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1.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 257-260, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess faecal immunochemical test (FIT) negativity in terms of its effect on cancer risk in the local symptomatic two-week wait (2WW) population. FIT was introduced to the colorectal 2WW pathway at the start of the pandemic. This study analyses the FIT-negative (<10µg Hb/g) cohort and calculates the relative risk and odds ratio associated with a negative FIT test. METHODS: FIT tests were sent to symptomatic 2WW patients without rectal bleeding, iron-deficient anaemia or palpable mass. Where FIT was <10µg Hb/g investigations were moved to a radiology protocol. RESULTS: The test return rate was 91% with a FIT-negative (<10µg Hb/g) rate of 82%. The FIT-negative group in the symptomatic referral pathway in Cornwall have a low (1.4%) risk of colon cancer but a significant risk (6.6%) when all cancer types are considered. The impact of a negative quantitative FIT changes the odds ratio of a patient having a luminal cancer by 0.26. The odds ratio for 'all cancer' risk was affected by 0.83. CONCLUSION: A negative FIT test within the local NG12 symptomatic patient group signifies a low risk of colon cancer and identifies patients who can be initially investigated with cross-sectional imaging. However, when all cancer types are considered, cancer prevalence in this group remains above 6%. In relative risk terms a negative FIT represents a small change in overall risk and this patient group still qualify for investigation through 2WW pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Reto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
2.
Ulster Med J ; 91(2): 79-84, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722213

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is an evolving healthcare challenge causing secondary disruption of cancer services. Quantitative Faecal Immunochemical Testing (qFIT) has been established as a screening method in asymptomatic patients. We aim to assess its utility as a triage tool to prioritise investigations in symptomatic patients with suspected colorectal cancer. Methods: At the commencement of the COVID-19 pandemic a database was established to include patients awaiting red flag outpatient consultation or colonic investigations and new red flag referrals from March to June 2020. Patients were supplied with qFIT kits and returned results categorised into 3 priority groups according to the qFIT value. Group 1 >150µg Hb/g, Group 2 ≥10 to ≤150µg Hb/g and Group 3 <10µg Hb/g. Subsequent colonic evaluation was offered by colonoscopy or cross-sectional imaging with urgency determined by qFIT priority group. When identified colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease or high-risk polyps were recorded as "significant colorectal pathology." Findings: Three hundred and seventeen patients were identified with data analysed on 290 patients. Colorectal malignancy was identified in 17 patients; 94% of these patients were in Group 1. A qFIT result >150 µg Hb/g had a sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer of 94.12% (95% CI 71.31-99.85) and 91.21% (95% CI 87.20-94.29) respectively. No malignancy was detected in Priority Group 3; negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI 98.06-100). Conclusions: In symptomatic, suspect lower GI cancer patients qFIT is a useful adjunct for prioritising patients and can be used to determine the urgency of colorectal investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Pandemias , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(12): 24-25, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731390
4.
