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1.
Epilepsy Behav ; 135: 108870, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988325

RESUMO

The view that epilepsy is caused by demonic possession prevailed throughout the Middle Ages and re-emerges in rare cases of misguided exorcisms even in modern Western societies. This review reflects on the biblical sources of the demonic understanding of seizures and the subsequent marginalization of people with epilepsy. While the development of science led to a decline in beliefs of supernatural causes of seizures, the link between Christianity and epileptology is sustained through recurrent considerations of epileptic phenomena among religious figures. The influence of epilepsy on the legacy of historical persons of Christianity should be regarded with caution because of limited clinical evidence in historical documents. However, it should be acknowledged that religious experiences, as well as general religiosity, can be important in modern-day epilepsy care as they are shown to have psychological, societal, and even clinical implications. Further studies should expand our knowledge on the contemporary importance of the Christian tradition for people with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Santos , Cristianismo/psicologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões
2.
Am Surg ; 88(12): 2781-2783, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102745

RESUMO

Sts. Cosmas and Damian, the twin patron saints of medicine, were once among the most recognized saints in Christendom. In today's secularized society their prominence is much less known. The saints were beheaded during the violent persecutions of Christians in the Roman Empire in the end of the 3rd century and the first years of the fourth. Their story, however, is more than miracles and martyrdom. The history of Sts. Cosmas and Damian show the connection between medicine of Classical Greece and the worship of doctor-saints in early Christendom, and the tradition of charity to the poor in medical care.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Santos , Humanos , Santos/história , Instituições de Caridade , Religião e Medicina , Médicos/história
3.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(9): 1801-1803, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546544

RESUMO

In the Fresco, "Faith and Its Fight Against Heresy (1611, Church of Saints Eusebio and Vittore, Peglio, Como)" is depicted as an old woman with 'scattered and steep hairs', ugly and physically in poor condition, also due to the presence of a voluminous goiter.


Assuntos
Bócio , Santos , Feminino , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932567

RESUMO

Over the centuries, iconographic representations of St Anthony of Padua, one of the most revered saints in the Catholic world, have been inspired by literary sources, which described the Saint as either naturally corpulent or with a swollen abdomen due to dropsy (i.e. fluid accumulation in the body cavities). Even recent attempts to reconstruct the face of the Saint have yielded discordant results regarding his outward appearance. To address questions about the real appearance of St Anthony, we applied body mass estimation equations to the osteometric measurements taken in 1981, during the public recognition of the Saint's skeletal remains. Both the biomechanical and the morphometric approach were employed to solve some intrinsic limitations in the equations for body mass estimation from skeletal remains. The estimated body mass was used to assess the physique of the Saint with the body mass index. The outcomes of this investigation reveal interesting information about the body type of the Saint throughout his lifetime.


Assuntos
Edema/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Aparência Física , Santos/história , Gordura Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Edema/história , Edema/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/história , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Obesidade/história , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Religião e Medicina
5.
J Relig Health ; 60(4): 2324-2330, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909197

RESUMO

Surprisingly, Catholic hagiography can teach us a lot about medicine. As an example, we present here the history of Saint Roch who is considered, along with Saint Sebastian, one of the two main Saints who act as protectors against plagues and have often been invoked by Catholic people during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas Saint Sebastian is associated with plagues only symbolically, Catholic tradition considers Saint Roch to have had real contact with the bubonic plague. Indeed, during his pilgrimage to Rome, Saint Roch helped people suffering from the plague and was, subsequently, himself infected. He was then forced to retire in solitary confinement to avoid the plague's spread and followed scrupulously the necessary restrictive measures. Saint Roch's story provides useful lessons about the importance of social responsibility by respecting the restrictive rules during difficult times such as the COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Santos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Urologe A ; 60(3): 361-367, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620514

