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1.
Zootaxa ; 5063(1): 1-95, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810767

RESUMO

A checklist of the flesh flies occurring in Kalamaili Mountain Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, NW China, is presented, based on material collected from 2009 to 2017. The checklist includes 18 genera and 46 species, 12 of which are new records for China. Four new species are described: Asiosarcophila kashanensis sp. nov., Miltogramma szpilai sp. nov., Sphecapatodes superciliosa sp. nov., and Sphecapatodes xinjiangensis sp. nov. Extensive documentation of the male and female habitus, details of the head, and the specialised setae of the male fore tarsus is given for all species where relevant, except for those already well illustrated in other publications. The male terminalia of almost all species of Paramacronychiinae and Sarcophaginae recorded from Kalamaili are illustrated with focus-stacked photographs.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos
2.
Zootaxa ; 5043(1): 1-104, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811017

RESUMO

Protomiltogramma Townsend is the largest and most diverse genus of miltogrammine flesh flies in Australia. However, no comprehensive taxonomic work had been completed on the Australian members of this genus in almost a century. This study presents the first taxonomic revision of all Australian species of Protomiltogramma (Sarcophagidae: Miltogramminae), completed using an integrative approach combining molecular and morphological data. Eight new species endemic to Australia are described: P. dalbiensis sp. n., P. grandis sp. n., P. incana sp. n., P. kapnos sp. n., P. nigrisensa sp. n., P. popularis sp. n., P. rubra sp. n. and P. subtilis sp. n. In addition, P. australis Malloch, 1930 is synonymised with P. cincta Townsend, 1916, syn. n. and P. mallochi Verves, 1987 is synonymised with P. laticeps Malloch, 1930, syn. n. Molecular phylogenetics is used to place the Australian Protomiltogramma among the miltogrammine genera of the world.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Austrália , Filogenia , Sarcofagídeos/genética
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1067, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myiasis is caused by dipterous larvae, and rarely affects the mouth. Diagnosis by traditional means is easy to be confused with other similar species. Here, we report a case of oral myiasis, in a 5-month-old infant who was diagnosed by morphological examination and molecular biological methods. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-month old infant with acute myeloid leukemia was admitted due to recurrent skin masses for more than 4 months. The infant had lip swelling, which prevented him from closing the mouth and membranes were present in his mouth and there were also oral ulcers and erosions. Ten maggots were found in the mouth and one in the ear canal with pus flowing out and were confirmed as the third stage larvae of Sarcophaga ruficornis by morphological examination and a comparison of sequence of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene. After removal of the maggots and chemotherapy, the infant 's condition was gradually improved. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our our knowledge, this is the first neonatal oral myiasis case reported in China and its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Microscopy combined with specific DNA sequence analysis is an effective technological tool to provide rapid diagnoses of the larva specimen and cases of rare diseases, as illustrated in the current case.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Miíase , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Humanos , Lactente , Larva , Masculino , Boca , Miíase/diagnóstico
4.
Acta Trop ; 224: 106148, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562428

RESUMO

Flesh flies are received greater attention due to their use as evidence in forensic investigations of decomposing human remains. Investigators will often use age of immature insects associated with such remains as the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) given certain assumptions. Boettcherisca peregrina is a significant flesh fly species of forensic importance in several countries, whereas B. nathani is potentially a species of forensic importance. Distinguishing these two species is difficult and relies on close examination of the male terminalia. For genus Boettcherisca belonging to subfamily Sarcophaginae, identification is primarily based on the morphological structures associated with male terminalia. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, similarities and differences were determined for these two species. In this study, B. peregrina was collected from an urban area of Mueang District, while B. nathani was collected from the highland forest area of Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. The morphological observations indicated similarities in the morphology of vesica (large, rounded anterior margin, bi-lobed, half upper-outer margins serrated), harpes (well-developed, elongated, broad basally with bifurcated apically) and lateral styli (two parallel tube-like with open ends with microserration apically) in both species. However, differences were found with the cercus and juxta. With regards to the cercus, B. peregrina has bristles or setae only along the posterior surface and the cercal tip is pointed, while B. nathani has bristles or setae on both the anterior and posterior surfaces, and the cercal tip is hook-shaped. Morphometric measurements of three criteria of the cerci (length from top to middle, internal distance at narrow part and distance between apex of cercal prong) revealed that the average length of each criteria of B. nathani cerci (n = 30) were significantly greater than B. peregrina cerci (n = 30). As for the juxta, the juxtal lateral plate was different: primarily bifurcated in B. peregrina and non-bifurcated in B. nathani. The medial part of juxta was different: V-shaped 95.8% (46/48) and, to a lesser extent, W-shaped 4.2% (2/48) in B. peregrina, only W-shaped 100% (52/52) in B. nathani. Such information is useful for entomologists to distinguish between adult males of these two species, which could be valuable when determining colonization patterns in association with decomposing human remains.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tailândia
5.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577107