Value Health ; 25(6): 954-964, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, it was announced that the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) would replace the guaiac fecal occult blood test in the UK Bowel Cancer Screening Programme. England has limited endoscopy capacity. This study informed decision making by determining the most cost-effective FIT screening strategy (age range, frequency, and FIT threshold) under a constrained endoscopy capacity. METHODS: An economic model with a colorectal cancer natural history component was used to model 60 221 screening strategies with first screening at age 50 to 60 years, screening interval of 1 to 6 years, 3+ screening episodes, and FIT integer threshold of 20 to 180 µg hemoglobin/g feces. Screening strategies requiring the same endoscopy capacity were compared to determine the characteristics of the most cost-effective strategies. RESULTS: With 50 000 annual screening referral colonoscopies, the 20 most cost-effective strategies had a starting age of 50 to 53 years, 2-yearly screening, 7 or 8 rounds of screening, and FIT threshold of 127 to 166. Compared with a 2-yearly screening interval, screening less frequently (3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-yearly) with a more sensitive FIT was less cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: The UK Bowel Cancer Screening Programme should use a 2-yearly FIT screening interval. When endoscopy capacity increases, the screening starting age should be reduced first followed by reducing the FIT threshold. These findings are relevant for other colorectal cancer screening programs with constrained endoscopy capacity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Sangue Oculto , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Guaiaco , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2215490, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657622

RESUMO

Importance: Health care was disrupted in the US during the first quarter of 2020 with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Early reports in selected samples suggested that cancer screening services decreased greatly, but population-based estimates of cancer screening prevalence during 2020 have not yet been reported. Objective: To examine changes in breast cancer (BC), cervical cancer (CC), and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence with contemporary national, population-based Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study included respondents from the 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020 BRFSS surveys who were eligible for BC (women aged 50-74 years), CC (women aged 25-64 years), and CRC (women and men aged 50-75 years) screening. Data analysis was performed from September 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Calendar year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported receipt of a recent (defined as in the past year) BC, CC, and CRC screening test. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) comparing 2020 vs 2018 prevalence and 95% CIs were computed. Results: In total, 479 248 individuals were included in the analyses of BC screening, 301 453 individuals were included in CC screening, and 854 210 individuals were included in CRC screening, In 2020, among respondents aged 50 to 75 years, 14 815 (11.4%) were Black, 12 081 (12.6%) were Hispanic, 156 198 (67.3%) were White, and 79 234 (29.9%) graduated from college (all percentages are weighted). After 4 years (2014-2018) of nearly steady prevalence, past-year BC screening decreased by 6% between 2018 and 2020 (from 61.6% in 2018 to 57.8% in 2020; aPR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96), and CC screening decreased by 11% (from 58.3% in 2018 to 51.9% in 2020; aPR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87-0.91). The magnitude of these decreases was greater in people with lower educational attainment and Hispanic persons. CRC screening prevalence remained steady; past-year stool testing increased by 7% (aPR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12), offsetting a 16% decrease in colonoscopy (aPR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82-0.88) between 2018 and 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, stool testing increased and counterbalanced a decrease in colonoscopy during 2020, and BC and CC screening modestly decreased. How these findings might be associated with outcomes is not yet known, but they will be important to monitor, especially in populations with lower socioeconomic status, who experienced greater screening decreases during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sangue Oculto , Pandemias , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269541, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carriage of certain bacterial species may represent potential biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC). Prominent among these is Fusobacterium nucleatum. We explored the association of F. nucleatum DNA in stool samples with the presence of colonic neoplastic lesions in a cohort of primary care patients, and compared our findings with those from an unrelated cohort of colonoscopy patients followed clinically over time. METHODS: Carriage rates of F. nucleatum in stool samples were assessed in 185 patients referred for a faecal immunochemical test (FIT) by their general practitioners (GPs). Comparisons were made with stool samples from 57 patients diagnosed with CRC and 57 age-matched healthy controls, and with tissue samples taken at colonoscopy from 150 patients with a decade of subsequent clinical follow-up. FINDINGS: F. nucleatum