos
Higiene , Saneamento , Animais , Características da Família , Humanos , Indonésia , População Rural , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769612

RESUMO

In low- and middle-income countries, most latrines are not accessible to young children. We explored how to modify existing pit latrines to make them child friendly. We conducted four focus group discussions with mothers to explore barriers to child latrine use. We then enrolled 20 households with a child aged 3-7 years old to test six enabling technologies developed based on the identified barriers. Two to three weeks after installing the selected enabling technologies in each household, researchers conducted 19 in-depth interviews with caregivers to explore the technologies' acceptance and feasibility. Common barriers included the discomfort of squatting on a large pan, fear of darkness, and fear of a slippery floor. Of the potential solutions, a ring to stabilize the child while squatting in the latrine was preferred by children and was affordable and available. A wooden board with a smaller hole than the usual pan reduced fears of falling and helped eliminate discomfort but was inconvenient to handle and clean. A transparent fiberglass roof tile was affordable, available, increased visibility, and kept the latrine floor dry. In conclusion, the fiberglass roof tile and stability ring were two affordable and locally available technologies that facilitated latrine use by children aged 3-7 years.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Toaletes , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos
4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(11): 762-772A, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737469

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether a water, sanitation and hygiene intervention could change hygiene behaviours thought to be important for trachoma control. Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in rural Ethiopia from 9 November 2015 to 5 March 2019. We randomized 20 clusters to an intervention consisting of water and sanitation infrastructure and hygiene promotion and 20 clusters to no intervention. All intervention clusters received a primary-school hygiene curriculum, community water point, household wash station, household soap and home visits from hygiene promotion workers. We assessed intervention fidelity through annual household surveys. Findings: Over the 3 years, more wash stations, soap and latrines were seen at households in the intervention clusters than the control clusters: risk difference 47 percentage points (95% confidence interval, CI: 41-53) for wash stations, 18 percentage points (95% CI: 12-24) for soap and 12 percentage points (95% CI: 5-19) for latrines. A greater proportion of people in intervention clusters reported washing their faces with soap (e.g. risk difference 21 percentage points; 95% CI: 15-27 for 0-5 year-old children) and using a latrine (e.g. risk difference 9 percentage points; 95% CI: 2-15 for 6-9 year-old children). Differences between the intervention and control arms were not statistically significant for many indicators until the programme had been implemented for at least a year; they did not decline during later study visits. Conclusion: The community- and school-based intervention was associated with improved hygiene access and behaviours, although changes in behaviour were slow and required several years of the intervention.


Assuntos
Higiene , Tracoma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saneamento , Toaletes , Tracoma/prevenção & controle
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The humanitarian response to a cholera outbreak in a complex international crisis requires guaranteeing minimum conditions so that normalcy can be restored. Basic responses to a cholera outbreak include water and sanitation. The general objective of this systematic review was the analysis of the current evidence that addresses the effectiveness of different WASH measures to control cholera. METHODS: A review and analysis of the literature available in the main databases (PubMed, WoS and Scopus) and in a specific meta-search engine for humanitarian aid was carried out (reliefweb.int). Based on the establishment of the PICO research question "Can beneficiaries of humanitarian aid benefit from water, hygiene and sanitation interventions for cholera reduction?", the identification of keywords and databases to carry out the searches, as well as a selection process based on the established eligibility criteria: being studies in both English and Spanish where the WASH intervention was clearly defined, studies where health outcomes of cholera were presented, or data related to the function and use of the WASH intervention, was established. RESULTS: The initial search provided 17,185 documents susceptible of analysis that were screened using the search criteria, up to 22 references that were read in full text and the 11 that were finally analyzed. These were coded based on the measures set out in their protocols, on the interventions carried out in the improvement of water and its supply, the improvement of sanitation, the measures aimed at better hygiene and those that evaluated the complete WASH intervention. CONCLUSIONS: All the measures offered positive results, their effectiveness was conditioned by the education of the beneficiaries, the simplicity of the activities and the involvement of local actors.


