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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19293, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369357

RESUMO

Stunting is a public health issue of global concern. Despite, poor sanitation, diarrhea, parasitic infections, and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) are associated with stunting, their link is poorly understood and has not been investigated in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the associations of stunting with sanitation, enteric infections, and EED among children aged 24-59 months in rural northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 randomly selected children aged 24-59 months in rural areas of the east Dembiya district. We collected information on household food insecurity and dietary diversity using pre-tested questionnaires adopted from the food and nutrition technical assistance (FANTA) project. We used height-for-age-z score (HAZ) to define stunting. We also used the data collected to measure the environmental exposures of children to intestinal parasitic infections and fecal biomarkers of EED. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association of stunting with sanitation, enteric infections, and EED. Of the 224 children, 33% (95% CI 27, 39%) were stunted. Stunting in children was significantly associated with poor dietary intake (AOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2, 7.3), open defecation practice (AOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2, 7.9), presence of animal excreta in the living environment (AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2, 9.9), E. coli contamination of drinking water (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.1, 15.3), diarrheal disease incidence (AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.5, 7.7), intestinal parasites in children (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3, 8.8), and higher EED disease activity scores (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2, 6.7). One-third of the children in the study area were stunted and this high prevalence of stunting was associated with poor dietary intake, poor hygiene and sanitation conditions, enteric infections, and EED. Thus, stunting can be prevented by improving sanitation and hygienic conditions to prevent repeated enteric infections in children and by promoting dietary diversity of children.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Saneamento , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Prevalência , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/complicações
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2034, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of multicomponent school water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) interventions on children's health are unclear. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the effects of a school WaSH intervention on children's malnutrition, dehydration, health literacy (HL), and handwashing (HW) in Metro Manila, Philippines. METHODS: The trial lasted from June 2017 to March 2018 and included children, in grades 5, 6, 7, and 10, from 15 schools. At baseline 756 children were enrolled. Seventy-eight children in two clusters were purposively assigned to the control group (CG); 13 clusters were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: low-intensity health education (LIHE; two schools, n = 116 children), medium-intensity health education (MIHE; seven schools, n = 356 children), and high-intensity health education (HIHE; four schools, n = 206 children). The intervention consisted of health education (HE), WaSH policy workshops, provision of hygiene supplies, and WaSH facilities repairs. Outcomes were: height-for-age and body mass index-for-age Z scores (HAZ, BAZ); stunting, undernutrition, overnutrition, dehydration prevalence; HL and HW scores. We used anthropometry to measure children's physical growth, urine test strips to measure dehydration, questionnaires to measure HL, and observation to measure HW practice. The same measurements were used during baseline and endline. We used multilevel mixed-effects logistic and linear regression models to assess intervention effects. RESULTS: None of the interventions reduced undernutrition prevalence or improved HAZ, BAZ, or overall HL scores. Low-intensity HE reduced stunting (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.96), while low- (aOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.96) and high-intensity HE (aOR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93) reduced overnutrition. Medium- (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.02; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and high-intensity HE (aIRR 0.01; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.16) reduced severe dehydration. Medium- (aOR 3.18; 95% CI 1.34 to 7.55) and high-intensity HE (aOR 3.89; 95% CI 3.74 to 4.05) increased observed HW after using the toilet/urinal. CONCLUSION: Increasing the intensity of HE reduced prevalence of stunting, overnutrition, and severe dehydration and increased prevalence of observed HW. Data may be relevant for school WaSH interventions in the Global South. Interventions may have been more effective if adherence was higher, exposure to interventions longer, parents/caregivers were more involved, or household WaSH was addressed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00021623.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Desnutrição , Hipernutrição , Criança , Humanos , Saneamento , Desinfecção das Mãos , Água , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água , Higiene , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2035, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drew hygiene to the center of disease prevention. The provision of adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services is crucial to protect public health during a pandemic. Yet, access to levels of water supply that support adequate hygiene measures are deficient in many areas in Nepal. We examined WASH practices and their impact on child health and nutritional status in two districts before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A longitudinal and mixed method study was conducted in March-May 2018 and November-December 2021. In total, 715 children aged 0-10 years were surveyed at baseline. Of these, 490 children were assessed at endline. Data collection methods included observations, a questionnaire, stool analysis, anthropometric measurements, water quality analysis, and an assessment of clinical signs of nutritional deficiencies. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews to understand major problems related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Most respondents (94.2%) had heard about COVID-19; however, they did not wear face masks or comply with any social distancing protocols. Almost 94.2% of the households self-reported handwashing with soap 5-10 times per day at endline, especially after defecation, compared to 19.6% at baseline. Water quality was better at endline than at baseline with median 12 to 29 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL (interquartile range at baseline [IQR] = 4-101) at the point of collection and 34 to 51.5 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL (IQR = 8-194) at the point of consumption. Fever (41.1-16.8%; p = 0.01), respiratory illness (14.3-4.3%; p = 0.002), diarrhea (19.6-9.5%; p = 0.01), and Giardia lamblia infections (34.2-6.5%, p = 0.01) decreased at endline. In contrast, nutritional deficiencies such as bitot's spots (26.7-40.2%; p = 0.01), pale conjunctiva (47.0-63.3%; p = 0.01), and dermatitis (64.8-81.4%; p = 0.01) increased at endline. The inadequacy of the harvest and the lack of household income to meet households' nutritional needs increased drastically (35.0-94.2%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found that improved water quality and handwashing practices were associated with a decrease in infectious diseases. However, food security also decreased resulting in a high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies. Our findings underline that disaster preparedness should consider access to adequate WASH, nutrition, and health supplies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desnutrição , Criança , Humanos , Saneamento , Estado Nutricional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Nepal/epidemiologia , Higiene , Abastecimento de Água , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 86(9): 2348-2357, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378184