RESUMO

The problem of a growing resistance of bacteria and other microorganisms to conventional antibiotics gave rise to a search for new potent antimicrobial agents. Insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seem to be promising novel potential anti-infective therapeutics. The dipeptide ß-alanyl-tyrosine (ß-Ala-Tyr) is one of the endogenous insect toxins exhibiting antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Prior to testing its other antimicrobial activities, it has to be prepared in a pure form. In this study, we have developed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for analysis of ß-Ala-Tyr isolated from the extract of the hemolymph of larvae of the fleshfly Neobellieria bullata by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Based on our previously described correlation between CZE and free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE), analytical CZE separation of ß-Ala-Tyr and its admixtures have been converted into preparative purification of ß-Ala-Tyr by FFZE with preparative capacity of 45.5 mg per hour. The high purity degree of the ß-Ala-Tyr obtained by FFZE fractionation was confirmed by its subsequent CZE analysis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Dipeptídeos/química , Dipeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese/métodos , Hemolinfa/química , Sarcofagídeos/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Larva/química
6.
Parasitol Int ; 85: 102436, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389491

RESUMO

Myiasis is a parasitosis characterized by an infestation of living vertebrates (humans and other animals) by Diptera larvae, whose occurrence and etiological identification are still neglected by health professionals. Here we analyzed the human myiasis cases registered from 2010 to 2018 in health care units in the municipality of Natal, Northeast region of Brazil. Specifically, we aimed to: I) analyze the medical records of cases documented from 2010 to 2017; II) list the patients predisposing factors; and III) monitor the recent cases diagnosed in health units between August 2017 and March 2018 and report the taxonomic identity of the infesting species. Our data revealed that myiases mainly affect the elderly and individuals with predisposing medical conditions (e.g. senility, filariasis). Regarding the new cases, larvae of Calliphoridae (C. hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858)) and Sarcophagidae [Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1794), Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830), and Helicobia morionella (Aldrich, 1930)] were identified. Furthermore, this was the first report of a co-infestation with three Sarcophagidae species and also the presence of H. morionella in a human wound. These results reinforce that myiasis is an underreported parasitosis, which may underestimate the ability of previously unreported fly species to feed on living human tissues in the Neotropical Region.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/fisiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Sarcofagídeos/fisiologia , Idoso , Animais , Brasil , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Sarcofagídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Zootaxa ; 4989(1): 1-438, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186777