DNA was found at a high rate (47.0%) in stool samples from primary care patients, and more often in stool samples from CRC patients (47.4%) than in healthy controls (7.0%), (P = 7.66E-7). No association was found between carriage of F. nucleatum and FIT positivity (P = 0.588). While evidence of stool-associated F. nucleatum DNA was significantly more likely to indicate a lesion in those primary care patients progressed to colonoscopy (P = 0.023), this finding did not extend to the progression of neoplastic lesions in the 150 patients with a decade of follow up. CONCLUSION: The finding of F. nucleatum DNA at similar rates in stool samples from patients diagnosed with CRC and in primary care patients with pre-cancerous lesions supports growing awareness that the presence of these bacteria may be a biomarker for increased risk of disease. However, molecular evidence of F. nucleatum did not predict progression of colonic lesions, which may lessen the utility of this bacterium as a biomarker for increased risk of disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Infecções por Fusobacterium , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Infecções por Fusobacterium/complicações , Infecções por Fusobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)-based screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) reduces mortality, with earlier stage at diagnosis a prominent feature. Other characteristics of FOBT screen-detected cancers and any implications for clinical management have not been well explored. METHODS: We examined a multisite clinical registry to compare the characteristics and outcomes of FOBT screen-detected CRC via the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), which is offered biennially to individuals aged 50-74 years, and age-matched non-screen-detected CRC in the same registry. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the Baptista-Pike method, and hazard ratios via the log-rank method. RESULTS: Of 7153 registry patients diagnosed June 1, 2006, to June 30, 2020, 4142 (57.9%) were aged between 50 and 74 years. Excluding 406 patients with non-NBCSP screen-detected cancers and 35 patients with unknown method of detection, 473 (12.8%) were screen detected via the NBCSP, and 3228 (87.2%) were non-screen detected. Screen-detected patients were younger (mean age = 62.4 vs 64.2 years; P < .001) and more medically fit (OR for ASA score 1-2 = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51 to 2.41; P < .001). Pathologic characteristics within each stage favored the screen-detected patients. Stage III screen-detected colon cancers were more likely to receive adjuvant therapy (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.52 to 8.36; P = .002). Screen-detected patients had superior relapse-free (hazard ratio = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.60; P < .001) and overall survival (hazard ratio = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.35; P < .001), which was maintained in matched stage comparisons and multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond stage at diagnosis, multiple other factors associated with a favorable outcome are observed in FOBT screen-detected CRC. Given the substantial stage-by-stage differences in survival outcomes, if independently confirmed, individualized adjuvant therapy and surveillance strategies could be warranted for FOBT screen-detected cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Biologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Sangue Oculto
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1228, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is an effective strategy to aid early cancer detection. However, the decision to undergo screening can be affected by a variety of factors. The aims of this study were to examine current CRC screening uptake in Hong Kong and identify the factors associated with it using Andersen's Behavioural Model as a guiding framework. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hong Kong from August 2019 to December 2020. A sample of 1317 Chinese individuals aged 50 to 75 years were recruited and completed a survey to identify predisposing, enabling, and need-for-care factors, and the colorectal cancer screening uptake rate (faecal occult blood test [FOBT] or faecal immunochemical test [FIT] and colonoscopy) was determined. RESULTS: The FOBT/FIT uptake rate was 43.9%, while that of the colonoscopy was 26.0%. The provision of a government subsidy for screening and the provision of information booklets were the most significant and second most significant enabling factors for FOBT/FIT uptake, respectively. Visiting a doctor five times or more in the previous year and being recommended to undergo a CRC screening by a doctor, were the most significant enabling factors for colonoscopy uptake. Age, the perceived benefit of and barriers to screening were important predisposing factors for FOBT/FIT and colonoscopy uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Screening uptake rates in Hong Kong have significantly increased over the last decade, although they remain lower than those in other countries. Continual efforts are warranted to promote government-subsidised screening. Relevant educational materials that address the barriers identified in this study should be developed and disseminated to the public.