RESUMO

Over the recent years, managers of the Algerian National Sanitation Office (ONA) have been worrying about the degraded state of their Urban Drainage Systems (UDS). This infrastructure failure is due essentially to the lack of funding and absence of adequate structured methodology for diagnosis and maintenance. As a result, ONA's managers found it very interesting to get a tool that allows them to assess their management of UDS operation. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an assessment tool to managers for a good network operation. The adopted approach is participative and takes into account the specific local context. Six performance indicators, grouped into two criteria, have been constructed to achieve this objective. These indicators have been chosen for their effectiveness; they are scaled to get their performance scores according to a scaling constructed here based on standards when available and to the ONA expert's recommendations. The developed tool is applied to the UDS of Bejaia City, in north-eastern Algeria. The assessment and the analysis of the performance evolution of these indicators for the period 2017-2021 are carried out. The results highlighted successes that can be maintained as well as weaknesses that need to be improved.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Argélia , Cidades
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275491, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378662

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite many institutions gaining access to improved water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services, childcare centres in informal settlements have low access and poor condition of WASH services. It is imperative to understand how existing actors and social networks operate in the WASH sector in childcare centres in Nairobi's informal settlements. OBJECTIVE: To empirically map and understand how different actors within informal settlements influence the provision of adequate and quality water, sanitation and hygiene services within childcare centres in Nairobi's informal settlements. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. We conducted an ethnographic study using governance diaries with 24 participants from Korogocho and Viwandani informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The governance diaries approach involved conducting bi-weekly governance in-depth interviews (IDIs) with study participants for 4 months, complemented with observations, reflections, participant diaries and informal discussions. We used a framework analysis which is partly deductive, informed by the governance framework and stakeholder framework. RESULTS: Social accountability actors were individuals or groups involved in WASH service provision in childcare centres. The actors included both key actors (actors who are primary to meeting the day-to-day WASH service needs of children) and non-key actors (actors operating in the WASH sector but not always present for day-to-day provision in childcare centres). The key actors were unanimously identified as childcare centre owners/teachers and parents/guardians as they had a more direct role in the provision of WASH services in childcare centres. The actors had direct, possible or desired networks, with the direct networks portrayed more by the parents and childcare centre owners, whose roles included acting as a voice and responding to the WASH service needs of children as it relates to access and quality. Centre owners had more power/authority over WASH services for children in childcare centres than the parents. Key actors derived power by their discretion depending on whether a decision was beneficial to children or not. Lastly, the interest of key actors were diverse ranging from income generation, access to WASH services by children, compliance with government regulations, and promotion of child health, to the prevention of the spread of diseases. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that parents and childcare owners play an important role in WASH service provision. While service providers and other players may be statutorily given primary responsibilities for WASH provision, and more visible in official standing, among study participants they are not seen as primary actors but secondary players with ancillary responsibilities. We conclude that WASH service provision in child care centres may be realised when key actors have a voice and work within networks to demand WASH services from desired networks including the government. We also conclude that developing more direct networks and converting desired and potential networks into direct networks in WASH service provision is critical for the success of WASH service delivery. Lastly, actors in WASH services in childcare centres may need to collaborate in identifying potential avenues for strengthening existing networks that enhance access and quality of WASH services in childcare centres.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Saneamento , Humanos , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Água , Quênia , Higiene , Responsabilidade Social