RESUMO

During Medieval and Renaissance times up to the 19th century hagiotherapy was a common part of many different health offerings in society. Within the field of urology, kidney stone disease and venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases were the favourite subjects. Even today, the names of St. Libory, St. Roche, St. Apollinaire and St. Dionysius are common within the culture of remembrance in Europe and the USA.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Santos , Urologia , Europa (Continente) , História Medieval , Humanos , Religião e Medicina
7.
Liver Int ; 41(7): 1675-1676, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440073

Assuntos
Santos , Humanos
8.
Int Orthop ; 45(6): 1633-1644, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: During the Middle Ages, the Christian church established itself as the dominant force over all aspects of medieval life, including the practice of medicine. As the Church's influence expanded across Europe, the role of lay practitioners in medicine declined, and clerics gradually assumed the role of healers in surgical practice as the cure of the soul was felt to take precedence over cure of bodily ills. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of hospital foundation, old-school surgical techniques still used today was performed during the first part of the Middle Age. RESULTS: The Hospital Hotel Dieu in Paris was founded and remains the oldest worldwide still-operating hospital. The monastery became a resting place for travelers, as well as a place of refuge for the sick. As this role expanded, monks often developed considerable surgical expertise. This led to fierce competition for saintly relics and pilgrims. Among the myriad of saints to whom powers of healing were ascribed, the names of Damian and Cosmas figure prominently in medical history. Old-school medieval surgery was also performed with some bizarre techniques such as lip service by wound suckers, cautery, blood-letting, leech therapy, and maggot therapy. CONCLUSION: This account of surgery before it became scientific is based on a chronology that runs from the Clovis baptism to the reign of Charlemagne; much of the medicine in this period was based on ancient doctrines; indeed, much of the development of medicine in the period called as "Dark Age" was due to the slow and difficult business of recovering and trying to understand ancient medicine.


Assuntos
Monges , Santos , Cirurgiões , Europa (Continente) , França , História Antiga , História Medieval , Hospitais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tato
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(9): 1705-1706, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471150
10.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(9): 1701-1704, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929636

RESUMO

Bartolomeo Vivarini (1432-1499) was the most prolific member of a prominent 15th-century Venetian family of artists who specialised in religious art, particularly altarpieces. Unlike their Florentine counterparts, Venetian artists of this period were typically more concerned with decorative effects than with accuracy of description, so their paintings often lacked detailed anatomical information. Bartolomeo, however, began the move toward anatomical realism in the Vivarini family. Two pictures of saints from his altarpieces are presented here to illustrate his depiction of arthritic hand deformities. The hands of Saint Louis of Toulouse (painted c. 1465-7), a young man who died in his 20s, show signs of inflammatory arthritis, while the effects of degenerative osteoarthritis can be seen in the hands of Saint Mark (painted c. 1470), who is portrayed as a man in late middle age. These observations extend the findings of previous studies of Florentine altarpieces from the same period, as well as more general studies of deformed extremities in Italian, Flemish and French Renaissance paintings. They also support the broader proposition that when 15th-century Venetian painters began to embrace anatomical realism they were capable of providing sufficient detail to enable pathological deformities in their figures to be identified.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/história , Pinturas/história , Santos/história , Mãos , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Medicina nas Artes
11.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 1116-1124, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430876

RESUMO

The migrations of modern times have exposed psychiatrists and other medical experts to elements from other cultures which have to be recognised and discerned from pathology. In the present paper, we offer an overview of both historical and modern witnessings of various kinds of "possession", with shedding light on the whole process of diagnostics-taking into account all aspects that make a person as an individual: with particular emphasis on origin, lifestyle, moral values, and ethical norms what is sometimes easily associable with culture-bound phenomena, and sometimes overstepping the border of clinical disturbance, to maximise the possibility of recovery.


