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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 114206, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000366

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Genus Sapium, belonging to Euphorbiaceae family, has a wide distribution in Asia and in temperate and tropical regions of Africa and America. The various parts of Sapium species have been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of edema, skin-related diseases, bacterial infections, cancers, diabetes, and other ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: A comprehensive and updated review on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and traditional medicinal uses of Sapium has been summarized and discussed to facilitate further exploitation of the therapeutic values of Sapium species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information of Sapium species was collected by scientific search engines including Elsevier, Google Scholar, Scifinder, and CNKI (China national knowledge infrastructure), and Master's dissertations and Summon from Shandong University Library. RESULTS: Phytochemical studies revealed that approximately 259 compounds including terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, etc. have been isolated and identified from Sapium species, among which terpenoids, phenylpropanoids and tannins are the main constituents. Pharmacological in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that the extracts and pure compounds possessed significant antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antihypertensive effects, cytotoxicity, antidiabetic, molluscicidal effects. Terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids may be responsible for these activities. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology described in this article demonstrated that the plants of Sapium genus possess many different types of compounds exhibiting wide range of biological activities, and they have high medicinal value and potential in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Detailed phytochemical studies have been conducted on only twelve species in the literature. More wide-ranging studies are still needed to explore this genus. Most of the existing bioactivity-related studies were implemented on crude extracts. More in-depth studies are necessary to reveal the links between the traditional uses and bioactivity in the future.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapium/química , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Plant Sci ; 298: 110562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771163

RESUMO

Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. plays an important role in traditional Chinese medicine and is one of major woody oil tree in China. Phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (PDAT1), as an important catalytic enzyme for the formation of triacylglycerol (TAG), is mainly responsible for the transfer of an acyl group from the sn-2 position of phospholipids to the sn-3 position of sn-1, 2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce TAG and sn-1 lysophospholipids. The importance of PDAT1 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis has been illustrated in previous research, and at least 67 PDAT1 sequences have been identified from 31 organisms. However, little is known about the gene encoding PDAT1 in S. sebiferum (SsPDAT1), which is involved in seed oil biosynthesis. To explore the functional characteristics of SsPDAT1, we cloned and analyzed the full-length cDNA in the coding region of SsPDAT1, which consists of 2040 bp and encodes a putative protein of 680 amino acid (aa) residues. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis showed that recombinant SsPDAT1 could restore TAG accumulation in TAG-deficient mutant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) H1246, which revealed the enzyme activity of SsPDAT1. Moreover, transgenic Brassica napus L. W10 plants overexpressing SsPDAT1 showed significant increases of 19.6-28.9 % in linoleic acid levels but decreases of 27.3-37.1 % in linolenic acid. Furthermore, the total oil content increased by 8.1 %-10.8 % in SsPDAT1 transgenic seeds. These results confirmed the role of SsPDAT1 in stabilizing oil biosynthesis and suggested that SsPDAT1 could be exploitable to specifically regulate the oil composition of plants. These experimental results provide a new concept that may enable the industrial development of plants with high-linoleic-acid oil through overexpression of SsPDAT1 in S. sebiferum L.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfolipídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapium/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 22(9): 817-822, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552756

RESUMO

Two new ent-atisane diterpenes, sebiferumnins K and L (1 and 2), were isolated from the branches of Sapium sebiferum, together with four known compounds, ent-3-oxoatis-16α, 17-acetonide (3), ent-l6α, 17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one (4), ent-atisane-3ß, 16α, 17-triol (5), ent-3α-hydroxyatis-16α,17-acetonide (6). The structures of these two ent-atisane diterpenes were elucidated by extensive analyses of the spectroscopic data. [Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Euphorbiaceae , Sapium , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112497, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870794

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf of the Chinese tallow tree (CTT, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb) has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat eczema, shingles, edema, swelling, ascites, scabs, and snakebites. AIM OF THIS STUDY: The present work aimed to explore the antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory mechanisms of CTT leaf and to further investigate their possible active ingredients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions were determined using a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced model of acute edema in mouse ears. The SOD, CAT and GCL activities and the GSH content of the ear tissue were measured using kits, and the ratio of the treated and control ears was calculated. The anti-inflammatory activities of each single compound and those of a mixture of the compounds were also determined using the TPA-induced model. RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory effects of the three fractions were positively correlated with their increasing GSH capacities. Although the GSH levels decreased during TPA-induced acute edema, the CTT leaf extract could recover these levels by increasing the glutamate cysteine ligase activity. The mixture of ellagic acid, isoquercitrin and astragalin showed an anti-inflammatory effect similar to that of the CTT leaf extract. However, none of these three individual compounds showed comparable activity alone. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that increasing GSH is an antioxidant-related anti-inflammatory mechanism of CTT leaves. In addition, ellagic acid, isoquercitrin and astragalin were found to be jointly responsible for this bioactivity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapium/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3738-3744, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602947