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 410, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Geshiyaro project is a 5-year intervention to assess the impact of community- and school-based water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) interventions on reducing infection with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosome parasites in combination with deworming in Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional census and parasitological mapping activity was conducted between 2018 and 2019. Individuals in the census were identified using either a registered study ID card or biometric fingerprint to enable linkage of their household WaSH data with baseline STH and schistosome prevalence for risk analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of STH was 15.5% for any STH species, 9.47% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.78% for Trichuris trichiura, and 7.24% for hookworm. Intestinal schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni) infection prevalence was 0.85% by Kato Katz, 21.6% by POC-CCA trace positive (Tr +), and 13.3% trace negative (Tr-). Microhaematuria was 2.77%, with 0.13% of people examined with S. haematobium eggs detected by urine filtration. At the household level, increased (> 30 min) time taken to collect drinking water, sharing a latrine, and lack of handwashing facilities were all associated with a greater risk of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, and S. mansoni infection. Not disposing of infant stool at the household and clothes washing/recreational freshwater contact were significantly associated with higher risk of schistosomiasis infection. Aggregating WaSH data at the community level showed odds of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, and T. trichiura infection were significantly lower as both community sanitation coverage and access to improved drinking water improved. CONCLUSIONS: The principal finding of this study is that lack of access to WaSH, such as improved drinking water and shared toilet and hand-washing facilities, were linked to an increased risk of infection with STH and schistosome parasites. These associations are difficult to establish at an individual household level because of wide variability in access between houses but are detectable when coverage is aggregated at the community level. Maintenance of WaSH facilities as well as increased access within the whole community is important in influencing the community-wide prevalence of infection with STH and schistosome parasites.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Uncinaria , Schistosomatidae , Lactente , Animais , Humanos , Saneamento , Solo/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Higiene , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Ancylostomatoidea , Schistosoma mansoni , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 279, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405663

RESUMO

Cholera disproportionately affects the most vulnerable segments of the population, particularly those who have low or no access to basic water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Despite some improvements in WASH conditions, cholera still represents a persistent challenge in Mozambique, where outbreaks occur almost every year, with high case fatality rates, posing a threat to the country's economic development. The Government of Mozambique has started developing a revised National Cholera Plan (NCP), which aligns with "ending cholera-a global roadmap to 2030" launched by the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) in 2017. Ending cholera represents a critical step towards achieving the sustainable development goals and requires effective prevention and control interventions, ensuring that no one is left behind. The NCP must use a multi-sector approach and broad stakeholder collaboration with well-coordinated roles and functions of different partners to address major areas for cholera elimination - water and sanitation, health care services and management, epidemiology and surveillance, and health and hygiene promotion. Every cholera death is preventable. In this review, we reiterate the need for effective coordinated actions to control and eliminate cholera in Mozambique and decrease the cholera burden, enabling a healthy population over the generations.