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009276, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, many countries have adopted colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes, often based on faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). CRC screening aims to detect advanced neoplasia (AN), which is defined as CRC or advanced adenomas. FOBTs fall into two categories based on detection technique and the detected blood component: qualitative guaiac-based FOBTs (gFOBTs) and faecal immunochemical tests (FITs), which can be qualitative and quantitative. Screening with gFOBTs reduces CRC-related mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic test accuracy of gFOBT and FIT screening for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia in average-risk individuals. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS Citation Index, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Google Scholar. We searched the reference lists and PubMed-related articles of included studies to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective and retrospective studies that provided the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives for gFOBTs, FITs, or both, with colonoscopy as reference standard. We excluded case-control studies. We included studies in which all participants underwent both index test and reference standard ("reference standard: all"), and studies in which only participants with a positive index test underwent the reference standard while participants with a negative test were followed for at least one year for development of interval carcinomas ("reference standard: positive"). The target population consisted of asymptomatic, average-risk individuals undergoing CRC screening. The target conditions were CRC and advanced neoplasia (advanced adenomas and CRC combined). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. In case of disagreement, a third review author made the final decision. We used the Rutter and Gatsonis hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model to explore differences between tests and identify potential sources of heterogeneity, and the bivariate hierarchical model to estimate sensitivity and specificity at common thresholds: 10 µg haemoglobin (Hb)/g faeces and 20 µg Hb/g faeces. We performed indirect comparisons of the accuracy of the two tests and direct comparisons when both index tests were evaluated in the same population. MAIN RESULTS: We ran the initial search on 25 June 2019, which yielded 63 studies for inclusion. We ran a top-up search on 14 September 2021, which yielded one potentially eligible study, currently awaiting classification. We included a total of 33 "reference standard: all" published articles involving 104,640 participants. Six studies evaluated only gFOBTs, 23 studies evaluated only FITs, and four studies included both gFOBTs and FITs. The cut-off for positivity of FITs varied between 2.4 µg and 50 µg Hb/g faeces. For each Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 domain, we assessed risk of bias as high in less than 20% of studies. The summary curve showed that FITs had a higher discriminative ability than gFOBTs for AN (P < 0.001) and CRC (P = 0.004). For the detection of AN, the summary sensitivity of gFOBTs was 15% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12% to 20%), which was significantly lower than FITs at both 10 µg and 20 µg Hb/g cut-offs with summary sensitivities of 33% (95% CI 27% to 40%; P < 0.001) and 26% (95% CI 21% to 31%, P = 0.002), respectively. Results were simulated in a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 screening participants with 1% CRC prevalence and 10% AN prevalence. Out of 1000 participants with AN, gFOBTs missed 850, while FITs missed 670 (10 µg Hb/g cut-off) and 740 (20 µg Hb/g cut-off). No significant differences in summary specificity for AN detection were found between gFOBTs (94%; 95% CI 92% to 96%), and FITs at 10 µg Hb/g cut-off (93%; 95% CI 90% to 95%) and at 20 µg Hb/g cut-off (97%; 95% CI 95% to 98%). So, among 9000 participants without AN, 540 were offered (unnecessary) colonoscopy with gFOBTs compared to 630 (10 µg Hb/g) and 270 (20 µg Hb/g) with FITs. Similarly, for the detection of CRC, the summary sensitivity of gFOBTs, 39% (95% CI 25% to 55%), was significantly lower than FITs at 10 µg and 20 µg Hb/g cut-offs: 76% (95% CI 57% to 88%: P = 0.001) and 65% (95% CI 46% to 80%; P = 0.035), respectively. So, out of 100 participants with CRC, gFOBTs missed 61, and FITs missed 24 (10 µg Hb/g) and 35 (20 µg Hb/g). No significant differences in summary specificity for CRC were found between gFOBTs (94%; 95% CI 91% to 96%), and FITs at the 10 µg Hb/g cut-off (94%; 95% CI 87% to 97%) and 20 µg Hb/g cut-off (96%; 95% CI 91% to 98%). So, out of 9900 participants without CRC, 594 were offered (unnecessary) colonoscopy with gFOBTs versus 594 (10 µg Hb/g) and 396 (20 µg Hb/g) with FITs. In five studies that compared FITs and gFOBTs in the same population, FITs showed a higher discriminative ability for AN than gFOBTs (P = 0.003). We included a total of 30 "reference standard: positive" studies involving 3,664,934 participants. Of these, eight were gFOBT-only studies, 18 were FIT-only studies, and four studies combined both gFOBTs and FITs. The cut-off for positivity of FITs varied between 5 µg to 250 µg Hb/g faeces. For each QUADAS-2 domain, we assessed risk of bias as high in less than 20% of studies. The summary curve showed that FITs had a higher discriminative ability for detecting CRC than gFOBTs (P < 0.001). The summary sensitivity for CRC of gFOBTs, 59% (95% CI 55% to 64%), was significantly lower than FITs at the 10 µg Hb/g cut-off, 89% (95% CI 80% to 95%; P < 0.001) and the 20 µg Hb/g cut-off, 89% (95% CI 85% to 92%; P < 0.001). So, in the hypothetical cohort with 100 participants with CRC, gFOBTs missed 41, while FITs missed 11 (10 µg Hb/g) and 11 (20 µg Hb/g). The summary