Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36.256
Filtrar
1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 1426837, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281746

RESUMO

In this work, we deal with unsteady magnetohydrodynamic allowed convection inflow of blood with a carbon nanotubes model; the single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes of human blood are used as a based fluid. Two numerical methods used to study this model are the weighted average finite difference method and the nonstandard compact finite difference method. The proportional Caputo hybrid operator has been used to fractionalize the proposed model. Stability analysis has been construed by a kind of John von Neumann stability analysis. Numerical results are presented in diverse graphs, which manifest that the method is successful in solving the proposed model.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Sangue , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Magnetismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Nanotubos de Carbono/estatística & dados numéricos , Reologia
2.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164250

RESUMO

It is not easy to find data in the scientific literature on the quantitative content of individual phytochemicals. It is possible to find groups of compounds and even individual compounds rather easily, but it is not known what their concentration is in cultivated or wild plants. Therefore, the subject of this study was to determine the content of individual compounds in the new Paulownia species, Oxytree, developed in a biotechnology laboratory in 2008 at La Mancha University in Spain. Six secondary metabolites were isolated, and their chemical structure was confirmed by spectral methods. An analytical method was developed, which was then used to determine the content of individual compounds in leaves, twigs, flowers and fruits of Paulownia Clon in Vitro 112®. No flavonoids were found in twigs and fruits of Oxytree, while the highest phenylethanoid glycosides were found in twigs. In this study, we also focused on biological properties (anticoagulant or procoagulant) of extract and four fractions (A-D) of different chemical composition from Paulownia Clon in Vitro 112 leaves using whole human blood. These properties were determined based on the thrombus-formation analysis system (T-TAS), which imitates in vivo conditions to assess whole blood thrombogenecity. We observed that three fractions (A, C and D) from leaves decrease AUC10 measured by T-TAS. In addition, fraction D rich in triterpenoids showed the strongest anticoagulant activity. However, in order to clarify the exact mechanism of action of the active substances present in this plant, studies closer to physiological conditions, i.e., in vivo studies, should be performed, which will also allow to determine the effects of their long-term effects.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Sangue , Lamiales/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Lamiales/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Folhas de Planta/química
3.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164262

RESUMO

Accurate and precise measurement of the relative protein content of blood-based samples using mass spectrometry is challenging due to the large number of circulating proteins and the dynamic range of their abundances. Traditional spectral processing methods often struggle with accurately detecting overlapping peaks that are observed in these samples. In this work, we develop a novel spectral processing algorithm that effectively detects over 1650 peaks with over 3.5 orders of magnitude in intensity in the 3 to 30 kD m/z range. The algorithm utilizes a convolution of the peak shape to enhance peak detection, and accurate peak fitting to provide highly reproducible relative abundance estimates for both isolated peaks and overlapping peaks. We demonstrate a substantial increase in the reproducibility of the measurements of relative protein abundance when comparing this processing method to a traditional processing method for sample sets run on multiple matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments. By utilizing protein set enrichment analysis, we find a sizable increase in the number of features associated with biological processes compared to previously reported results. The new processing method could be very beneficial when developing high-performance molecular diagnostic tests in disease indications.


Assuntos
Sangue , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 290: 115078, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157954

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (Lamiaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for digestive or respiratory disorders. In addition, it is incorporated as condiment, in foods, as beverage flavoring or mate. The ethnopharmacological interest of M. verticillata resides in its essential oil (EO). Part of group has demonstrated the immunomodulatory ability of EO giving this oil a biological potential not known until that moment and conducted studies to evaluate their possible application in diseases of veterinary interest. However, the immunomodulatory effects of EO administered orally have not been fully characterized. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluated the impact of EO oral administration on gastrointestinal and immune health through measurement of immunological and oxidative parameters in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The EO was extracted from the leaves, slender stems and flowers of M. verticillata by hydrodistillation and chemical analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Prior to in vivo study, the cytotoxic effect of EO was determined using the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line. For in vivo study, three groups of male Balb/c mice (n = 3) were orally administered with saline solution (control group) and EO (5 or 10 mg/kg/day) during 10 consecutive days. Subsequently, histological and hematological parameters, cytokines production, oxidative markers and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were evaluated. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of EO revealed the presence of a high content of monoterpenes, being the main pulegone (76.12%) and menthone (14.28%). The EO oral administration improved mice growth performance and modulated systemic adaptive immune response by increasing in the total leukocyte number. A high percentage of CD4+ T cells were observed whereas the number of CD8+ T cells was not altered. EO did not alter the morpho-physiology of intestine and improved total antioxidant capacity by decreasing MDA concentrations. In addition, EO decreased the IL-6 levels and increased in the IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that M. verticillata EO modulate inflammatory and oxidative parameters constituting a natural alternative which could be applied to improve gastrointestinal and immune functionality in animals.