RESUMO

This catalog lists all 1226 nominal species introduced by Rondani within Diptera (1174 available and 52 unavailable), providing for each available name data on the type locality, type material, current taxonomic status and with remarks on both the collectors and the specialists who have studied this material. The following new synonymies are proposed: Panops aeneus Philippi, 1865 [Acroceridae] under Lasia aenea Rondani, 1863, n. syn.; Panops nigripes Philippi, 1865 [Acroceridae] under Lasia cuprea Rondani, 1863, n. syn.; Tabanus brasiliensis Rondani, 1850 [Tabanidae] under Dichelacera fasciata Walker, 1850, n. syn.; Petagnia subpetiolata Rondani, 1859 [Tachinidae] under Petagnia occlusa Rondani, 1856, n. syn.; Tephritis siderata Rondani, 1868 [Tephritidae] under Hexacinia radiosa (Rondani, 1868), n. syn. Mallophora macquartii Rondani 1851 [Asilidae] is considered as a senior (but invalid) synonym of Mallophora scopipeda Rondani, 1863, n. syn. Paragus mundus Wollaston, 1858 [Syrphidae] is proposed as the valid name for Paragus coadunatus sensu Goeldlin de Tiefenau (1976); Paragus coadunatus Rondani, 1847 [Syrphidae] is reinstated as a junior synonym of Paragus haemorrhous Meigen 1822. Lectotypes are designated herein for the following nominal species: Domomyza anthracipes Rondani, 1875, Domomyza frontella Rondani, 1875 [both in Agromyzidae]; Chorthophila impudica Rondani, 1866 [Anthomyiidae]; Sephanilla sertulata Rondani, 1875 [Aulacigastridae]; Peratochetus lutescens Rondani, 1856 [Clusiidae]; Myopa punctum Rondani, 1857 [Conopidae]; Culex pulcritarsis Rondani, 1872 [Culicidae]; Ephydra ciligena Rondani, 1868 [Ephydridae]; Lonchea scutellaris Rondani, 1875 [Lonchaeidae]; Geomyza pictipennis Rondani, 1875 [Opomyzidae]; Megaglossa vegetationis Rondani, 1869 [Platystomatidae]; Eumerus tuberculatus Rondani, 1857, Merodon varius Rondani, 1845, Paragus mundus Wollaston, 1858, Pipizella neuphritica Rondani, 1868 [all in Syrphidae]; Exorista noctuicida Rondani, 1859, Phoricheta lacrimans Rondani, 1861 [both in Tachinidae]; Tephritis decipiens Rondani, 1871, Tephritis matutina Rondani, 1871, Urophora lejura Rondani, 1870, Urophora venabulata Rondani, 1870, Urophora veruata Rondani, 1870 [all in Tephritidae]. The following nominal species have lectotypes designated according to Article 74.5 of the I.C.Z.N. Code: Chortophila divergens Rondani, 1866, Chortophila incognita Rondani, 1866 [both in Anthomyiidae]; Habropogon doriae Rondani, 1873, Promacus taeniopus Rondani, 1873 [both in Asilidae]; Chelidomyia melbae Rondani, 1879, Myophthiria lygaeoides Rondani, 1878, Ornithomya gestroi Rondani, 1878, Ornithomya hatamensis Rondani, 1878 [all in Hippoboscidae]; Megaglossa corticarum Rondani, 1869 [Platystomatidae]; Elgiva lateritia Rondani, 1868, Tetanocera nigricosta Rondani, 1868, Tetanocera punctifrons Rondani, 1868 [all in Sciomyzidae]; Tabanus justorius Rondani, 1875 [Tabanidae]. The following lectotypes are designated by inference according to Article 74.6 of I.C.Z.N.: Diopsis aethiopica Rondani, 1873, Diopsis latimana Rondani, 1875, Teleopsis breviscopium Rondani, 1875, Teleopsis longiscopium Rondani, 1875 [all in Diopsidae]; Cyclopodia albertisii Rondani, 1878, Myophthiria reduvioides Rondani, 1875 [both in Hippoboscidae]; Myiodella brachialis