specificity of gFOBTs was 98% (95% CI 98% to 99%), which was higher than FITs at both 10 µg and 20 µg Hb/g cut-offs: 94% (95% CI 92% to 95%; P < 0.001) and 95% (95% CI 94% to 96%; P < 0.001), respectively. So, out of 9900 participants without CRC, 198 were offered (unnecessary) colonoscopy with gFOBTs compared to 594 (10 µg Hb/g) and 495 (20 µg Hb/g) with FITs. At a specificity of 90% and 95%, FITs had a higher sensitivity than gFOBTs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: FITs are superior to gFOBTs in detecting AN and CRC in average-risk individuals. Specificity of both tests was similar in "reference standard: all" studies, whereas specificity was significantly higher for gFOBTs than FITs in "reference standard: positive" studies. However, at pre-specified specificities, the sensitivity of FITs was significantly higher than gFOBTs.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Guaiaco , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10859, 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760855

RESUMO

Analysis of stool offers simple, non-invasive monitoring for many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and access to the gut microbiome, however adherence to stool sampling protocols remains a major challenge because of the prevalent dislike of handling one's feces. We present a technology that enables individual stool specimen collection from toilet wastewater for fecal protein and molecular assay. Human stool specimens and a benchtop test platform integrated with a commercial toilet were used to demonstrate reliable specimen collection over a wide range of stool consistencies by solid/liquid separation followed by spray-erosion. The obtained fecal suspensions were used to perform occult blood tests for GI cancer screening and for microbiome 16S rRNA analysis. Using occult blood home test kits, we found overall 90% agreement with standard sampling, 96% sensitivity and 86% specificity. Microbiome analysis revealed no significant difference in within-sample species diversity compared to standard sampling and specimen cross-contamination was below the detection limit of the assay. Furthermore, we report on the use of an analogue turbidity sensor to assess in real time loose stools for tracking of diarrhea. Implementation of this technology in residential settings will improve the quality of GI healthcare by facilitating increased adherence to routine stool monitoring.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sangue Oculto , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270223, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic forced colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs to downscale their colonoscopy capacity. In this study, we assessed strategies to deal with temporary restricted colonoscopy capacity in a FIT-based CRC screening program while aiming to retain the maximum possible preventive effect of the screening program. DESIGN: We simulated the Dutch national CRC screening program inviting individuals between ages 55 and 75 for biennial FIT using the MISCAN-Colon model including the 3-month disruption in the first half of 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For the second half of 2020 and 2021, we simulated three different strategies for the total target population: 1) increasing the FIT cut-off, 2) skipping one screening for specific screening ages, and 3) extending the screening interval. We estimated the impact on required colonoscopy capacity in 2020-2021 and life years (LYs) lost in the long-term. RESULTS: Increasing the FIT cut-off, skipping screening ages and extending the screening interval resulted in a maximum reduction of 25,100 (-17.0%), 16,100(-10.9%) and 19,000 (-12.9%) colonoscopies, respectively. Modelling an increased FIT cut-off, the number of LYs lost ranged between 1,400 and 4,400. Skipping just a single screening age resulted in approximately 2,700 LYs lost and this was doubled in case of skipping two screening ages. Extending the screening interval up to 34 months had the smallest impact on LYs lost (up to 1,100 LYs lost). CONCLUSION: This modelling study shows that to anticipate on restricted colonoscopy capacity, temporarily extending the screening interval retains the maximum possible preventive effect of the CRC screening program.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Pandemias
12.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 973-983, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574888

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cause of cancer death and disproportionately affects non-Hispanic Black patients. Routine screening with the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) decreases CRC incidence and mortality, and previous literature suggests pairing FIT with live outreach. Screening delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic will likely increase CRC incidence and mortality, especially in underserved communities. We implemented a quality improvement (QI) project at an urban community health center (CHC) in which FIT was paired with live telephone outreach. The intervention increased CRC screening at the CHC by five percentage points. Fecal immunochemical test completion rates significantly increased with successful contact (24.6% for at least one vs. 3.0% for none, p < .0001) and ordering a FIT kit during a patient interaction (28.4% vs. 15.7%, p < .001). This intervention addressed disparities in CRC screening, and the report may have general implications for addressing systemic racism in preventive medicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Pandemias , Telefone
13.