RESUMO

Seventeen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor by using various chromatographic techniques,including silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI,ODS,and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as sapiumin F( 1),kadsulignan C( 2),ciwujiatone( 3),ethylbrevifolin carboxylate( 4),7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin( 5),fraxetin( 6),fraxidin( 7),isofraxidin( 8),6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin( 9),5,6,7,8-tetramethoxycoumarin( 10),8-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin( 11),3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid( 12),3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid( 13),3'-methoxyellagic acid 4'-O-α-rhamnopyranoside( 14),4,5-didehydro-chebulic acid triethyl ester( 15),ent-kaurane-3-oxo-16α,17-diol( 16),and abscisic acid( 17) by spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is a new compound. Except for compounds 4,11,and 13,the remaining compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro antineuroinflammatory activities,and the results showed that compounds 6 and 15 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells,with IC50 values of 6. 06 and 6. 05 µmol·L-1,respectively.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Sapium/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Camundongos
6.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104658, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450368

RESUMO

In East Asia, for thousands of years, the fruit of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) has been used for multiple purposes because of its chemical composition; the presence of high amounts of lipids is remarkable, showing potential to be used as substrate for biodiesel synthesis. Previously have been reported the use of alkaline and enzymatic catalysts, microwave technology and the use of ionic liquids as co-solvents with the lipids of this tree species to produce biodiesel. This study shows the results of the use of Burkholderia cepacia lipase as enzymatic catalyst for transesterification of Chinese Tallow Kernel oil (CTK), extracted from the fruit of Chinese tallow tree, into biodiesel, with the use of ultrasonic assisted technology and without the usage of solvents. The optimal operational parameters were determined and the reactions were developed in a batch reactor with the use of ultrasonic irradiation and emulsification to enhance the mass transfer. The scaled-up experiments, in an especially designed 3 L capacity reactor, showed promising results, obtaining 55.20% biodiesel and a kinematic viscosity of 10.31 mm2.s-1 in only 4 h, in comparison with previously published (in vitro) methods. The valorization of this non-edible source of oil represents an opportunity to use as an alternative source for bioenergy and also to tackle the uncontrolled expansion of this oleaginous tree species in some ecologically fragile ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Biocombustíveis , Burkholderia cepacia/enzimologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sapium/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Esterificação , Cinética , Lipase/química , Temperatura
7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2413-2423, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972517

RESUMO

Plants that have grown for many years in the special environmental conditions prevailing in mining areas are naturally screened and show strong capacity to adapt to their environment. The present study investigated the enrichment characteristics of U and other heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ni) in the soil-plant system in Xiazhuang uranium mine. Four dominant plants (Castanopsis carlesii, Rhus chinensis, Liriodendron chinense, and Sapium discolor) and soil samples were collected from the mined areas, unmined areas, and background areas away from the ore field. U, As, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, Zn, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results demonstrate that (1) The highest concentrations of U (4.1-206.9 mg/kg) and Pb (43.3-126.0 mg/kg) with the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) greater than 1 show that they are the main soil pollutants in the research area. (2) The biological accumulation coefficient (LBAC) values for Cd, Mn, and Cu are greater than zero in S. discolor, L. chinense, and C. carlesii and these three plants indicate that they can be used for remediation of the soil in the ore field. (3) R. chinensis inhibits the accumulation of heavy metals and shows sensitive pigment responses to the accumulation of U in the leaves. L. chinense has the strongest enrichment effect on heavy metals but exhibits weak biochemical responses under U stress. C. carlesii demonstrates strong adaptation to U and can maintain healthy pigment characteristics in case of high U enrichment. (4) S. discolor, L. chinense, C. carlesii and R. chinensis have strong tolerance to U toxicity and different biochemical responses.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Traqueófitas/metabolismo , Urânio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Folhas de Planta/química , Rhus/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhus/metabolismo , Sapium/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapium/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Traqueófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Urânio/farmacocinética
8.
Fitoterapia ; 134: 435-442, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898726