Assuntos
Cólera , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene , Saneamento , Espanha
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769932

RESUMO

Although direct contact is considered the main mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, environmental factors play an important role. In this study, we evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on bus and train surfaces. From the buses, we took samples from the following areas: handrails used to enter or exit the bus, stop request buttons and handles next to the seats. From the trains, the sampled surfaces were handrails used to enter or exit the train, door open/close buttons, handles next to the seats, tables and toilet handles. SARS-CoV-2 was detected on 10.7% of the tested surfaces overall, 19.3% of bus surfaces and 2% of train surfaces (p < 0.0001). On the buses, the most contaminated surfaces were the handles near the seats (12.8%), followed by door open/close buttons (12.5%) and handrails (10.5%). Of the five analyzed transport companies, bus companies were the most contaminated, in particular, companies C (40%) and B (23.3%). A greater number of positive samples were found among those taken at 10:00 a.m. and 10:55 a.m. (45% and 40%, respectively). The presence of the virus on many bus surfaces highlights how the sanitation systems on public transport currently in use are not sufficient to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Saneamento , Transportes
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 816, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791540

RESUMO

Indicators are important tools to improve the efficiency of water supply systems. Considering that the performance could vary according to the systems' sizes, this research proposed financial, operational, and water quality indicators for water supply systems of municipalities with different populations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The organisation and selection of the sample were based on available information in the National Sanitation Data System of 2014. We selected 363 municipalities of Minas Gerais and 56 predictors. Through multiple linear regression (MLR), we found that the commitment of revenues with expenditures and the ratio among revenues and expenses are the most relevant variables to describe the financial performance. Furthermore, water loss per connection and water-billing index were the most important to describe the operational performance. Finally, models related to water quality performance could not be established due to the low value of the coefficient of determination. We observed that supply systems have distinct variables to describe their financial and operational performance, according to their sizes. Small municipalities have a strong relationship with financial performance and expenses. Large counterparts have their performance related to the collection, which can be explained by the economy of scale. Considering the operational performance, we observed that larger municipalities have a strong relationship between their operational performance and water loss. These models are potential tools in the decision-making processes, which can be used to promote improvements in water supply systems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Saneamento , Brasil , Cidades , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770217

RESUMO

COVID-19 has had a severe impact on human health, as well as in social and economic terms, with implications for the management and governance of the water and sanitation sector. These implications are evident in Latin America and the Caribbean due to existing challenges the region faces in accessing water and sanitation services. In spite of significant advances, around 65 million people in the LAC region currently lack appropriate access to water and soap to wash their hands-one of the most basic measures to prevent the spread of disease. Furthermore, social and economic vulnerabilities have exacerbated the effects of the pandemic in the region, particularly among those living in poverty. The COVID-19 pandemic thus requires the mobilization of frameworks such as the human rights to water and sanitation, specifically considering the region's realities. This paper provides a review of some of the challenges currently faced in the region and advances a series of recommendations for enhancing access to water, sanitation and hygiene. The importance of effective governance, management and communication strategies in the water provisioning sector is highlighted in the context of the pandemic, and the role of science and research for adequate decision making is emphasized.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , Região do Caribe , Humanos , América Latina , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Abastecimento de Água
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708018

RESUMO

Introduction: In order to meet the sustainable development goals targets of sanitation, countries aim to increase access to safely managed sanitation services for its citizens. Safely managed sanitation services refers to improved sanitation technologies that are not shared with other households and where excreta is treated and disposed; or stored, transported and treated off-site. In most Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, on-site sanitation facilities such as latrines and septic tanks are common, with low-income urban settlements mainly using pit latrines. However, little is documented about the management of sludge from these facilities, especially in low income settlements in secondary and emerging cities. This lack of data is a major hindrance to public health, development and planning efforts by governments and planning agencies. This study specifically assesses practices and challenges along the sanitation value chain related to containment, emptying, transportation, treatment and recycling of fecal sludge. Methods: The study was carried out in low income settlements in Nakuru, a secondary city in Kenya. Over half the population in Nakuru live in low income areas and majority of these residents use pit latrines. A case study design was selected for this study and data was collected using qualitative methods. Data was collected through In-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions using in depth interview guide and focus group discussion guides that had questions on sanitation practices along the value chain, challenges, opportunities available, and recommendations for improvement. Analysis was done through content analysis by reading the transcripts multiple times to gain a sense of the flow of the discussion. Thereafter, coding was done by following emergent issues and thereafter categories were identified which formed the basis for providing a picture of FWM practices in the settlements. Results: On site sanitation facilities are dominant in the settlements, but they are few and are shared by several households. These facilities were unclean, and they filled up at a fast rate because of the high number of users. The latrines were emptied by manual emptiers who used mechanized equipment but complemented with manual emptying using buckets. Sludge was transported to a central collection point using large and small scale means of transportation, before transfer to the treatment site for final treatment and disposal. Various stakeholders are involved in capacity building of emptiers as well as in the transportation, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge in the settlements. Challenges along the stages of the value chain included negative community perceptions and attitudes toward fecal sludge management. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to address the challenges along the chain by involvement of state and non-state actors. Low income areas have high populations and thus contribute huge amounts of fecal sludge. Deliberate efforts to consolidate such data from low income areas will result in availability of data, and informed decision making for stakeholders at national and international levels.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Toaletes , Quênia , Pobreza , Saneamento
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 100, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610785