Rondani, 1873, Senopterina zonalis Rondani, 1875 [all in Platystomatidae]; Stevenia florentina Rondani, 1861 [Rhinophoridae]; Miltogramma punctatella Rondani, 1868 [Sarcophagidae]; Sargus leoninus Rondani, 1875 [Stratiomyidae]; Chrysops alter Rondani, 1875, Chrysops unizonatus Rondani, 1875, Tabanus dives Rondani, 1875, Tabanus fulvissimus Rondani, 1875, Tabanus ignobilis Rondani, 1875 [all in Tabanidae]; Themara hirtipes Rondani, 1875 [Tephritidae]. The following names are new combinations: Diopsis latimana Rondani, 1875 [Diopsidae] is transferred to Teleopsis and kept as a junior synonym of Teleopsis dalmanni (Wiedemann, 1830), comb. nov.; Diopsis lativola Rondani, 1875 [Diopsidae] is transferred to Teleopsis and kept as a junior synonym of Teleopsis dalmanni (Wiedemann, 1830), comb. nov. The following names, previously deemed unavailable, are determined here to be available: Petagnia occlusa Rondani, 1856 [Tachinidae]; Tephritis siderata Rondani, 1868 [Tephritidae]. The following names, previous deemed available, are determined here to be unavailable: Porricondyla albitarsis Rondani, 1840 [Cecidomyiidae], Lucilia cyanicolor Rondani, 1850 [Calliphoridae]; Cephenemya stimulatrix Rondani, 1857 [Oestridae]; Cheilosia nigricornis Rondani, 1844, Cheilosia testacicornis Rondani, 1857, Pelecocera ruficornis Rondani, 1865 [all in Syrphidae]; Cylindrogaster sanguinea Rondani, 1861, Deximorpha cristata Rondani, 1862, Myostoma microcera Rondani, 1856 [all in Tachinidae]; Tripeta exacheta Rondani, 1870 [Tephritidae]. We consider Merodon italicus Rondani 1845 as an unnecessary substitute name for Merodon natans Fabricius, 1794 and confirm it as a junior synonym of Merodon natans Fabricius, 1794. Acting as First Revisers, the following are herein selected as correct original spellings: Trichophthalma philippii Rondani, 1863 [Nemestrinidae]; Sphiximorpha garibaldii Rondani, 1860 [Syrphidae]; Agelanius philippii Rondani, 1863 [Tabanidae]; Exorista achanthina Rondani, 1859, Platychyra brevicauda Rondani, 1865 [Tachinidae]. Species not previously treated in any recent Diptera catalog include the following: Chorthophila limbatella Rondani, 1877, Hylephila melitensis Rondani 1877 [both in Anthomyiidae]; Mya jonicroma Rondani, 1851, Mya versicolor Rondani, 1850, Somomya anulipes Rondani, 1863, Somomyia xanthomera Rondani, 1875 [all in Calliphoridae]; Madiza fabae Rondani, 1876 [Chloropidae]; Psilopus ducalis Rondani, 1850 [Dolichopodidae]; Gymnopa opaca Rondani, 1869 [Ephydridae]; Oedalea bracata Rondani, 1856 [Hybotidae]; Sapromyza albifrons Rondani, 1868, Sapromyza rectinervis Rondani, 1868 [both in Lauxaniidae]; Boletina parmensis Rondani, 1856, Bolithobia lateralis Rondani, 1856, Bolithomyza spinulina Rondani, 1856, Mycetomyza sciarina Rondani, 1856, Pachipalpus calceatus Rondani, 1856 [all in Mycetophilidae]; Lyoneura lugubris Rondani, 1856 [Psychodidae]; Volucella trizonata Rondani, 1875 [Syrphidae]; Echinomya apicalis Rondani, 1848, Echinomya ignobilis Rondani, 1863, Gonia ornata var. repudiata Rondani, 1859, Hyalomyia unicolor Rondani, 1868, Platychyra valida Rondani, 1865, Pyragrura uncinatus Rondani, 1861 [all in Tachinidae]. One species, Bertea subaptera Rondani, 1856, is returned to Diptera from Hymenoptera after examination of the type material.