RESUMO

Sapium baccatum has been traditionally used as therapeutic remedies. To support its medicinal benefits, our current phytochemical investigation attempted to further discover novel bioactive compounds from S. baccatum. Eight new phenolic compounds, namely, seven coumarins (1-7) and one monoterpene galloylglycoside (8), together with 23 (9-31) known compounds were isolated. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with literatures. The three pairs of enantiomers of 1, 2 and 7 were confirmed on the basis of HPLC chiral analysis, electronic circular dichroism data and optical rotations. Two coumarins (1-2) were proven to be artifacts through HPLC analysis. The inhibitory effects on TNF-α secretion were examined biologically in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells and all of the tested compounds exhibited significant inhibitory activity, especially new compound 1 possessed stronger inhibitory effects compared to the positive control quercetin. In addition, compounds 14 and 15 showed weak antifungal activity against Candida albicans SC5314 with MIC values both at 64 µg/mL. The results laid a solid foundation for additional research on S.baccatum related to its anti-inflammatory and antifungal medicinal value.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Sapium/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , China , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química
9.
Food Res Int ; 119: 960-967, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884736

RESUMO

A simple and environmentally approach using untargeted imaging of volatile substances combined with chemometrics and markers response was proposed for discriminating different species of honey with headspace gas-chromatography-ion-mobility (HS-GC-IMS). The 3D HS-GC-IMS imaging and their response differences enabled the clear discrimination between winter honey and sapium honey. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to discriminate different honey. Markers of two kinds of honey were identified and confirmed with a user-built imaging database combined with multivariate analysis. Benzaldehyde dimer and phenylacetaldehyde dimer were found to be reliable markers of winter honey, and phenylethyl acetate dimer was of sapium honey. Adulteration identification of the honey samples with different adulteration ratios were subjected to this triple-locked strategy analysis. The results demonstrate that HS-GC-IMS imaging coupled with chemometrics and marker identification is a useful triple-locked strategy to discriminate honey from different floral origins and adulterated honey.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Mel/análise , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Sapium/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Acetatos/análise , Benzaldeídos/análise , Imageamento Tridimensional , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781340

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that strigolactones (SLs) also participate in the regulation of stress adaptation; however, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. In this study, the homolog of More Axillary Branches 2, which encodes a key component in SL signaling, in the perennial oil plant Sapium sebiferum was identified and functionally characterized in Arabidopsis. The results showed that the expression of SsMAX2 in S. sebiferum seedlings was stress-responsive, and SsMAX2 overexpression (OE) in Arabidopsis significantly promoted resistance to drought, osmotic, and salt stresses. Moreover, SsMAX2 OE lines exhibited decreased chlorophyll degradation, increased soluble sugar and proline accumulation, and lower water loss ratio in response to the stresses. Importantly, anthocyanin biosynthesis and the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), were enhanced in the SsMAX2 OE lines, which further led to a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide levels. Additionally, the SsMAX2 OE lines exhibited higher expression level of several abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis genes, suggesting potential interactions between SL and ABA in the regulation of stress adaptation. Overall, we provide physiological and biochemical evidence demonstrating the pivotal role of SsMAX2 in the regulation of osmotic, drought, and salt stress resistance and show that MAX2 can be a genetic target to improve stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Sapium/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapium/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 95-100, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597473

RESUMO

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of Camellia oleifera shell (COS) and stillingia oil (SO) was performed in the temperature range of 400-600 °C. The effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperatures on product yield and bio-oil composition were discussed in detail. The bio-oil yield from COS pyrolysis varied from 37.30 wt% to 40.27 wt%, which was 11.32 wt% to 21.62 wt% lower than that from SO pyrolysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that SO bio-oil was rich in hydrocarbons, whereas COS pyrolysis produced mainly oxygen-containing compounds predominantly comprising phenols and acids. Fourier transform infrared and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed significant differences in the chemical structure of bio-oils from COS and SO pyrolysis. Elemental-composition and physical-property analyses further revealed that SO bio-oils were similar to gasoline and heavy fuel oil.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Pirólise , Triglicerídeos/química , Camellia/química , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sapium/química
12.
Fitoterapia ; 133: 17-22, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572085

RESUMO

Two new coumarinolignoids, sapiumins D (1) and E (2), a new lignanoid, lariciresinol 9'-benzoate (3), together with six known coumarinolignoids (4-9) and eight known lignanoids (10-17), were isolated from the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, MS, and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Compounds 5, 10, 11, and 13 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values in the range of 2.13-11.37 µM.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Lignina/farmacologia , Sapium/química , Animais , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Lignina/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta
13.
J Nat Prod ; 81(10): 2251-2258, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350995