FP Essent ; 516: 11-16, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507308

RESUMO

Occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is bleeding from the GI tract that is not noticeable to patients or physicians. Patients with unexplained anemia (ie, not attributable to another cause such as menstrual bleeding), particularly iron deficiency anemia, should be evaluated for occult GI bleeding. Similarly, if fecal blood is detected during routine colorectal cancer screening, an evaluation for occult bleeding is indicated. Direct visualization with colonoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy are the initial tests of choice; which one is conducted first depends on a patient's risk factors for upper versus lower GI bleeding. If initial endoscopy is negative, repeat endoscopy may identify the bleeding source. If still negative, other tests, typically capsule endoscopy, can be used to evaluate for small bowel bleeding. Management of identified lesions varies, but they often are amenable to endoscopic intervention or medical management. The need for transfusion is uncommon in occult GI bleeding. Rarely, a surgical approach to visualization and resection may be undertaken. If no bleeding source is identified, or even if it is identified and successfully treated, patients should be evaluated for conditions or treatments that might increase the risk of rebleeding (eg, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy). Need for these treatments should be reevaluated.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Sangue Oculto , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos
14.
FP Essent ; 516: 17-22, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507309

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. CRC screening reduces CRC deaths. Although the median age at diagnosis is 67 years, the incidence in younger individuals has been increasing, and younger patients are more likely to present with more advanced disease. In the past, guidelines recommended initiating screening at age 50 years. However, guidelines from multiple organizations now recommend initiating screening at age 45 years. Screening should start even earlier in individuals with genetic risks for CRC. Recommendations about when to discontinue screening vary, but all guidelines recommend continuing at least to age 75 years. After age 75 years, screening should be based on patients' life expectancy, medical status, and values and goals. Colonoscopy is considered the gold standard screening test, but many patients decline colonoscopy because of its invasive nature and associated bowel preparation. Other tests recommended in guidelines include guaiac-based fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical and DNA tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Recommended screening intervals vary for each of these tests. Two newer screening tests, not yet included in guidelines, are Epi proColon (methylated septin DNA) assay (which detects methylation of the SEPT9 gene associated with CRC) and capsule colonography. All patients also should be informed about lifestyle and diet-related interventions that can decrease CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , DNA , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Sigmoidoscopia , Estados Unidos
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8260800, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35586811

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is presenting a global public health problem with high incidence and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment are the most important strategies to improve prognosis of this disease. Besides fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and colonoscopy, the most widely used methods for CRC screening currently, more effective methods for early diagnosis or prognostic prediction for CRC are needed. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) is a class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) playing crucial roles in carcinogenesis and considered to be promising tumor biomarker. In this study, we found that SNORD15B, SNORD48, and SNORA5C were significantly upregulated in CRC tissues. High levels of SNORD15B, SNORD48, or SNORA5C predicted poor clinical outcomes of CRC patients. Forced expression of SNORD15B or SNORA5C in CRC cells promoted proliferation and colony formation. In a further investigation, association between the level of SNORD15B/SNORA5C and clinicopathological parameters of CRC patient cohorts was analyzed based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We found that high expressions of SNORD15B and SNORA5C were significantly associated with age, lymphatic invasion, and history of colon polyps, and they were proved to be independent risk factors for survival of CRC patients. This study confirms that SNORD15B and SNORA5C have oncogenic effects in carcinogenesis of CRC. The findings suggest the two genes as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Sangue Oculto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e048156, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577474