Assuntos
Dípteros/classificação , Animais , Culicidae , Nematóceros , Psychodidae , Sarcofagídeos , Tephritidae
8.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 160-163, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103297

RESUMO

Myiasis is a disease caused by tissue invasion of diptera larvae and eggs. Oral myiasis is mostly related to old age, poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions, anatomical disorders and cancer cases. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an important risk factor for myiasis. This report presents the case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with gingival myiasis developing on the background of OSSC. The patient was diagnosed with OSSC in the hospital. Myiasis larvae were identified and sent to the National Parasitology Reference Laboratory for identification. Thus, development of myiasis on OSCC background was shown in Turkey for the first time. Myiasis larvae have been identified as the 3rd phase of the larvae Sarcophaga sp. development (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). As a result, myiasis cases are sporadic in Turkey, and it can be avoided by controlling fly population and by paying attention to hygiene. Controlling myiasis is an important public health problem and should be considered in a single health concept, as it causes health problems in both humans and animals. The findings of this case will draw attention to the importance of dealing with myiasis factors, which is a public health problem.


Assuntos
Gengiva/parasitologia , Neoplasias Bucais/parasitologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/parasitologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neoplasias Bucais/complicações , Miíase/complicações , Miíase/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Sarcofagídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Turquia
9.
J Med Entomol ; 58(6): 2206-2215, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170326

RESUMO

Identification of species involved in cadaveric decomposition, such as scavenger Diptera, is a fundamental step for the use of entomological evidence in court. Identification based on morphology is widely used in forensic cases; however, taxonomic knowledge of scavenger fauna is poor for many groups and for many countries, particularly Neotropical ones. A number of studies have documented the utility of a DNA barcoding strategy to assist in the identification of poorly known and diverse groups, particularly in cases involving immature states or fragmented organisms. To provide baseline knowledge of the diversity of scavenger Diptera in the Valley of Mexico, we generated a DNA barcode collection comprised of sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene for all families sampled at a nature reserve located in this region. We collected and identified specimens on the basis of morphology and a species delimitation analysis. Our analyses of 339 individuals delineated 42 species distributed across nine families of Diptera. The richest families were Calliphoridae (9 species), Sarcophagidae (7 species), and Phoridae (6 species). We found many of the species previously recorded for the Valley of Mexico, plus 18 new records for the region. Our study highlights the utility of DNA barcoding as a first-step strategy to assess species richness of poorly studied scavenger fly taxa.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Calliphoridae/classificação , Dípteros/classificação , Sarcofagídeos/classificação , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise
10.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 70, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common name of the Flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) usually relates them with organisms feeding on decomposing organic matter, although the biology of one of the largest radiations among insects also includes predation, coprophagy, and even kleptoparasitism. The question of whether the ancestor of all sarcophagids was a predator or a decomposer, or in association to which host have sarcophagids evolved, has thus always piqued the curiosity of flesh fly specialists. Such curiosity has often been hindered by both the impossibility of having a well-supported phylogeny of Sarcophagidae and its sister group to trace live habits and the scarcity of information on the biology of the group. Using a phylogenomic dataset of protein-encoding ultraconserved elements from representatives of all three subfamilies of Sarcophagidae as ingroup and a large Calyptratae outgroup, a robust phylogenetic framework and timescale are generated to understand flesh fly systematics and the evolution of their life histories. RESULTS: The evolutionary history for Sarcophagidae reconstructed here differs considerably from previous hypotheses. Within subfamily Sarcophaginae, a group of predatory flies, including genera Lepidodexia and Boettcheria, emerged as sister-group to the rest of Sarcophaginae. The genera Oxysarcodexia, Ravinia, and Tricharaea, long considered archaic and early-branching coprophagous and sarcosaprophagous lineages, were found nested well within the Sarcophaginae as sister-group to the sarcosaprophagous Microcerella. Predation on invertebrates is suggested as the ancestral and dominant strategy throughout the early evolution of flesh flies. Several transitions from predation to sarcosaprophagy and coprophagy occur across the sarcophagid phylogenetic tree, in contrast with almost no transitions from sarcosaprophagy or coprophagy to predatory habits. Regarding the morphological evolution of flesh flies, there might be a concerted evolution of male genitalia traits, such as the phallotrema position and the juxta, or the vesica and the folding of the phallotrema. One diversification rate shift was inferred in the evolution of sarcophagids, which is related to the origin of genus Sarcophaga. CONCLUSIONS: This study has a significant impact on understanding sarcophagid evolution and highlights the importance of having a robust phylogenetic framework to reconstruct the ancestral character state of biological and morphological characters. I discuss the evolution of life histories of the family in relation to their hosts or substrates and outline how sarcosaprophagy, coprophagy, and kleptoparasitism behavior on various hosts may have evolved from predation on invertebrates. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for further physiological and comparative genomic work between predatory, sarcosaprophagous, coprophagous, and kleptoparasitic lineages, which could also have significant implications for the evolution of diverse life histories in other Diptera.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Genômica , Masculino , Filogenia , Sarcofagídeos/genética
11.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(4): 537-550, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914274