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly becoming a threat to global public health, not least in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where it is contributing to longer treatment for illnesses, use of higher generation drugs, more expenditure on antimicrobials, and increased deaths attributed to what should be treatable diseases. Some of the known causes of AMR include misuse and overuse of antimicrobials in both humans and animals, unnecessary use of antimicrobials in animals as growth promoters, and lack of awareness among the public on how to protect antimicrobials. As a result, resistant organisms are circulating in the wider environment, and there is a need to consider the One Health approach to minimise the continuing development of AMR. Environmental Health, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), waste management, and food hygiene and safety, are key components of One Health needed to prevent the spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms particularly in LMICs and reduce the AMR threat to global public health. The key Environmental Health practices in the prevention of AMR include: (1) adequate WASH through access and consumption of safe water; suitable containment, treatment and disposal of human excreta and other wastewater including from health facilities; good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap at critical times to prevent the spread of resistant microorganisms, and contraction of illnesses which may require antimicrobial treatment; (2) proper disposal of solid waste, including the disposal of unused and expired antimicrobials to prevent their unnecessary exposure to microorganisms in the environment; and (3) ensuring proper food hygiene and safety practices, such as sale and consumption of animal products in which adequate antimicrobial withdrawal periods have been observed, and growing vegetables on unpolluted soil. Environmental Health is therefore crucial in the prevention of infectious diseases that would require antimicrobials, reducing the spread of resistant organisms, and exposure to antimicrobial residues in LMICs. Working with other professionals in One Health, Environmental Health Practitioners have a key role in reducing the spread of AMR including health education and promotion, surveillance, enforcement of legislation, and research.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Papel (figurativo) , Saneamento/normas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 238: 113850, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673353

RESUMO

Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of child mortality, globally. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), each year there are an estimated 45 million episodes of diarrhea in children under five years of age. The Reducing Enteropathy, Diarrhea, Undernutrition, and Contamination in the Environment (REDUCE) program seeks to develop theory-driven, evidence-based approaches to reduce diarrheal diseases among young children. The REDUCE prospective cohort study in Walungu Territory in Eastern DRC took guidance from the risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation model, the integrated behavioral model for water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and other behavior change theories to identify psychosocial factors associated with WASH behaviors. Psychosocial factors were measured among 417 caregivers at baseline and caregiver responses to child mouthing of dirty fomites and handwashing with soap was assessed by 5-hour structured observation at the 6-month follow-up. Caregivers who agreed that their child could become sick if they put dirt in their mouth (perceived susceptibility) and caregivers that agreed they could prevent their child from playing with dirty things outside (self-efficacy) were significantly more likely to stop their child from mouthing a dirty fomite. Higher perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, and disgust, and lower dirty reactivity, were associated with higher handwashing with soap behaviors. This study took a theory-driven and evidence-based approach to identify psychosocial factors to target for intervention development. The findings from this study informed the development of the REDUCE Baby WASH Modules that have been delivered to over 1 million people in eastern DRC.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Água , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14758-14771, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669386