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To reduce the burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Shanghai, China, a CRC screening programme was commenced in 2013 inviting those aged 50-74 years to triennial screening with a faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and risk assessment. However, it is unknown whether this is the optimal screening strategy for this population. We aimed to determine the optimal CRC screening programme for Shanghai in terms of benefits, burden, harms and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Using Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon (MISCAN-Colon), we estimated the costs and effects of the current screening programme compared with a situation without screening. Subsequently, we estimated the benefits (life years gained (LYG)), burden (number of screening events, colonoscopies and false-positive tests), harms (number of colonoscopy complications) and costs (Renminb (¥)) of screening for 324 alternative screening strategies. We compared several different age ranges, screening modalities, intervals and FIT cut-off levels. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis determined the optimal strategy assuming a willingness-to-pay of ¥193 931 per LYG. RESULTS: Compared with no screening, the current screening programme reduced CRC incidence by 40% (19 cases per 1000 screened individuals) and CRC mortality by 67% (7 deaths). This strategy gained 32 additional life years, increased colonoscopy demand to 1434 per 1000 individuals and cost an additional ¥199 652. The optimal screening strategy was annual testing using a validated one-sample FIT, with a cut-off of 10 µg haemoglobin per gram from ages 45 to 80 years (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ¥62 107). This strategy increased LY by 0.18% and costs by 27%. Several alternative cost-effective strategies using a validated FIT offered comparable benefits to the current programme but lower burden and costs. CONCLUSIONS: Although the current screening programme in Shanghai is effective at reducing CRC incidence and mortality, the programme could be optimised using a validated FIT. When implementing CRC screening, jurisdictions with limited health resources should use a validated test.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , China/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto
17.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 256, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommend screening of average-risk adults only. In addition, screening of individuals with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might result in too many false-positive cases. However, the organisers of CRC screening programmes are often uninformed of whom to exclude due to an elevated CRC risk or active IBD. It is therefore unknown how often high-risk individuals (i.e. individuals with a previous diagnosis of CRC or polyps associated with hereditary CRC syndromes and certain patient groups with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or multiple polyps) and individuals with active IBD participate in CRC screening following invitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from the first two years of the Danish CRC screening programme (2014-2015). Information on invitations, participations and FIT test results were obtained from the national screening database, while information on previous CRC, hereditary CRC syndromes, IBD or multiple polyps diagnoses were obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Patient Register. Screening participation rates and FIT-positive rates were calculated and compared for high-risk invitees, invitees having IBD and an average risk group of remaining invitees not diagnosed with colorectal polyps in 10 years preceding the invitation. RESULTS: When invited to CRC screening, 28-48% of high-risk residents (N: 29; 316; 5584) and 55% of residents with IBD (N: 2217; 6927) chose to participate. The participation rate was significantly higher (67%) among residents without previous colorectal disease, i.e. the average risk group (N = 585,624). In this average group 6.7% of the participants had a positive FIT test. The proportion of positive FIT results was higher among all disease groups (7.7-14.8%), though not statistically significant for participants with prior CRC diagnosis and participants with high-risk IBD. CONCLUSION: When high-risk residents and residents with IBD receive an invitation to CRC screening, many participate despite being recommended not to. The screening program was not intended for these groups and further research is needed as several of these groups have a higher rate of positive screening result than the average risk population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sangue Oculto
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564855

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the CRC screening coverage of people aged between 50 and 69 years who were living in Spain in 2017 and describe the factors associated with not having had a faecal occult blood test (FOBT). A cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017. We analysed 7568 individuals between the ages of 50 and 69 years. The proportion of respondents between 50 and 69 years old who had had an FOBT was 29.0% (n = 2191). The three autonomous communities with the lowest proportion of respondents who had had an FOBT were Extremadura (8.7%, n = 16), Ceuta-Melilla (10.4%, n = 3), and Andalucia (14.1%, n = 186). The variables associated with not having had an FOBT were being 50-54 years old (PR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.04-1.14), having been born outside of Spain (PR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16), not having been vaccinated against the flu (PR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.04-1.15), never having had a colonoscopy (PR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.40-1.59), not having had an ultrasound