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential association between the richness and abundance of species of the dipteran families Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae, and Sarcophagidae in anthropogenic and preserved environments of five phytophysiognomies (Cerrado, Amazon forest, Palm forest, marshland, and mangrove) that occur throughout the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. We sampled 90 sites (45 preserved and 45 anthropogenic areas) where we collected 26,036 specimens: 15,023 calliphorids (11 species), 231 mesembrinellids (one species), and 10,772 sarcophagids (52 species). Four environmental factors, canopy openness, temperature, leaf litter depth, and vegetation height, contributed most to the separation of preserved and anthropogenic sites in all five phytophysiognomies. Leaf litter depth was positively associated with the species richness of the calliphorids and mesembrinellids (C+ M group), while tree/shrub density, vegetation height, and temperature were associated negatively with the richness of the sarcophagids. Tree/shrub density and vegetation height were also associated negatively with abundance in both C+M and sarcophagid species. Overall, then, the structural characteristics of the environment affected the species richness and abundance, and deforestation may favor certain synanthropic species, leading to a decrease in the richness and abundance of the species that are adapted to preserved environments.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Calliphoridae/classificação , Florestas , Sarcofagídeos/classificação , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Zootaxa ; 4928(1): zootaxa.4928.1.1, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756808

RESUMO

Nephochaetopteryx Townsend, 1934 is a genus of flesh flies predominantly Neotropical in distribution, which comprises small species (4.0-7.3 mm) characterized mainly by vein R1 fully setulose dorsally and wing usually fumose between apical part of vein R2+3 and vein C. The taxonomic revision of the genus resulted in 39 valid species, of which 12 are new to science: N. boruca sp. nov., N. canga sp. nov., N. coendu sp. nov., N. cuzco sp. nov., N. equatoriana sp. nov., N. inca sp. nov., N. lamasi sp. nov., N. matinta sp. nov., N. psittacocercus sp. nov., N. sofiae sp. nov., N. similis sp. nov. and N. tembe sp. nov. Nephochaetopteryx shannoni Dodge, 1968 is a junior synonym of N. flavipalpis Lopes, 1936, syn. nov. and N. linharensis Tibana Santos 1997 is a junior synonym of N. pallidifacies Lopes 1975, syn. nov. A key to the males of all valid species is given, as well as detailed illustrations of the male terminalia.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Masculino
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 174: 385-391, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529628

RESUMO

Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) include a large and widely distributed rapid radiation within the Calyptratae. They are vital for the ecosystem, as well as economic, forensic, and evolutionary studies, because of their extremely diverse habits as larvae. Phylogenetic studies of Sarcophagidae have been reaching convergence, which leads the opportunity to elucidate the evolution of these fast-evolving insects from the perspective of mitochondrial genome. Complete mitochondrial genomes of eight species were sequenced, and comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis between subfamilies were conducted. Mitochondrial genomes of these flesh flies are conserved in gene content with gene arrangement, same as the inferred ancestral insect, and the nucleotide composition is highly biased towards A + T like other flesh flies. The evolutionary rates of Sarcophagidae vary considerably across subfamilies, with that of Miltogramminae higher than the other two subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports monophyly of Sarcophagidae and each subfamily, with subfamily-level relationship inferred as (Sarcophaginae, (Miltogramminae, Paramacronychiinae)). The main topological inconsistency of all reconstructions is the relationship within Miltogramminae and Sarcophaga, which might be caused by their rapid evolution. Our study indicates that the mitochondrial genomes of flesh flies are highly conserved, and they are practically useful for phylogenetic inference of calyptrates.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Sarcofagídeos/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Composição de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Mitocondrial , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Sarcofagídeos/genética
14.
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol ; 336(6): 511-521, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600622