Assuntos
Cólera , Humanos , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Saneamento , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Água
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1943, 2022 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a significant public health challenge and one of the leading causes of child mortality in a wide range of developing countries, including Ethiopia. Poor access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities commonly contributes to child growth failure. There is a paucity of information on the interrelationship between WASH and child undernutrition (stunting and wasting). This study aimed to assess the association between WASH and undernutrition among under-five-year-old children in Ethiopia. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was undertaken based on the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted from 2000 to 2016. A total of 33,763 recent live births extracted from the EDHS reports were included in the current analysis. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between WASH and child undernutrition. Relevant factors from EDHS data were identified after extensive literature review. RESULTS: The overall prevalences of stunting and wasting were 47.29% [95% CI: (46.75, 47.82%)] and 10.98% [95% CI: (10.65, 11.32%)], respectively. Children from households having unimproved toilet facilities [AOR: 1.20, 95% CI: (1.05,1.39)], practicing open defecation [AOR: 1.29, 95% CI: (1.11,1.51)], and living in households with dirt floors [AOR: 1.32, 95% CI: (1.12,1.57)] were associated with higher odds of being stunted. Children from households having unimproved drinking water sources were significantly less likely to be wasted [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: (0.76,0.95)] and stunted [AOR: 0.91, 95% CI: (0.83, 0.99)]. We found no statistical differences between improved sanitation, safe disposal of a child's stool, or improved household flooring and child wasting. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that the quality of access to sanitation and housing conditions affects child linear growth indicators. Besides, household sources of drinking water did not predict the occurrence of either wasting or stunting. Further longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to determine whether individual and joint access to WASH facilities was strongly associated with child stunting and wasting.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Água Potável , Desnutrição , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Saneamento , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Higiene , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/complicações , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Prevalência
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e059878, 2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether household environmental hygiene and behavioural conditions moderated associations between diarrhoea and enteric pathogen detection in infants 5 months of age in Kenya and pathogen sources, including latrine access, domestic animal co-habitation and public food sources. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study utilising enrolment survey data of households participating in the Safe Start cluster-randomised controlled trial . SETTING: Kisumu, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 898 caregivers with 5-month (22 week ± 1 week) aged infants were enrolled in the study and completed the enrolment survey. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were (1) caregiver-reported 7-day diarrhoea prevalence and (2) count of types of enteric viruses, bacteria and parasites in infant stool. Exposures and effect modifiers included water access and treatment, cohabitation with domestic animals, sanitation access, handwashing practices, supplemental feeding, access to refrigeration and flooring. RESULTS: Reported handwashing after handling animals (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.20; 95% CI=0.06 to 0.50) and before eating (aOR=0.44; 95% CI=0.26 to 0.73) were strongly associated with lower risk of caregiver-reported diarrhoea, while cohabitation with animals (aOR=1.54; 95% CI=1.01 to 2.34) living in a household with vinyl-covered dirt floors (aOR=0.60; 95% CI=0.45 to 0.87) were strongly associated with pathogen codetection in infants. Caregiver handwashing after child (p=0.02) or self-defecation (p=0.03) moderated the relationship between shared sanitation access and infant exposure to pathogens, specifically private latrine access was protective against pathogen exposure of infants in households, where caregivers washed hands after defecation. In the absence of handwashing, access to private sanitation posed no benefits over shared latrines for protecting infants from exposure. CONCLUSION: Our evidence highlights eliminating animal cohabitation and improving flooring, postdefecation and food-related handwashing, and safety and use of cow milk sources as interventions to prevent enteric pathogen exposure of young infants in Kenya. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03468114.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Saneamento , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293930