Assuntos
Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11)2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217532

RESUMO

The impacts of interferon (IFN) signaling on COVID-19 pathology are multiple, with both protective and harmful effects being documented. We report here a multiomics investigation of systemic IFN signaling in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, defining the multiomics biosignatures associated with varying levels of 12 different type I, II, and III IFNs. The antiviral transcriptional response in circulating immune cells is strongly associated with a specific subset of IFNs, most prominently IFNA2 and IFNG. In contrast, proteomics signatures indicative of endothelial damage and platelet activation associate with high levels of IFNB1 and IFNA6. Seroconversion and time since hospitalization associate with a significant decrease in a specific subset of IFNs. Additionally, differential IFN subtype production is linked to distinct constellations of circulating myeloid and lymphoid immune cell types. Each IFN has a unique metabolic signature, with IFNG being the most associated with activation of the kynurenine pathway. IFNs also show differential relationships with clinical markers of poor prognosis and disease severity. For example, whereas IFNG has the strongest association with C-reactive protein and other immune markers of poor prognosis, IFNB1 associates with increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, a marker of late severe disease. Altogether, these results reveal specialized IFN action in COVID-19, with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferons/sangue , Proteoma , Transcriptoma , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Pacientes Internados
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 761, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140201

RESUMO

DNA methylation microarrays can be employed to interrogate cell-type composition in complex tissues. Here, we expand reference-based deconvolution of blood DNA methylation to include 12 leukocyte subtypes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, naïve and memory B cells, naïve and memory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, natural killer, and T regulatory cells). Including derived variables, our method provides 56 immune profile variables. The IDOL (IDentifying Optimal Libraries) algorithm was used to identify libraries for deconvolution of DNA methylation data for current and previous platforms. The accuracy of deconvolution estimates obtained using our enhanced libraries was validated using artificial mixtures and whole-blood DNA methylation with known cellular composition from flow cytometry. We applied our libraries to deconvolve cancer, aging, and autoimmune disease datasets. In conclusion, these libraries enable a detailed representation of immune-cell profiles in blood using only DNA and facilitate a standardized, thorough investigation of immune profiles in human health and disease.


Assuntos
Sangue/imunologia , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Algoritmos , Basófilos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192451

RESUMO

A novel coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strain (NTUH-S172T) was isolated from human blood culture in Taiwan with preliminary identification of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. 16S rRNA gene analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that NTUH-S172T was most closely related to Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values with the whole genome sequence were <95 % and<70 % when compared to the related species. Strain NTUH-S172T could be distinguished from S. haemolyticus by urease production and from Staphylococcus borealis by nitrate reduction. In addition, the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectrum of NTHU-S172T was significantly different from that of S. haemolyticus, which could be used in clinical identification. In conclusion, it is proposed that this isolate represents a novel species, named Staphylococcus taiwanensis sp. nov., with type strain NTUH-S172T (=BCRC 81315T=JCM 34726T).


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos , Filogenia , Staphylococcus , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010204, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Culex pipiens form molestus Forskal (Cx. molestus) in the Culex pipiens complex group show considerable differences in host seeking, blood feeding, mating behavior and in vector competence. Blood-feeding mosquito behaviors are closely related to their olfactory gene expression and olfactory gene repertoire composition. Comparing olfactory genes between these two subspecies with significantly different blood-feeding behaviors can support further research on the molecular mechanism of the Culex pipiens complex olfactory sensory system, providing a new approach for determining candidate attractant or repellent compounds. METHODS: Non-blood-feeding (NBF) and post-blood-feeding (PBF) olfactory system transcriptomes of the two subspecies were sequenced, and the biological functions of their differentially expressed genes were described by bioinformatics analysis. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to validate the RNA-seq data. The roles of particular olfactory receptors in Cx. quinquefasciatus blood-feeding behaviors were evaluated by RNAi. RESULTS: Five, 7, 24, and 3 Cx. quinquefasciatus-specific OBPs, Cx. molestus-specific OBPs, Cx. quinquefasciatus-specific ORs and Cx. molestus-specific ORs were identified, respectively. The majority of selected ORs were consistent with the predicted transcriptome sequencing results after qRT-PCR validation. OR5 was expressed only in Cx. quinquefasciatus, and OR65 was the only gene upregulated after blood feeding in Cx. molestus. The blood-feeding rates of the OR5 and OR78 dsRNA groups were significantly lower (4.3%±3.1% and 13.3%±11.5%) than those of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) group (64.5%±8.7%). CONCLUSION: Most OBPs and ORs were expressed in both subspecies but showed divergence in expression level. OR5 and OR65 might be species-specific expressed genes that regulate the olfactory behaviors of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. molestus, respectively. The RNA interference of OR5 and OR78 could inhibit the blood-feeding behavior of Cx. quinquefasciatus, providing new targets for screening effective repellent compounds to control mosquito-borne diseases effectively and efficiently.