RESUMO

This study aimes to investigate the effect of constant and fluctuating temperatures on starting times of developmental periods of insect species. For this purpose, Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830), a forensically important species has been chosen. Whether the constant (25°C) and fluctuating (25.2°C averaged over natural conditions) temperatures would make a difference on the timing of intrapuparial development of this species was investigated. First larval instars were placed in rearing cages until they reached post-feeding third larval instar, which is considered the beginning of intrapuparial development. Relevant morphological changes were observed by hourly dissections. At fluctuating temperature treatment, the post-feeding third instar larvae were transferred to containers under natural, open-air conditions. Minimum and maximum starting times of 23 intrapuparial development periods were determined for both treatments. These times, medians, and standard deviations were compared by Mann-Whitney U tests. Accumulated degree hour values were also calculated for these periods. Regardless of temperature treatment, intrapuparial development periods were similar and adult emergence was observed at 289.5 ( ± 1.52) h under 25°C constant temperature and 319 ( ± 1.41) h under fluctuating temperature conditions. No statistical difference was found between the intrapuparial development of S. argyrostoma reared under constant and fluctuating temperatures, except "pupal-adult apolysis" and "checkered pattern on the abdomen becoming distinct" periods. The use of the results obtained when determining the effect of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the starting times of developmental periods of this species in forensic entomology, is also important in transferring developmental biology data into the field of applied sciences.


Assuntos
Sarcofagídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Animais , Entomologia Forense/métodos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Med Entomol ; 58(3): 1056-1063, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558871

RESUMO

The determination of necrophagous fly specie's development time is considered an accurate method for estimating postmortem interval (PMI). However, pesticides and other chemicals can alter the flies' life cycle, inducing errors in PMI estimation. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of Terbufos (Organophosphates) on the temporal dispersion pattern and development of immature dipterans associated with decaying rat carcasses. For this, 150 g female Wistar rats received, via gavage, 200 µl of Terbufos (5 or 10 mg/kg) or distilled water (control) and, after 30 min of administration, the animals were euthanized and distributed in suspended traps to decompose under environmental conditions. The dispersing immatures were collected daily, and their development time was monitored until the emergence of adult flies. After data analysis, it was observed that Terbufos altered 1) the temporal pattern of larval dispersion; 2) the composition and structure of the colonizing assemblage (emerged adults); 3) species' development time, accelerating or delaying their cycle, depending on the dose used; and 4) the califorids and sarcophagids emergence rate, increasing the mortality of pupae from intoxicated carcasses. Thus, this work demonstrates experimentally that Terbufos directly influences the development of flies with forensic potential and discusses the implications for PMI estimation, which can assist in future investigative processes with suspected poisoning by this organophosphate.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Entomologia Forense , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Muscidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Sarcofagídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cadáver , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Muscidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sarcofagídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(2): 303-311, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598789

RESUMO

Predation is a major process in determining the composition and dynamics of necrophagous dipteran assemblages and has implications for the colonization of cadavers. This work describes behavioural interactions between necrophagous larvae under a predator-prey perspective, using as a model the predatory species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and three species of prey: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Muscidae) and Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Sarcophagidae). Using experimental arenas, we observed behavioural acts, such as escape, avoidance and prey discrimination in three experiments, which also incorporated predator density. We demonstrate that the number of escapes, avoidance and predation varies according to the type of prey. Lucilia eximia and P. chrysostoma are able to avoid and/or escape the predator more frequently when compared to S. nudiseta. At least 70% of larvae of both species successfully evaded from C. albiceps attack. Low frequency of escape, associated with strong ability to counterattack, was observed for S. nudiseta. Peckia chrysostoma and L. eximia were the preferred items in the experiment of prey discrimination in both 2- and 3-choice tests. Predation occurs quickly, and the minimum predation time varied according to the prey species and predator density. Remarkably, prey handling varied with the species: whilst individual larvae chased and killed L. eximia, 75% of predation of P. chrysostoma occurred in groups of two or more C. albiceps larvae. Differential intraguild predation has implications for reducing populations of carrion insects-consequently affecting the likelihood of sampling necrophagous larvae in human cadavers.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Muscidae , Comportamento Predatório , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Cadáver , Larva
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(3): 960-970, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438785