RESUMO

Cholera is a severe form of acute watery diarrhea that if left untreated can result in death. Globally, there are 2.9 million cholera cases annually. Individuals living in close proximity to cholera cases are at a higher risk for developing cholera compared to the general population. Targeted water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions have the potential to reduce cholera transmission in cholera hotspots around cholera cases. The objective of this study was to expand the scope of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) program, focused on cholera patient households, for delivery in cholera hotspots in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted in cholera hotspots around cholera patients, and three intervention planning workshops were conducted to inform modifications needed to the CHoBI7 program. After exploratory interviews, a two-phase, iterative pilot study was conducted for 9 months to test the developed CHoBI7 Cholera Rapid Response program among 180 participants to further inform modifications to intervention content and delivery. Findings from pilot participant interviews highlighted the need to adapt intervention content for delivery at the compound-rather than household-level, given an environment with multiple households sharing a water source, toilets, and kitchen facilities. This was addressed by conducting a "ring session" for intervention delivery in cholera hotspots for households to discuss how to improve their shared facilities together and encourage a compound-level commitment to promoted WASH behaviors and placement of soapy water bottles in shared spaces. Based on the low number of soapy water bottles observed in communal spaces during the first iteration of the pilot, we also added context-specific examples using the narratives of families in mobile messages to encourage WASH behavioral recommendations. Formative research identified important considerations for the modifications needed to tailor the CHoBI7 program for delivery in cholera hotspots in urban Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Cólera , Humanos , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Projetos Piloto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Sabões , Saneamento , Diarreia/epidemiologia
11.
Indian J Dent Res ; 33(2): 130-134, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254947

RESUMO

Aim: : To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices among sanitation workers regarding SARS-CoV-2 prevention during hospital waste management. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 sanitation workers using an interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of the study participants. The unpaired t-test and Spearman's correlation were used to find the mean difference and correlation among different study variables. Statistical significance was set at 5% (confidence interval 95%). Results: The mean knowledge score of the participants was found to be 7.15 ± 2.02. About 93.7% of the participants had good knowledge about COVID-19. About 64.3% of the participants strongly agreed that COVID-19 is a life-threatening disease. Regarding practices, a majority reported (69.7%) that they washed hands frequently using water and soap. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge, attitude, practices and education, indicating a favourable work environment in hospital settings. Conclusion: More than half of the sanitation workers and housekeeping staff had adequate knowledge of COVID-19, and their attitudes were found to be favourable. They also had satisfactory practices, which may be a result of the prompt training and sensitization of sanitation workers by the authorities. Clinical Relevance: Sanitation workers come under the essential services category and their knowledge, attitude and practices needed to be assessed and updated in the concerned area for their protection and better management of biomedical waste, especially in the current pandemic situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saneamento , Sabões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água
12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282669

RESUMO

On the basis of the archival documents, the article studies and provides information on the creation of medical and sanitary bodies, public organizations to provide the refugees of the Irkutsk province with medical care in 1914-1916, to carry out comprehensive anti-epidemic measures to combat the emerging epidemics of diseases characteristic of wartime. The study shows the role of medical and sanitary bodies, committees, commissions to ensure the epidemiological well-being of the refugees. The dynamics of an increase in the number of beds, the number of hospitals, the opening of infectious barracks, an increase in financial allocations for the provision of medical assistance to refugees were noted.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Refugiados , Humanos , Saneamento , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Organizações
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232235

RESUMO

This paper examines the link between place and mental health using a qualitative assessment and focus group discussion with young women, ages 18 to 24 years of age, residing in three slums in Kampala, Uganda. The assessment, conducted in August of 2022, engaged 15 women who participated in Uganda Youth Development Drop-in center activities. The objective was to assess mental health and the link between place and mental health. Facilitated group discussions and photograph review yielded the following results. In terms of understanding their views of mental health and wellbeing, participants clearly focused on feelings. However, they also assessed resilience, the environment and a person's choice as relating to their mental health. Participants also found the physical spaces related to sports, education, worship, workplaces and green space to be linked to happiness. In terms of the attributes that were linked to sadness, participants listed the physical locations where drugs are sold, clubs for dancing and partying and also sanitation issues in the community. Participants frequently reported on the social environment and reflected on harassment, discrimination, alcohol use and criminal behavior that did not reflect a specific physical space, but rather the embedded social interactions they may face or observe by living in close proximity to hotspots for criminal activity. Given the dire shortages of mental health services and care that are available in this setting, a better understanding of young women's perceptions of place and mental health will be key for low-cost interventions and strategies to mitigate the contextual factors that may exacerbate mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Áreas de Pobreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saneamento , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231147