Assuntos
Culex/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Animais , Sangue , Culex/classificação , Culex/metabolismo , Culex/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Camundongos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 599: 134-141, 2022 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182939

RESUMO

Metabolic abnormalities are tightly connected to the perturbation of normal brain functions, thereby causing multiple neurodegenerative diseases. The hypothalamus is the master unit that controls the whole-body energy homeostasis. Thus, altered metabolic activity in the hypothalamus could be a crucial clue to better understand the development of metabolic disorders during aging. The current study aimed to investigate the changes in hypothalamic metabolites according to the aging process using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified that multiple metabolites and neurotransmitters were effectively reduced in the hypothalamus of aged mice. In addition, we observed increased levels of genes linked to the production and utilization of monocarboxylates in the aged hypothalamus, indicating the initiation of metabolic activity to produce alternative nutrient sources. Lastly, we found a reduced number of astrocytes in the hypothalamus of aged mice, suggesting that reduced nutrient availability in the hypothalamus might be associated with the decreased activity of astrocytes during aging. Collectively, the present study suggests that the deterioration of metabolic activities in the hypothalamus might be a primary cause and/or outcome of metabolic diseases associated with the aging process.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Sangue/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/imunologia , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Gene ; 822: 146355, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been thoroughly studied as the pathogens associated with hospital acquired infections. However, data on Serratia marcescens are not enough. S. marcescens is now becoming a propensity for its highly antimicrobial-resistant clinical infections. METHODS: Four carbapenem-resistant S. marcescens (CR-SM) isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients through routine microbiological experiments. We assembled the isolates genomes using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and compared their resistome and virulome patterns. RESULTS: The average length and CG content of chromosomes was 5.33 Mbp and 59.8%, respectively. The number of coding sequences (CDSs) ranged from 4,959 to 4,989. All strains had one single putative conjugative plasmid with IncL incompatibility (Inc) group. The strains harbored blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1 and blaSHV-134. All plamsids were positive for blaOXA-48. No blaNDM-1, blaKPC, blaVIM and blaIMP were identified. The blaSRT-2 and aac(6')-Ic genes were chromosomally-encoded. Class 1 integron was detected in strains P8, P11 and P14. The Escher_RCS47 and Salmon_SJ46 prophages played major role in plasmid-mediated carraige of extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). The CR-SM strains were equipt with typical virulence factors of oppotunistic pathogens including biofilm formation, adhesins, secretory systems and siderophores. The strains did not have ability to produce prodigiosin but were positive for chitinase and EstA. CONCLUSION: The presence of conjugative plasmids harboring major ß-lactamases within prophage and class 1 integron structures highlights the role of different mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in distribution of AMR factors and more specifically carbapenemases. More molecular studies are required to determine the status of carbapenem resistance in clinical starins. However, appropriate strategies to control the global dissemination of CR-SM are urgent.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Prófagos/genética , Serratia marcescens/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Composição de Bases , Sangue/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Bacteriano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Serratia marcescens/genética , Serratia marcescens/isolamento & purificação , Serratia marcescens/virologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem , beta-Lactamases/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2099, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136102

RESUMO

The discovery and utility of clinically relevant circulating biomarkers depend on standardized methods that minimize preanalytical errors. Despite growing interest in studying extracellular vesicles (EVs) and cell-free messenger RNA (cf-mRNA) as potential biomarkers, how blood processing and freeze/thaw impacts the profiles of these analytes in plasma was not thoroughly understood. We utilized flow cytometric analysis to examine the effect of differential centrifugation and a freeze/thaw cycle on EV profiles. Utilizing flow cytometry postacquisition analysis software (FCMpass) to calibrate light scattering and fluorescence, we revealed how differential centrifugation and post-freeze/thaw processing removes and retains EV subpopulations. Additionally, cf-mRNA levels measured by RT-qPCR profiles from a panel of housekeeping, platelet, and tissue-specific genes were preferentially affected by differential centrifugation and post-freeze/thaw processing. Critically, freezing plasma containing residual platelets yielded irreversible ex vivo generation of EV subpopulations and cf-mRNA transcripts, which were not removable by additional processing after freeze/thaw. Our findings suggest the importance of minimizing confounding variation attributed to plasma processing and platelet contamination.