RESUMO

Urban sanitation infrastructure is inadequate in many low-income countries, leading to the presence of highly concentrated, uncontained fecal waste streams in densely populated areas. Combined with mechanisms of aerosolization, airborne transport of enteric microbes and their genetic material is possible in such settings but remains poorly characterized. We detected and quantified enteric pathogen-associated gene targets in aerosol samples near open wastewater canals (OWCs) or impacted (receiving sewage or wastewater) surface waters and control sites in La Paz, Bolivia; Kanpur, India; and Atlanta, USA, via multiplex reverse-transcription qPCR (37 targets) and ddPCR (13 targets). We detected a wide range of enteric targets, some not previously reported in extramural urban aerosols, with more frequent detections of all enteric targets at higher densities in La Paz and Kanpur near OWCs. We report density estimates ranging up to 4.7 × 102 gc per mair3 across all targets including heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, enteroinvasive E. coli/Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., norovirus, and Cryptosporidium spp. Estimated 25, 76, and 0% of samples containing positive pathogen detects were accompanied by culturable E. coli in La Paz, Kanpur, and Atlanta, respectively, suggesting potential for viability of enteric microbes at the point of sampling. Airborne transmission of enteric pathogens merits further investigation in cities with poor sanitation.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Aerossóis , Cidades , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Humanos , Saneamento , Águas Residuárias
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603574

RESUMO

Introduction: in the recent past, cities in sub-Saharan Africa have reported serious cholera outbreaks that last for several months. Uganda is one of the African countries where cities are prone to cholera outbreaks. Studies on cholera in Bangladesh show increased risk of cholera for the immediate household members (contacts) yet the control interventions mainly target cases with little or no focus on contacts. This study aimed to describe the rapid control of cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities, Uganda, using, "Cases and Contacts Centered Strategy (3CS)" that consisted of identification and treatment of cases, promotion of safe water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and selective chemoprophylaxis for the contacts. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-2016 in the Kampala and Mbale cities during cholera outbreaks. Cholera cases were treated and 816 contacts from 188 households were listed and given cholera preventive packages. Data were collected, cleaned, analysed and stored in spreadsheet. Comparison of categories was done using Chi-Square test. Results: a total of 58 and 41 confirmed cholera cases out of 318 and 153 suspected cases were recorded in Kampala and Mbale cities respectively. The outbreaks lasted for 41 days in both cities. Case fatality rates were high; 12.1% (5/41) for Mbale city and 1.7% (1/58) for Kampala city. Fifty-five percent (210/379) of stool samples were tested by culture to confirm V. choleraeO1. No contacts listed and given cholera preventive package developed cholera. Both sexes and all age groups were affected. In Kampala city, the males were more affected than the females in the age groups less than 14 years, p-value of 0.0097. Conclusion: this study showed that by implementing 3CS, it was possible to rapidly control cholera outbreaks in Kampala and Mbale cities and no cholera cases were reported amongst the listed household contacts. The findings on 3CS and specifically, selective antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for cholera prevention, could be used in similar manner to oral cholera vaccines to complement the core cholera control interventions (disease surveillance, treatment of cases and WaSH). However, studies are needed to guide such rollout and to understand the age-sex differences in Kampala city.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Cólera/administração & dosagem , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, about 1.7 billion people living in poverty are affected by one or more of a group of disabling, disfiguring and poverty-promoting conditions known as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Major global health actors, like the WHO, have endorsed a shift from vertical to integrated NTD management. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to evaluate how integration is being conducted and how we can improve it. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Trip, Embase, Global Health and Google Scholar were searched from 1 April to 22 July 2020.We included peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 2000 and 22 July 2020 in English. RESULTS: Database searches produced 24 565 studies, of which 35 articles met the inclusion criteria. Twenty of these articles were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty articles were also published between 2015 and 2020. Literature revealed that NTDs have been integrated-among themselves; with water, sanitation and hygiene programmes; with vector control; with primary healthcare; with immunisation programmes; and with malaria management. Integrated mass drug administration for multiple NTDs was the most common method of integration. The three complex, yet common characteristics of successful integration were good governance, adequate financing and total community engagement. CONCLUSION: The dataset identified integrated management of NTDs to be cost effective and potentially to increase treatment coverage. However, the identified modes of integration are not exclusive and are limited by the available literature. Nonetheless, integration should urgently be implemented, while considering the programmatic and sociopolitical context. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO number, CRD42020167358.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Medicina Tropical , Saúde Global , Humanos , Higiene , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Saneamento