RESUMO

Inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) among urban poor women is a major urban policy concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There was a paucity of systematic information on WASH among the urban poor during the pandemic. We reviewed the opportunities and challenges faced by the urban poor in LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the PRISMA guidelines to conduct a comprehensive search of 11 databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL, between November 2019 and August 2021. We used thematic analysis to synthesize the qualitative data and meta-analyses to estimate the pooled prevalence. We screened 5008 records, conducted a full-text review of 153 studies, and included 38 studies. The pooled prevalence of shared water points was 0.71 (95% CI 0.37-0.97), non-adherence to hygiene practices was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.24), non-adherence to face masks was 0.27 (95% CI 0.0-0.81), and access to shared community toilets was 0.59 (95% CI 0.11-1.00). Insufficient facilities caused crowding and long waiting times at shared facilities, making physical distancing challenging. Women reported difficulty in maintaining privacy for sanitation, as men were present due to the stay-at-home rule. Due to unaffordability, women reported using cloth instead of sanitary pads and scarves instead of masks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pandemias , Água , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(Suppl 2): 775, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255561

RESUMO

Access to sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services is a crucial requirement for patients during therapy and general well-being in the hospital. However, in low- and middle-income countries, these services are often inadequate, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality of patients. This study aimed at assessing the current situation of WASH services in six District Health Care Facilities (DHCFs) in rural areas of the Mekong Delta provinces, Vietnam. The results showed that these services were available with inappropriate quality, which did not compromise the stakeholders' needs. The revealed WASH infrastructures have raised concerns about the prolonged hospital stays for patients and push nosocomial infections to a high level. The safety of the water supply was doubted as the high E. coli (> 60%) and total coliform incidence (86%) was observed with very low residual chlorine concentration (< 0.1 mg/L) in water quality assessment. Moreover, water supply contained a high concentration of iron (up to 15.55 mg/L) in groundwater in one DHCF. Technical assessment tool analysis proved that the improper management and lack of knowledge by human resources were the primary roots of the observed status WASH services. Improvement of the perceptions of WASH should be done for the hospital staff with collaboration and support from the government to prevent incidents in the future.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Saneamento , Humanos , Saneamento/métodos , Cloro , Vietnã , Monitoramento Ambiental , Higiene , Abastecimento de Água , Ferro , Atenção à Saúde
16.
BMJ ; 379: e072046, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of integrated and concurrent delivery of health, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH), and psychosocial care interventions during the preconception period alone, during pregnancy and early childhood, and throughout preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood on birth outcomes and linear growth at 24 months of age compared with routine care. DESIGN: Individually randomised factorial trial. SETTING: Low and middle income neighbourhoods of Delhi, India. PARTICIPANTS: 13 500 women were randomised to receive preconception interventions (n=6722) or routine care (n=6778). 