RESUMO

Seventeen compounds, including three new pairs of coumarinolignoid enantiomers, (7' S,8' S)-sapiumins A-C (1a-3a) and (7' R,8' R)-sapiumins A-C (1b-3b), six new taraxerane triterpenoids, sapiumic acids A-F (4-9), and five known taraxerane triterpenoids (10-14), were isolated from an ethanol extract prepared from the stems and leaves of Sapium discolor. The structures of 1-9 and their relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of the coumarinolignoids 1a/1b-3a/3b and triterpenoids 6-9 were assigned using experimental and calculated ECD data. Compounds 1a/1b-3a/3b are the first coumarinolignoids to be reported from the genus Sapium. Among all the isolates, compounds 1b, 2a/2b, 3a/3b, and 6-9 inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 1.7-15.3 µM.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Sapium/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 96, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sapium sebiferum, whose seeds contain high level of fatty acids, has been considered as one of the most important oil plants. However, the high male to female flower ratio limited the seed yield improvement and its industrial potentials. Thus, the study of the sex determination in S. sebiferum is of significant importance in increasing the seed yield. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that in S. sebiferum, cytokinin (CK) had strong feminization effects on the floral development. Exogenous application with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) significantly induced the development of female flowers and increased the fruit number. Interestingly, the feminization effects of cytokinin were also detected on the androecious genotype of S. sebiferum which only produce male flowers. To further investigate the mechanism underlying the role of cytokinin in the flower development and sex differentiation, we performed the comparative transcriptome analysis of the floral buds of the androecious plants subjected to 6-BA. The results showed that there were separately 129, 352 and 642 genes differentially expressed at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after 6-BA treatment. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that many genes are related to the hormonal biosynthesis and signaling, nutrients translocation and cell cycle. Moreover, there were twenty one flowering-related genes identified to be differentially regulated by 6-BA treatment. Specifically, the gynoecium development-related genes SPATULA (SPT), KANADI 2 (KAN2), JAGGED (JAG) and Cytochrome P450 78A9 (CYP79A9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of PISTILLATA (PI), TATA Box Associated Factor II 59 (TAFII59) and MYB Domain Protein 108 (MYB108) that were important for male organ development was down-regulated in response to 6-BA treatment, demonstrating that cytokinin could directly target the floral organ identity genes to regulate the flower sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our work demonstrated that cytokinin is a potential regulator in female flower development in S. sebiferum. The transcriptome analysis of the floral sex transition from androecious to monoecious in response to cytokinin treatment on the androecious S. sebiferum provided valuable information related to the mechanism of sex determination in the perennial woody plants.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Flores/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Sapium/genética , Transcriptoma , Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Sapium/efeitos dos fármacos , Sapium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
15.
Plant Sci ; 272: 32-41, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807604

RESUMO

Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. is an important woody oil tree and traditional herbal medicine in China. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a dehydrogenase enzyme that plays a key role in the transformation of saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in oil; these fatty acids greatly influence the freezing tolerance of plants. However, it remains unclear whether freezing tolerance can be regulated by the expression level of SsSAD in S. sebiferum L. Our research indicated that SsSAD expression in S. sebiferum L. increased under freezing stress. To further confirm this result, we constructed a pEGAD-SsSAD vector and transformed it into B. napus L. W10 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants that overexpressed the SsSAD gene exhibited significantly higher linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) content and advanced freezing tolerance. These results suggest that SsSAD overexpression in B. napus L. can increase the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3), which are likely pivotal in improving freezing tolerance in B. napus L. plants. Thus, SsSAD overexpression could be useful in the production of freeze-tolerant varieties of B. napus L.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/fisiologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Sapium/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Brassica napus/genética , Congelamento , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sapium/enzimologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
Fitoterapia ; 128: 175-179, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778573

RESUMO

Three new polyketides, cylindrocarpones A-C (1-3), two new pyridone alkaloids, cylindrocarpyridones A-B (5-6), a new pyrone cylindropyrone (7), together with seven know compounds were isolated from the endophytic fungus, Cylindrocarpon sp., obtained from the tropical plant Sapium ellipticum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS). The absolute configuration of 19-O-methyl-pyrrocidine B (13) was confirmed by X-ray analysis. All isolated compounds were screened for their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Pyrrocidine A (12) exhibited potent cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with an IC50 value of 1.7 µM. 19-O-Methyl-pyrrocidine B (13) showed moderate antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC25923 and ATCC700699 with MIC values of 50 and 25 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Hypocreales/química , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endófitos/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Sapium/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Fitoterapia ; 128: 57-65, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641985