Assuntos
Santos , Diversidade Cultural , Etnopsicologia , Humanos , Princípios Morais
12.
Qual Life Res ; 30(11): 3145-3155, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To rectify the significant mismatch observed between what matters to patients and what clinicians know, our research group developed a standardized assessment, information, and networking technology (SAINT). METHODS: Controlled trials and field tests involving more than 230,000 adults identified characteristics of a successful SAINT- www.HowsYourHealth.org -for primary care and community settings. RESULTS: Evidence supports SAINT effectiveness when the SAINT has a simple design that provides a service to patients and explicitly engages them in an information and communication network with their clinicians. This service orientation requires that an effective SAINT deliver easily interpretable patient reports that immediately guide provider actions. For example, our SAINT tracks patient-reported confidence that they can self-manage health problems, and providers can immediately act on patients' verbatim descriptions of what they want or need to become more health confident. This information also supports current and future resource planning, and thereby fulfills another characteristic of a successful SAINT: contributing to health care reliability. Lastly, SAINTs must manage or evade the "C-monsters," powerful obstacles to implementation that largely revolve around control and commercialism. Responses from more than 10,000 adult patients with diabetes illustrate how a successful SAINT offers a standard and expedient guide to managing each patient's concerns and adjusting health services to better meet the needs of any large patient population. CONCLUSION: Technologies that evolve to include the characteristics described here will deliver more effective tools for patients, providers, payers, and policymakers and give patients control over sharing their data with those who need it in real time.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Santos , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecnologia
14.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 19(1): 101-112, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212208

RESUMO

The monastery of Saint Catherine of Sasso was built overhanging the eastern shore of Lake Maggiore in the municipality of Leggiuno (VA). In particular, our paper concerns the relics housed in the Sacellum of the church of St. Caterina. According to the tradition, the first Sacellum dedicated to the saint was built before the 16th century over a medieval hermit's refuge. The chronicle, the Historieta, remembers that, in the 12th century, a merchant of Arolo, Alberto Besozzi, survived the lake crossing shipwreck and made a vow to St. Catherine of Alexandria. He decided to retreat in prayer in a cave on that part of the coast. The Sacellum, now incorporated in the monastery complex (at the bottom of the central nave of the church), preserved human remains of Blessed Alberto in the past. We present the important role that the Sacellum and the relics have played not only for the faith, but also for the devotion of pilgrims and local people. In this context, this monument is related to the sense of religiosity and spirituality that pervaded medieval life, where every form of prayer is to be materialized in the physicality of a tangible creation.


Assuntos
Religião e Medicina , Santos , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Santos/história
15.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 27-46, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638598

RESUMO

The article is the first step of a research project aimed at investigating new perspectives and aspects of Morgagni's role and work. His activities as a medical examiner and forensic doctor are yet to be truly discovered. Manuscripts, written by Morgagni when he was a forensic expert for the Health Magistrate of Venice, currently preserved at the City Library in Forli (Italy), shed light on a new aspect of his cultural background. As a forensic doctor, he also helped push an increase in "social medicine" in Italy, when physicians began to collaborate with the administrative and political institutions in order to plan environmental and urban regulations to control air quality. While reading his reports, his contribution to the primordial medical Hygiene and Public Health emerges. Among his reports, the authors focused on the one concerning the Beatification of Gregorio Barbarigo, which clearly highlights his pathological approach, as well as his knowledge and application of embalming systems and mummiology. Moreover, this report could be considered as an issue in the history of paleopathology.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Medicina Legal/história , Patologia/história , Santos/história , Anatomia/história , Exumação/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Múmias/história , Odorantes
16.
Uisahak ; 29(1): 165-214, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418979