2652 and 2269 pregnant women were randomised again to receive pregnancy and early childhood interventions or routine care. The analysis of birth outcomes included 1290 live births for the preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood interventions (group A), 1276 for the preconception intervention (group B), 1093 for the pregnancy and early childhood interventions (group C), and 1093 for the control (group D). Children aged 24 months by 30 June 2021 were included in the 24 month outcome analysis (453 in group A, 439 in B, 293 in C, and 271 in D). INTERVENTIONS: Health, nutrition, psychosocial care and support, and WaSH interventions were delivered during preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood periods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm, and mean birth weight. At 24 months, the outcomes were mean length-for-age z scores and proportion stunted. Three prespecified comparisons were made: preconception intervention groups (A+B) versus no preconception intervention groups (C+D); pregnancy and early childhood intervention groups (A+C) versus routine care during pregnancy and early childhood (B+D) and preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood interventions groups (A) versus control group (D). RESULTS: The proportion with low birth weight was lower in the preconception intervention groups (506/2235) than in the no preconception intervention groups (502/1889; incidence rate ratio 0.85, 98.3% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.97; absolute risk reduction -3.80%, 98.3% confidence interval -6.99% to -0.60%). The proportion with low birth weight was lower in the pregnancy intervention groups (502/2096) than in the no pregnancy intervention groups (506/2028) but the upper limit of the confidence interval crossed null effect (0.87, 0.76 to 1.01; -1.71%, -4.96% to 1.54%). There was a larger effect on proportion with low birth weight in the group that received interventions in the preconception and pregnancy periods (267/1141) compared with the control group (267/934; 0.76, 0.62 to 0.91; -5.59%, -10.32% to -0.85%). The proportion stunted at 24 months of age was substantially lower in the pregnancy and early childhood intervention groups (79/746) compared with the groups that did not receive these interventions (136/710; 0.51, 0.38 to 0.70; -8.32%, -12.31% to -4.32%), and in the group that received preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood interventions (47/453) compared with the control group (51/271; 0.49, 0.32 to 0.75; -7.98%, -14.24% to -1.71%). No effect on stunting at 24 months was observed in the preconception intervention groups (132/892) compared with the no preconception intervention groups (83/564). CONCLUSIONS: An intervention package delivered during preconception, pregnancy, and early childhood substantially reduced low birth weight and stunting at 24 months. Pregnancy and early childhood interventions alone had lower but important effects on birth outcomes and 24 month outcomes. Preconception interventions alone had an important effect on birth outcomes but not on 24 month outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry-India CTRI/2017/06/008908.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Saneamento , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Água , Higiene , Transtornos do Crescimento
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 246: 114043, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the drinking water quality in the popular trekking area of Solu-Khumbu Mt. Everest region as a possible source for the high incidence of diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Drinking water samples (n = 80) were collected from whatever primary source the locals/tourists used at altitudes 2,608 to 5,180m; and where possible, also from inside households. Samples were analyzed for fecal contamination using the DelAgua Dual Incubator at 37 °C and 44 °C to detect the total and thermotolerant coliform bacteria. The pH, temperature, turbidity, smell, and taste were also registered. RESULTS: No thermotolerant bacteria were found but a significant number of specimens contained many colony forming units (CFU) of total coliform bacteria. Household specimens were more often contaminated compared to the water from the primary source. CONCLUSION: Data indicate a significant secondary contamination when water was handled and stored in unhygienic containers. Health education programs on water hygiene, sanitation, and the safe handling and storage of water needs improvement. It is strongly recommended that drinking water is disinfected using filter systems, UV-light dispensers or halogens (e.g. chlorine), or a combination of two methods. Although cooking is a common disinfection method here, fuel is scarce. Water was generally safer when collected directly from the primary source in a clean container than from a lodge.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Abastecimento de Água , Nepal , Saneamento , Qualidade da Água , Microbiologia da Água
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(22): 15969-15980, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288473