Assuntos
Sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Criopreservação , Vesículas Extracelulares , RNA Mensageiro , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos
12.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2029674, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130114

RESUMO

Portal hypertension (PH) in liver cirrhosis leads to increased gut permeability and the translocation of bacteria across the gut-liver axis. Microbial DNA has recently been detected in different blood compartments; however, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly analyzed in PH. This study aimed to explore circulating bacterial DNA signatures, inflammatory cytokines, and gut permeability markers in different blood compartments (peripheral and hepatic veins) of patients with cirrhosis and PH. The 16S rRNA blood microbiome profiles were determined in 58 patients with liver cirrhosis and 46 control patients. Taxonomic differences were analyzed in relation to PH, liver function, inflammatory cytokines, and gut permeability markers. Circulating plasma microbiome profiles in patients with cirrhosis were distinct from those of the controls and were characterized by enrichment of Comamonas, Cnuella, Dialister, Escherichia/Shigella, and Prevotella and the depletion of Bradyrhizobium, Curvibacter, Diaphorobacter, Pseudarcicella, and Pseudomonas. Comparison of peripheral and hepatic vein blood compartments of patients with cirrhosis did not reveal differentially abundant taxa. Enrichment of the genera Bacteroides, Escherichia/Shigella, and Prevotella was associated with severe PH (SPH) in both blood compartments; however, circulating microbiome profiles could not predict PH severity. Escherichia/Shigella and Prevotella abundance was correlated with IL-8 levels in the hepatic vein. In conclusion, we demonstrated a distinct circulating blood microbiome profile in patients with cirrhosis, showing that specific bacterial genera in blood are marginally associated with SPH, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and inflammation biomarkers; however, circulating microbial composition failed to predict PH severity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Sangue/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Translocação Bacteriana , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/sangue , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Interleucina-8/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165177

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in environmental chemistry, biology, and medicine. H2O2 concentrations typically are 6 to 10 orders of magnitude lower than that of water, making its quantitative detection challenging. We demonstrate that optimized NMR spectroscopy allows direct, interference-free, quantitative measurements of H2O2 down to submicromolar levels in a wide range of fluids, ranging from exhaled breath and air condensate to rain, blood, urine, and saliva. NMR measurements confirm the previously reported spontaneous generation of H2O2 in microdroplets that form when condensing water vapor on a hydrophobic surface, which can interfere with atmospheric H2O2 measurements. Its antimicrobial activity and strong seasonal variation speculatively could be linked to the seasonality of respiratory viral diseases.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ar/análise , Sangue , Análise Química do Sangue , Líquidos Corporais/química , Expiração/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Chuva/química , Saliva/química , Urina/química
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-02-04.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55713

RESUMO

La Región de las Américas cuenta con cerca de 2000 bancos de sangre, los cuales realizan diferentes procesos para certificar más de 10 millones de unidades de sangre al año. Se requiere que estos bancos de sangre implementen proceso de calidad como se manifiesta en el plan regional, las adopcion de las directrices sobre buenas prácticas de fabricacion para centros de sangre permite unificar en la region los criterios de calidad y ademas foartelecer la calidad de los centros de sangre y de sus productos. En los últimos años, la seguridad y calidad en la cadena de transfusión se ha convertido en un tema importante en muchos países y regiones. Los centros de sangre deben establecer y mantener sistemas de calidad basados en los principios de buenas prácticas de fabricación que abarquen todas las actividades que determinan los objetivos y responsabilidades de la política de calidad, y deben implantarlos por medios como la planificación, el control, la garantía y la mejora de la calidad. Un enfoque de buenas prácticas para la fabricación de hemoderivados seguros que satisfagan sistemáticamente las especificaciones predefinidas y las expectativas de los clientes proporciona un modelo que permita un sistema documentado de incorporar la calidad a todo el proceso. Se espera que este documento facilite la armonizacion de los sistemas de calidad en los centros de sangre de la Región.