scan in the last year (PR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.04-1.14), and not having seen a primary care physician in the last month (PR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.04-1.12). The factors associated with not getting an FOBT were young age, having been born outside of Spain, not having been vaccinated against the flu in the last campaign, and not making frequent use of healthcare services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 132: 104254, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening, including faecal immunohistochemical test, is an effective method for detecting colorectal cancer early. Nevertheless, faecal immunohistochemical test uptake among South Asian ethnic minorities is low because they have limited knowledge of and face barriers in accessing colorectal cancer screening. Tailored education and appropriate messaging has potential to convey to this population group the importance of colorectal cancer screening. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the acceptability and effectiveness of a family-based multimedia intervention to raise awareness of colorectal cancer screening and increase the uptake of faecal immunochemical tests among South Asian older adults. DESIGN: A cluster-randomised controlled trial with a wait-list control group. PARTICIPANTS: Three-hundred and twenty dyads of South Asian older adults and their younger family members were recruited at South Asian community centres and non-governmental organisations providing support services to local South Asians in six Hong Kong districts. METHODS: Group allocation of dyads during cluster randomisation was based on the group assignment of the district where they were recruited. The intervention comprised a multimedia health talk, conveying the importance of colorectal cancer screening and support from younger family members in encouraging their older relatives to undergo screening. Site coordinators assisted participants in accessing faecal immunohistochemical test. The primary outcome was increased uptake of faecal immunohistochemical test among South Asian older adults. Secondary outcomes included younger family members' encouragement of their older relatives to undergo faecal immunohistochemical test and their readiness to assist their relatives with the test. Acceptability of the intervention was measured by dyad satisfaction with the intervention. RESULTS: The proportion of older adults participating in faecal immunohistochemical testing was significantly higher among intervention dyads compared with controls (71.8% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). No significant within-group change was observed on the willingness of younger family members in the intervention group to encourage older adults to undergo faecal immunohistochemical test, nor their readiness to assist older adults in doing so, although a decrease in both outcomes was observed among the control group. Most participants (>86%) were satisfied with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the acceptability and effectiveness of the intervention in enhancing faecal immunohistochemical test uptake among South Asian older adults, and the benefit of using a family-based approach in the implementation of cancer screening interventions for these individuals. Implementation of the intervention as a component of usual care within South Asian communities is recommended. Trial registration ISRCTN72829325, 10 July 2018.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Multimídia , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Sangue Oculto
20.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(8): 1278-1286, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Faecal immunochemical tests for haemoglobin (FIT) are used in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes and to triage patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of CRC for further bowel investigations. There are a number of quantitative FIT analytical systems available. Currently, there is no harmonisation or standardisation of FIT methods. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability of numerical faecal haemoglobin concentrations (f-Hb) obtained with four quantitative FIT systems and the diagnostic accuracy at different f-Hb thresholds. METHODS: A subgroup of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) FIT study, a multicentre, prospective diagnostic accuracy study were sent four FIT specimen collection devices from four different FIT systems or two FIT devices for one FIT system. Faecal samples were examined and analysis of results carried out to assess difference between methods at thresholds of limit of detection (LoD), 10 µg haemoglobin/g faeces (µg/g) and 100 µg/g. RESULTS: 233 patients returned specimen collection devices for examination on four different systems; 189 patients returned two FIT kits for one system. At a threshold of 100 µg/g the sensitivity is the same for all methods. At lower thresholds of LoD and 10 µg/g differences were observed between systems in terms of patients who would be referred and diagnostic accuracies. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of standardisation or harmonisation of FIT means that differences are observed in f-Hb generated on different systems. Further work is required to understand the clinical impact of these differences and to minimise them.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Enteropatias , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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