RESUMO

This paper explores the heritage and the essential significance of worship of the twin Christian saints -St. Cosmas and St. Damian- in the history of medicine. These saints are well known in Western culture as one of the leading Christian saints to heal diseases, whose cults have spread to Europe through Byzantium, which have continued to spread widely to the present, starting from areas where Christianity had been proselytized. Although it is true that their life journeys have undergone many processes of embellishment and beautification over the course of time, the attributes that distinctively characterize the two saints exist apart from such mythical fabrications. This paper categorizes the characteristics of the two saints as being those of "professional doctors," "ideal doctors," and "holders of healing powers" as intermediaries of God, examining how these characteristics came to affect various medical organizations during the era when Medieval medicine was gradually transitioning toward a rational approach based on reason. In addition, it discusses how some of the practices of ancient temple medicine were transplanted into the Christian culture, the process by which it finally arrived at human doctors through the two saints, and how it affected the establishment of professional work ethics -albeit in nascent form- as their medical ethics came to be accepted and practiced by the Medieval guild of surgeons. Furthermore, the paper considers how the existence of the two saints has acquired symbolism in modern medicine, which has made remarkable progress in organ transplantation, and in particular, how it constitutes a significant part of the history of organ transplantation. It is not easy to objectify and attach meaning to an era that was substantially influenced by myths, legends, or religious events. This is because it is easy to fall into the trap of simplifying and passing judgment on the past based on the realities of the present day, without making efforts to understand the unique circumstances and contexts of the past. This is especially the case when the distinction between "religious events" and "medical events" is ambiguous, or when dealing with a social culture where religious influence was paramount. From a broader perspective, the study of St. Cosmas and St. Damian is not concerned with the rights or wrongs of religious myths amid the advancement of medicine and its adherence to science and reason, but with the attempt at a deep and broad understanding of human diseases and human conditions of being prone to such diseases throughout life.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cirurgia Geral/história , Mitologia/história , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Santos/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval
17.
Urologe A ; 59(5): 585-594, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367176

RESUMO

The knowledge of hagiography and hagiotherapy still plays an important role in the history of science, especially when focusing on specific aspects of history. While knowledge about St. Liborius persists in urology, knowledge about patron saints for pandemics, especially those who were called upon to treat venereal diseases, has diminished due to the association with nonappropriate sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Santos/história , Urologia/história , Catolicismo/história , História Antiga , História Medieval , Medicina , Religião e Medicina
19.
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 2317/04/2020. Ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141549

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo consistiu em compreender a dinâmica das aulas de práticas corporais de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de Santos-SP. Para tanto foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa etnográfica, isto é, a coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de observação participan- te. Observamos que as aulas obedeceram à organização clássica do treinamento desportivo. As aulas eram conduzidas pelo Profissional de Educação Física e ocorreram 2 vezes por semana com duração de 1 hora. O Profissional de Educação Física realizou uma prática com carac - terísticas acolhedora e escuta qualificada, concedendo atenção integral e contínua aos usuários. As aulas são desenvolvidas de modo coerente com as políticas públicas de saúde vigentes, sendo percebido ainda com- promisso, apreço e valorização do programa pelos usuários.


The objective of the study was to understand the dynamics of the classes of corporal practices of a Basic Health Unit from Santos-SP. For this, an ethnography was developed. Data collection was performed through participant observation. We observed that the classes followed the classic organization of sports training. The classes were conducted by the Physical Education Professional and took place twice a week for 1 hour. The Physical Education Professional performed a practice with welcoming characteristics and qualified listening, favoring integral and continuous attention to the users. The classes are developed in a way that is consistent with the current public health policies, and a commitment, appreciation and appreciation of the program by the users.


El objetivo del estudio consistió en comprender la dinámica de las clases de prácticas corporales de una Unidad Básica de Salud del Santos-SP. Para ello se desarrolló una etnografía. La recolección de datos fue realizada por medio de observación participante. Observamos que las clases obedecieron a la organización clásica del entrenamiento deportivo. Las clases eran conducidas por el Profesional de Educación Física y ocurrieron 2 veces por semana con una duración de 1 hora. El Profesional de Educación Física realizó una práctica con características acogedora y escucha calificada, favoreciendo atención integral y continua a los usuarios. Las clases se desarrollan de manera coherente con las políticas públicas de salud vigentes, siendo percibido aún un compromiso, aprecio y valoración del programa por los usuarios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Centros de Saúde , Pesquisa , Santos , Antropologia Cultural
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