RESUMO

In low-income, urban, informal communities lacking sewerage and solid waste services, onsite sanitation (sludges, aqueous effluent) and child feces are potential sources of human fecal contamination in living environments. Working in informal communities of urban Maputo, Mozambique, we developed a quantitative, stochastic, mass-balance approach to evaluate plausible scenarios of localized contamination that could explain why the soil-transmitted helminth Ascaris remains endemic despite nearly universal coverage of latrines that sequester most fecal wastes. We used microscopy to enumerate presumptively viable Ascaris ova in feces, fecal sludges, and soils from compounds (i.e., household clusters) and then constructed a steady-state mass-balance model to evaluate possible contamination scenarios capable of explaining observed ova counts in soils. Observed Ascaris counts (mean = -0.01 log10 ova per wet gram of soil, sd = 0.71 log10) could be explained by deposits of 1.9 grams per day (10th percentile 0.04 grams, 90th percentile 84 grams) of child feces on average, rare fecal sludge contamination events that transport 17 kg every three years (10th percentile 1.0 kg, 90th percentile 260 kg), or a daily discharge of 2.7 kg aqueous effluent from an onsite system (10th percentile 0.09 kg, 90th percentile 82 kg). Results suggest that even limited intermittent flows of fecal wastes in this setting can result in a steady-state density of Ascaris ova in soils capable of sustaining transmission, given the high prevalence of Ascaris shedding by children (prevalence = 25%; mean = 3.7 log10 per wet gram, sd = 1.1 log10), the high Ascaris ova counts in fecal sludges (prevalence = 88%; mean = 1.8 log10 per wet gram, sd = 0.95 log10), and the extended persistence and viability of Ascaris ova in soils. Even near-universal coverage of onsite sanitation may allow for sustained transmission of Ascaris under these conditions.


Assuntos
Ascaris , Saneamento , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Toaletes , Fezes , Solo , Esgotos , Água
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231546

RESUMO

Compared to the general public, household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of contracting cholera during the 7-day high-risk period after a cholera patient has been admitted to a health facility for treatment. The Preventative-Intervention-for-Cholera-for-7-days (PICHA7) program aims to reduce household transmission of cholera during this 7-day high-risk period through a health facility-initiated water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program promoting handwashing with soap, water treatment, and safe water storage. The PICHA7 program is delivered to cholera patient households through: (1) a pictorial flipbook delivered by a health promoter; (2) a cholera prevention package (handwashing station, drinking water vessel with lid and tap, and chlorine tablets); and (3) weekly WASH mobile messages sent to patient households in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The objectives of this study were to conduct formative research to identify facilitators and barriers of the promoted WASH behaviors for cholera patient households and to tailor the PICHA7 program to target these facilitators and barriers. Formative research included 93 semi-structured interviews with diarrhea patient households and healthcare workers during exploratory research and a pilot study of 518 participants. Barriers to the promoted WASH behaviors identified during exploratory and pilot study interviews included: (1) low awareness of cholera transmission and prevention; (2) unaffordability of soap for handwashing; and (3) intermittent access to water limiting water for handwashing. For intervention development, narratives of the lived experiences of patient households in our study were presented by health promoters to describe cholera transmission and prevention, and soapy water and ash were promoted in the program flipbook and mobile messages to address the affordability of soap for handwashing. A jerry can was provided to allow for additional water storage, and a tap with a slower flow rate was attached to the handwashing station to reduce the amount of water required for handwashing. The pilot findings indicate that the PICHA7 program has high user acceptability and is feasible to deliver to cholera patients that present at health facilities for treatment in our study setting. Formative research allowed for tailoring this targeted WASH program for cholera patient households in the DRC.


Assuntos
Cólera , Água Potável , Cloro , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Higiene , Projetos Piloto , Saneamento , Sabões
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232082

RESUMO

Based on the broader concept of health proposed by the Pan-American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/ WHO), 2018, and the absence in the literature of indices that translate the causal relationship between sanitation and health, a methodology for assessing the health impact of a water and sanitation programmes, known as a Health Impact Assessment (HIA), was developed, specifically in the Brazilian context, and focused on a school in the northeast of the country. Through exploratory and descriptive evidence, and using documentary research as a method, a retrospective survey was carried out from 2000 to 2022 using documents proposing evaluation methodologies. A single document was found to fit the research objective, which was used to develop the proposed HIA methodology. Development of the methodology consisted of two stages: definition of the health dimensions and selection of the indicators making up each dimension. The HIA methodology was then applied to a school in northeast Brazil to test its use, before a water-efficient management intervention was going to be used. The overall score of 46% indicated that there was room for improvement, which the new management approach could facilitate. This methodology is therefore proposed to be an instrument for the evaluation of public water and sanitation policies, thus assisting managers in the decision-making process and in guiding sanitation programs and plans.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Saneamento , Brasil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Água , Abastecimento de Água
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