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1812, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions frequently assume that students who learn positive WASH behaviors will disseminate this information to their families. This is most prominent in school-based programs, which rely on students to act as "agents of change" to translate impact from school to home. However, there is little evidence to support or contradict this assumption. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental, prospective cohort study in 12 schools in rural, southern Zambia to measure the impact of WASH UP!, a school-based WASH program designed by the creators of Sesame Street. WASH UP! is an educational program that uses stories and interactive games to teach students in grades 1-4 about healthy behaviors, such as washing hands and using the latrine. We completed in-person interviews with grade 1 and 4 students (N = 392 and 369, respectively), their teachers (N = 24) and caregivers (N = 729) using structured surveys containing both open- and closed-ended questions. We measured changes in knowledge and whether students reported sharing WASH-related messages learned in school with their caregivers at home. RESULTS: Student knowledge increased significantly, but primarily among students in grade 1. Overall rates of students reporting that they shared messages from the curriculum with their caregivers rose from 7 to 23% (p <  0.001). Students in grade 4 were 5.2 times as likely as those in grade 1 to report sharing a WASH-related message with their caregivers (ARR = 5.2, 95% C.I. = (2.3, 8.9); p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although we measured only modest levels of student dissemination of WASH UP! messages from the school to the home, students in grade 4 showed significantly more promise as agents of change than those in grade 1. Future work should prioritize developing curricula that reflect the variability in needs, capabilities and support in the home and community among primary school students rather than a single approach for a wide range of ages and contexts.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Água , Criança , Humanos , Higiene , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to sanitation facilities (toilets or latrines) greatly improves human health. Low community sanitation coverage may lead to increased exposure to pathogens for households both with and without a sanitation facility. METHODS: We created a retrospective cohort using Demographic and Health Surveys from 1990 through 2018. Using regression with matched women as a random intercept, we assessed the association between community-level sanitation coverage and neonatal mortality (Poisson model, n=1 254 862 live births, 187 datasets), small birth size (logit model, n=1 058 843 live births, 187 datasets) and anaemia (logit model, n=1 304 626 women, 75 datasets). RESULTS: Among women with household sanitation, the incidence of neonatal death (incidence rate ratio: 0.85, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93), the odds of small birth size (OR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.87) and anaemia (OR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85) were lower for women in communities with 100% sanitation coverage compared with 1%-30% (p≤0.001 for all). There was no difference in neonatal deaths between women in communities with 31%-99% sanitation coverage compared with 1%-30% (p≥0.05). Among women without household sanitation, there were no differences in neonatal mortality by community sanitation (p≥0.05). The odds of small birth size were decreased (OR: 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.97, p=0.003) for women in communities with 61%-99% sanitation coverage compared with 1%-30%; there was no association with the other community sanitation categories (p≥0.05). The odds of anaemia were increased (OR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.11, p<0.001) for women living in communities with 0% sanitation coverage compared with 1%-30%, but no association with the other community sanitation categories (p≥0.05). CONCLUSION: Community sanitation coverage is associated with improved maternal and neonatal outcomes, particularly among women with household sanitation. This suggests that the impact of sanitation coverage on maternal and neonatal health is underestimated unless the community-level effects are considered.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente , Saneamento , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 359: 109425, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607035