Assuntos
Sangue , Plasma , Medicamentos Hemoderivados , Manufaturas , Boas Práticas de Fabricação
15.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 129: 105118, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038484

RESUMO

Piper amalago L. (Piperaceae) is traditionally used due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, and antiparasitic properties. However, few studies have focused on its adverse effects, compromising its safe use. This study evaluated the toxicological safety of ethanolic extract from Piper amalago leaves (EEPA), through subacute toxicity and genotoxicity assays in rodents. In subacute toxicity, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg of EEPA were tested in female Wistar rats, by gavage, for 28 days. For genotoxicity test, female Swiss mice were orally treated with 17.5, 175 or 1750 mg/kg of EEPA and the comet, micronucleus, and splenic phagocytic assays were evaluated. In subacute toxicity, the extract induced an increase in the food and water intakes, as well as in the liver absolute weight, and in the heart and kidney relative weights. EEPA also provoked alterations in histopathological analysis of liver and in hemato-biochemical parameters, evidenced by a decrease in hematocrit levels and albumin levels, and an increase in the number of platelets and in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels. However, EEPA did not presented genotoxic nor mutagenic properties. EEPA showed hemato-biochemical toxicity profile in rats and should be used with caution, especially when for prolonged period.


Assuntos
Piper , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Química do Sangue , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Folhas de Planta , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010136, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As China is moving onto schistosomiasis elimination/eradication, diagnostic methods with both high sensitivity and specificity for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans are urgently needed. Microscopic identification of eggs in stool is proven to have poor sensitivity in low endemic regions, and antibody tests are unable to distinguish between current and previous infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies for the detection of parasite DNA have been theoretically assumed to show high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. However, the reported performance of PCR for detecting S. japonicum infection varied greatly among studies. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance of variable-temperature PCR technologies, based on stool or blood, for detecting S. japonicum infections in humans from endemic areas. METHODS: We searched literatures in eight electronic databases, published up to 20 January 2021. The heterogeneity and publication bias of included studies were assessed statistically. The risk of bias and applicability of each eligible study were assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2). The bivariate mixed-effects model was applied to obtain the summary estimates of diagnostic performance. The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve was applied to visually display the results. Subgroup analyses and multivariate regression were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. This research was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered prospectively in PROSPERO (CRD42021233165). RESULTS: A total of 2791 papers were retrieved. After assessing for duplications and eligilibity a total of thirteen publications were retained for inclusion. These included eligible data from 4268 participants across sixteen studies. High heterogeneity existed among studies, but no publication bias was found. The pooled analyses of PCR data from all included studies resulted in a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83 to 0.96), specificity of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94), positive likelihood ratio of 5.90 (95% CI: 2.40 to 14.60), negative likelihood ratio of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20) and a diagnostics odds ratio of 58 (95% CI: 19 to 179). Case-control studies showed significantly better performances for PCR diagnostics than cross-sectional studies. This was further evidenced by multivariate analyses. The four types of PCR approaches identified (conventional PCR, qPCR, Droplet digital PCR and nested PCR) differed significantly, with nested PCRs showing the best performance. CONCLUSIONS: Variable-temperature PCR has a satisfactory performance for diagnosing S. japonicum infections in humans in endemic areas. More high quality studies on S. japonicum diagnostic techniques, especially in low endemic areas and for the detection of dual-sex and single-sex infections are required. These will likely need to optimise a nested PCR alongside a highly sensitive gene target. They will contribute to successfully monitoring endemic areas as they move towards the WHO 2030 targets, as well as ultimately helping areas to achieve these goals.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Esquistossomose Japônica/diagnóstico , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Temperatura
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1241, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075206