RESUMO

Ten new (1-10) and ten known (11-20) diterpenoids involving ent-atisane, ent-seco-atisane, ent-kaurane and ent-seco-kaurane types were isolated from Sapium insigne under the guidance of LCMS-IT-TOF analyses. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR). A putative biosynthetic pathway was proposed for ent-seco-atisane diterpenoids. Their inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase in vitro were tested for the first time. Compound 4 showed moderate inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 0.34 mM via a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism (Ki = 0.27 mM). The preliminary structure-activity relationships of the ent-atisane diterpenoids inhibiting α-glucosidase were discussed.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sapium/química , alfa-Glucosidases/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Estrutura Molecular , Caules de Planta/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Gene ; 654: 69-76, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466764

RESUMO

Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb [S. sebiferum L.] is not only one of the most important economic woody oil trees, but is also a significant traditional herbal medicine in China. The CONSTANS (CO) gene is a key regulator of the long day-dependent flowering pathway in Arabidopsis and other plants. To gain insight into the role of CO in woody oil trees, SsCO from S. sebiferum L. was isolated and characterized in this study. The corresponding SsCO protein, with 340 amino acid residues, included two putative zinc finger motifs B-Box1 and B-Box2 in the N-terminal region and a conserved CCT domain in the C-terminal region. SsCO expression was high in flowers and exhibited distinct circadian regulation. In addition, SsCO had a transcriptional activation effect in yeast strains. Moreover, heterologous expression of SsCO complemented the late-flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis CO mutant co-1. These results indicate that SsCO is a transcription factor and may regulate the photoperiodic flowering time and SsCO is regulated by circadian rhythms in Sapium sebiferum L.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sapium/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ritmo Circadiano , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Caules de Planta , Domínios Proteicos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Árvores , Dedos de Zinco
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 525, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216879

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Ethnobatanical survey associates Sapium ellipticum (SE) with antidiabetic usage among other medicinal functions in different parts of Africa. More importantly, previous studies on the plant extract in our laboratory showed that SE has significant effects on the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In view of these, the anti-diabetic potential of the plant leaf extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model (Wistar strain) was examined. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in experimental animals via single intraperitoneal dose (55 mg/kg BW) of freshly prepared STZ. SE was evaluated at 400 and 800 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW), against metformin (12 mgkg-1 BW). Treatments were done orally (p.o), twice daily at 8 h interval for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: SE significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 46.5 and 44.4% (400 and 800 mg dosage respectively) compared to initial diabetic values. However, the effects were significantly lower than 72.6% glucose reduction produced by metformin. Hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogens were observed to increase by 27.06 and 12.55% respectively in SE-treated rats (800 mg dosage) compared to their corresponding values in diabetic control animals. Plasma and pancreatic insulin contents were also improved (31.77 and 52.34% respectively) by SE administration. The histopathological examination of the pancreas indicates beta cells regeneration in the treated animals, particularly in diabetic rats treated with 800 mg dosage of the extract compared to the diabetic control animals and metformin group. The presence of phenolic compounds namely amentoflavone, lupeol and luteolin-7-O-glucoside in SE as characterized and reported in our previous study is likely responsibly for the antidiabetic effects of the plant extract noted in the present study. CONCLUSION: The outcome of this study provides scientific basis in support of the medicinal relevance of SE and lend credence to its utilization in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and other oxidative stress-related ailments.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sapium , Animais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
20.
Environ Entomol ; 46(6): 1305-1312, 2017 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029031

RESUMO

Chinese tallowtree, Triadica sebifera (L.) Small (Euphoriaceae), is one of the most aggressive weeds of coastal wetlands and forests of the southeastern United States. The lack of specialist herbivores in the invaded range may be one of the factors that contribute to the invasive nature of this weed. Chinese tallowtree has been the target of a classical biological control project since 2006. Several herbivore species are being tested for biological control of Chinese tallowtree. Concurrently, an adventive herbivore, Caloptilia triadicae Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was found feeding on Chinese tallowtree in the southeastern United States in 2004 and now occurs throughout the invaded range. Field populations of C. triadicae from two sites caused extensive mining damage to the Chinese tallowtree leaves. The greatest damage occurred after 30 d of exposure to C. triadicae in the herbivory treatment and amounted to about 25-30 leaf mines (early instars) and leaf rolls (late instars) per plant. Insecticide-treated plants had atmost 5-10 leaf mines and rolls per plant. Despite this difference, plant growth in height, number of new branches, and leaves did not differ significantly from plants protected from herbivory. Analysis of harvested plant results suggested that, in general, herbivory had little impact on biomass. However, there was a slight reduction in trunk weights in the unrestriced herbivory treatment compared with the insecticide-treated plants. Although this study exposed experimental plants to only 60 d of herbivory, these results suggested that C. triadicae alone will not exert sufficient control of invasive populations of Chinese tallowtree. Furthermore, they indicated that continued development of biological control agents that target Chinese tallowtree are needed.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Mariposas/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Sapium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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