RESUMO

Biofilm formation in food processing plants reduces the efficacy of sanitation. The presence of transmissible locus of stress tolerance (tLST) also enhances resistance of planktonic cells of Escherichia coli to sanitation chemicals but the role of tLST in resistance of biofilm-embedded cells remains unclear. This study investigated the link of tLST to biofilm formation and its contribution to resistance of biofilm-embedded E. coli to sanitation. Biofilms were formed as single-strain and as dual-strain biofilms in association with E. coli, Aeromonas australensis or Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Biofilms on stainless steel were compared to floating biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (pellicles). The resistance of biofilm-embedded tLST positive strains of E. coli to chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxyacetic acid was higher than the resistance of tLST negative strains. Higher biofilm density as measured by crystal violet staining was observed in tLST-positive strains of E. coli when compared to tLST negative strains. Biofilm density positively correlated to resistance to disinfectants. The use of confocal laser scanning microscopy detected more compact structure of pellicles compared to solid surface-attached biofilms, resulting in higher chlorine resistance despite the absence of tLST in strains of E. coli. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated the impact of tLST in strains of E. coli on biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance. These findings may inform the development of improved sanitization protocols for food facilities.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Saneamento , Biofilmes , Carnobacterium , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E392-E398, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604579

RESUMO

Introduction: Global evidence indicates an association between poor WaSH practice and inferior health outcomes. In rural areas, this practice is predominantly compromised with limited access to safe drinking water, knowledge gaps, and unhealthy socio-behavioural practices. Suboptimal WaSH practice leads to increased vulnerability of various infections, thereby posing a challenge to the primary health care system. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 879 participants of two villages in Tigiria block, Cuttack district, Odisha, India. Information pertaining to socio-demography, WaSH practices and self-reported morbidities were captured and analysed. Bi-variate analysis was done to assess the association between WaSH practices and any acute illnesses. Differences were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. Results: Tube well was the main source of drinking water (49.3%) followed by dug well (46.6%). Only 7.1% of participants reported to purify drinking water and around 40% were still practicing open defecation. The prevalence of acute and chronic illnesses was 9.2% and 19.1% respectively. Major acute illnesses were respiratory diseases, diarrhoeal disorders, and musculoskeletal problems, while major chronic illnesses were gastrointestinal problems, musculoskeletal problems, and hypertension. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, a significant odds ratio of 3.79 [CI = (1.23-11.70)] was observed between drinking water source (surface water Vs tube well water) for acute illnesses. Conclusions: Poor WaSH practices among rural people make them vulnerable to acute and chronic morbidities. Health awareness and socio behavioural changes pertaining to WaSH practices need utmost priority to ensure better health for rural people of Odisha.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Higiene , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Prevalência , Água
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1138, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community Health Worker (CHW) programs have long been used to provide acute care for children and women in healthcare shortage areas, but their provision of comprehensive longitudinal care for chronic problems is rare. The Village Health Worker (VHW) program, initiated in 2007, is an example of a long standing "horizontal" CHW program in rural Southwestern Uganda that has delivered village-level care for chronic disease based on a biannual village health census that identifies individual and family health risks. To facilitate continuity of care for problems identified, health census data were electronically transformed into family-specific Family Health Sheets (FHS) in 2016 which summarize the pertinent demographic and health data for each family, as well as health topics the family would like to learn more about. The FHS, evaluated and discussed here, serves as an epidemiologically-informed "bedside" tool to help VHWs provide longitudinal care in their villages. METHODS: 48 VHWs in the program completed a survey on the utility of the FHS and 24 VHWs participated in small discussion groups. Responses were analyzed using both quantitative and standard conceptual content analysis models RESULTS: 46 out of 48 VHWs reported that the FHS made them a "much better VHW." In addition to helping target interventions in child health, women's health, and sanitation, the FHS assisted follow-up of non-communicable diseases in the community. In discussion groups, VHWs reported that the FHS helped them understand risks for future disease, facilitated earning stipends, and increased credibility and trust in the community. Limitations cited were the infrequent updates of the FHS, only biannually with the census, and the lack of cross-reference capability by health problem. DISCUSSION: The FHS supports VHWs in providing longitudinal and comprehensive healthcare of chronic diseases in their villages. Limitations, potential solutions, and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Saúde da Família , Criança , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , População Rural , Saneamento
20.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 823-835, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665774

RESUMO

Access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation is considered as a basic human right. Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin (Rural), launched by the Government of India in 2014, is hailed as an attempt towards that direction. On 2nd October 2019, India was declared free from open defecation, with rural households having full toilet coverage. However, despite Government claims, the existing literature indicates the presence of slippage: where households practice open defecation despite having access to toilets. Equating progress in sanitation interventions with mere toilet provision presents a partial assessment of sanitation. To address the gap, the 'Sanitation Well-being' framework, based on Amartya Sen's concept of justice, has been proposed. It identifies slippage as an outcome of various underlying factors across the sanitation life-cycle. The framework provides a lens to analyse existing frameworks and secondary data sets and finds that they do not capture the dynamism inherent in the sector. The efficacy of the framework has been tested in the rural district of Shravasti, Uttar Pradesh, India, through the rapid rural appraisal method. Through our investigation, we found that slippage exists in the field, and that the framework is a feasible instrument to assess sanitation as a comprehensive phenomenon.


Assuntos
Aparelho Sanitário , Saneamento , Características da Família , Humanos , Índia , População Rural , Justiça Social , Toaletes
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