RESUMO

Wing shape variation has been shown to be useful for delineating forensically important fly species in two Diptera families: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae. Compared to DNA-based identification, the cost of geometric morphometric data acquisition and analysis is relatively much lower because the tools required are basic, and stable softwares are available. However, to date, an explicit demonstration of using wing geometric morphometric data for species identity prediction in these two families remains lacking. Here, geometric morphometric data from 19 homologous landmarks on the left wing of males from seven species of Calliphoridae (n = 55), and eight species of Sarcophagidae (n = 40) were obtained and processed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Allometric effect was removed by regressing centroid size (in log10 ) against the Procrustes coordinates. Subsequently, principal component analysis of the allometry-adjusted Procrustes variables was done, with the first 15 principal components used to train a random forests model for species prediction. Using a real test sample consisting of 33 male fly specimens collected around a human corpse at a crime scene, the estimated percentage of concordance between species identities predicted using the random forests model and those inferred using DNA-based identification was about 80.6% (approximate 95% confidence interval = [68.9%, 92.2%]). In contrast, baseline concordance using naive majority class prediction was 36.4%. The results provide proof of concept that geometric morphometric data has good potential to complement morphological and DNA-based identification of blow flies and flesh flies in forensic work.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/anatomia & histologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sarcofagídeos/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Entomologia Forense , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2687, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514770

RESUMO

The first instar larva of a species of the Australian endemic genus Aenigmetopia Malloch is described for the first time, along with the first instar larvae of three other Australian species representing the genera Amobia Robineau-Desvoidy and Protomiltogramma Townsend. Larval morphology was analysed using a combination of light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, modifications of thoracic and abdominal segments, anal region, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and details of the cephaloskeleton. Substantial morphological differences are observed between the three genera, most notably in the labrum and mouthhooks of the cephaloskeleton, sensory organs of the pseudocephalon, spinulation, sculpture of the integument and form of the spiracular field. The first instar larval morphology of Aenigmetopia amissa Johnston, Wallman, Szpila & Pape corroborates the close phylogenetic affinity of Aenigmetopia Malloch with Metopia Meigen, inferred from recent molecular analysis. The larval morphology of Amobia auriceps (Baranov), Protomiltogramma cincta Townsend and Protomiltogramma plebeia Malloch is mostly congruent with the morphology of Palaearctic representatives of both genera.


Assuntos
Sarcofagídeos/anatomia & histologia , Sarcofagídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia
19.
J Med Entomol ; 58(1): 267-273, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940332

RESUMO

Two new species of Dexosarcophaga Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are described, both from the coastal zone of the Brazilian Amazon: Dexosarcophaga salgada sp. nov. and Dexosarcophaga klycyae sp. nov.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Sarcofagídeos/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Masculino , Sarcofagídeos/anatomia & histologia
20.
J Med Entomol ; 58(1): 320-332, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696971

RESUMO

The seasonal fluctuations of flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) assemblages were investigated from March 2015 to February 2016 in five habitat types in the Humid Chaco ecoregion, Chaco Province, Argentina. Three of the habitats were anthropized: an urban area, a cattle farm, and an alfalfa crop; and two were natural: a savanna and a forest. Flesh flies were collected monthly at 25 sampling points, five per habitat. In total, 5,790 male specimens comprising 55 species distributed in 15 genera were collected. The assemblage composition of flesh flies in each habitat and season was analyzed in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity. In addition, the correlation between these community parameters and climatic factors (precipitation 7 and 14 d before samplings, temperature, and relative humidity) were evaluated in each habitat. The highest abundance and species richness of Sarcophagidae were registered in May (autumn) and June (winter), respectively. The lowest diversity values were observed between August and September (end of winter and early spring) in all habitats. However, flesh flies were present and well represented (in terms of species richness) throughout the year in all habitat types. Fluctuations in the abundance of the most abundant species collected were analyzed. The climatic factors were correlated with diversity and species richness in the urban, cattle farm, and savanna habitats. This study revealed that flesh fly assemblages differed temporally between different types of habitats in accordance with climatic factors and microclimate conditions.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biota , Meio Ambiente , Sarcofagídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Masculino , Estações do Ano
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