RESUMO

It has been hypothesised that oral bacteria can migrate, through the blood, from the mouth to the arterial plaques, thus exacerbating atherosclerosis. This study compared bacteria present in the peripheral blood of individuals with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). RNA sequences obtained from blood were downloaded from GEO (GSE58150). Eight patients with coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring > 500 and eight healthy individuals were analysed. After conducting quality control, the sequences were aligned to the hg38 reference genome using Hisat2. Bacterial taxa were analysed by inputting the unmapped sequences into Kraken. Ecological indices were calculated using Vegan. The package DESeq2 was used to compare the counts of bacteria per standard rank between groups. A total of 51 species were found only in patients with CAD and 41 were exclusively present in healthy individuals. The counts of one phylum, one class, three orders, two families and one genus were significantly different between the analysed groups (p < 0.00032, FDR < 10%), including the orders Cardiobacteriales, Corynebacteriales and Fusobacteriales. Twenty-three bacterial species belonging to the subgingival plaque bacterial complexes were also identified in the blood of individuals from both the groups; Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly less frequent in patients with CAD (p = 0.0012, FDR = 4.8%). Furthermore, the frequency of another 11 bacteria differed significantly among patients with CAD than that among healthy individuals (p < 0.0030, FDR < 10%). These bacteria have not been previously reported in patients with atherosclerosis and periodontitis. The presence of members of the subgingival plaque bacterial complexes in the blood of patients with CAC supports the hypothesis that the periodontopathogens can be disseminated through the blood flow to other body parts where they may enhance inflammatory processes that can lead to the development or exacerbation of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia
18.
Nat Genet ; 54(1): 52-61, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980918

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been implicated in a variety of physiological states, but controversy over causality remains unresolved. Here, we performed bidirectional Mendelian randomization analyses on 3,432 Chinese individuals with whole-genome, whole-metagenome, anthropometric and blood metabolic trait data. We identified 58 causal relationships between the gut microbiome and blood metabolites, and replicated 43 of them. Increased relative abundances of fecal Oscillibacter and Alistipes were causally linked to decreased triglyceride concentration. Conversely, blood metabolites such as glutamic acid appeared to decrease fecal Oxalobacter, and members of Proteobacteria were influenced by metabolites such as 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, alanine, glutamate and selenium. Two-sample Mendelian randomization with data from Biobank Japan partly corroborated results with triglyceride and with uric acid, and also provided causal support for published fecal bacterial markers for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This study illustrates the value of human genetic information to help prioritize gut microbial features for mechanistic and clinical studies.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metagenoma , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0263188, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical parasitic and chronic disease affecting hundreds of millions of people. Adult schistosomes reside in the blood stream of the definitive mammalian host. These helminth parasites possess two epithelial surfaces, the tegument and the gastrodermis, both of which interact with the host during immune evasion and in nutrient uptake. METHODS: Female ARC Swiss mice (4-6 weeks old) were infected percutaneously with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae freshly shed from Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi snails (Philippines strain). Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) was performed by using fresh adult S. japonicum perfused from those infected mice. Adult S. japonicum worms were processed to isolate the tegument from the carcass containing the gastrodermis; blood and bile were collected individually from infected and uninfected mice. Total DNA extracted from all those samples were used for microbiome profiling. RESULTS: FISH and microbiome profiling showed the presence of bacterial populations on two epithelial surfaces of adult worms, suggesting they were distinct not only from the host blood but also from each other. Whereas microbial diversity was reduced overall in the parasite epithelial tissues when compared with that of host blood, specific bacterial taxa, including Anoxybacillus and Escherichia, were elevated on the tegument. Minimal differences were evident in the microbiome of host blood during an active infection, compared with that of control uninfected blood. However, sampling of bile from infected animals identified some differences compared with controls, including elevated levels of Limnohabitans, Clostridium and Curvibacter. CONCLUSIONS: Using FISH and microbial profiling, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, that bacteria are presented on the epithelial surfaces of adult schistosomes. These schistosome surface-associated bacteria, which are distinct from the host blood microenvironment, should be considered as a new and important component of the host-schistosome interaction. The importance of individual bacterial species in relation to schistosome parasitism needs further elucidation.


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Epitélio/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/microbiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/sangue , Animais , Anoxybacillus/genética , Bile/microbiologia , Cercárias , Clostridium/genética , Comamonadaceae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 40, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013267

RESUMO

Cytosine methylation patterns have not yet been thoroughly studied in horses. Here, we profile n = 333 samples from 42 horse tissue types at loci that are highly conserved between mammalian species using a custom array (HorvathMammalMethylChip40). Using the blood and liver tissues from horses, we develop five epigenetic aging clocks: a multi-tissue clock, a blood clock, a liver clock and two dual-species clocks that apply to both horses and humans. In addition, using blood methylation data from three additional equid species (plains zebra, Grevy's zebras and Somali asses), we develop another clock that applies across all equid species. Castration does not significantly impact the epigenetic aging rate of blood or liver samples from horses. Methylation and RNA data from the same tissues define the relationship between methylation and RNA expression across horse tissues. We expect that the multi-tissue atlas will become a valuable resource.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Cavalos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Sangue , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Equidae/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Humanos , Fígado
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...