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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 163: 107230, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133947

RESUMO

Phenotypic polymorphism within a species is a notable phenomenon in evolutionary biology to understand the process of adaptive speciation and other historical events. The Saxifraga fortunei complex is a widespread herb found in East Asia. It includes several ecotypic taxa corresponding to their habitat environments. The distribution of the various ecotypes in a limited area of the Japanese Archipelago makes the species a suitable model to investigate the impact of population demographic history and natural selection on lineage diversification. Here, Sanger-based sequencing was used to estimate the divergence timeframe between populations of the Eurasian continent and Japan. Genome-wide SNPs obtained by ddRAD sequencing were used to investigate the phylogeographic origins of ecotypic taxa. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the divergence of the Japanese population from the continental population in the late Miocene. Two distinct regional clades of North and South Japan were identified; phenotypic diversification was evident only in the southern clade. The South Japan clades displayed a historical distribution expansion from north to south. The phenotypic variations appeared to have generated during the expansion. The ecotypic boundaries were incongruent with the genetic grouping. We propose that morphological and ecological specialization in Japanese populations was repeatedly generated by local natural selection.


Assuntos
Saxifragaceae , Ecossistema , Japão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114039, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819504

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Strawberry geranium (Saxifraga stolonifera [L.] Meeb) has traditionally been used as a drug to treat skin disorders in Japan. However, little is known about its physiological effects on skin keratinocytes. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a strawberry geranium extract (SGE) on human skin keratinocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, was treated with SGE, and then stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The expression of 207 genes related to the innate immune system was analyzed using DNA microarrays. The effect of SGE on the target proteins in primary human epidermal keratinocytes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanisms of action and active components involved in the suppressive effect of SGE were evaluated by fractionation and a transcription assay. RESULTS: The microarray analysis revealed that SGE primarily suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 expression through procyanidin B2 3,3'-di-O-gallate, without TLR2 downregulation, in TNF-α-stimulated HaCaT cells. SGE suppressed TLR2 expression and interleukin (IL)-8 production induced by TLR2 ligands in primary human epidermal keratinocytes and HaCaT cells. Multiple components downregulating TLR2 expression suppressed the Sp1 activity. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel physiological function of SGE, which suppresses TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated inflammation in human skin keratinocytes. This study provides significant insights into the anti-inflammatory effect of SGE in human skin.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saxifragaceae/química , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Transcrição Sp1 , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 6 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 6 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
3.
Am J Bot ; 108(4): 680-693, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881773

RESUMO

PREMISE: The genetic structure between plant populations is facilitated by the spatial population arrangement and limited dispersal of seed and pollen. Saxifraga acerifolia, a local endemic species in Japan, is a habitat specialist that is confined to waterfalls in riparian environments. Its sister species, Saxifraga fortunei, is a generalist that is widely distributed along riverbanks. Here, we examined sympatric populations of the two Saxifraga species to test whether the differences in habitat preference and colonization process influenced regional and local genetic structures. METHODS: To reveal genetic structures, we examined chloroplast microsatellite variations and genome-wide nucleotide polymorphisms obtained by genotyping by sequencing. We also estimated the gene flow among and within populations and performed landscape genetic analyses to evaluate seed and pollen movement and the extent of genetic isolation related to geographic distance and/or habitat differences. RESULTS: We found strong genetic structure in the specialist S. acerifolia, even on a small spatial scale (<1 km part); each population on a different waterfall in one river system had a completely different predominant haplotype. By contrast, the generalist S. fortunei showed no clear genetic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the level of genetic isolation was increased in S. acerifolia by the spatially fragmented habitat and limited seed and pollen dispersal over waterfalls. Habitat differentiation between the sister taxa could have contributed to the different patterns of gene flow and then shaped the contrasting genetic structures.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Saxifragaceae , Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Japão , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Saxifragaceae/genética , Simpatria
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713947

RESUMO

In this study, polyamide and MCI GEL® CHP20P were employed as stationary phases in medium pressure chromatography (MPC) for the efficient preparative separation of bergenin from Saxifraga atrata. Ethanol-water, methanol-water, and acetonitrile-water mobile phases all showed good enrichment capacity for bergenin fraction when polyamide was used as a stationary phase. After 5 cycles of polyamide MPC using acetonitrile/water, 1.2 g of bergenin fraction was isolated from 180 g Saxifraga atrata herb. Further purification of this fraction was conducted using MCI GEL® CHP20P styrene-divinylbenzene beads. The bergenin fraction was separated into two fractions, and after three runs of MPC, 714.2 mg of bergenin with purity above 99% was obtained. The results demonstrate that the combination of polyamide and styrene-divinylbenzene MPC can be utilized for preparative isolation of compounds from natural products with high yield and purity.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nylons/química , Saxifragaceae/química , Estirenos/química , Benzopiranos/análise , Benzopiranos/química , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Géis/química , Compostos de Vinila/química
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 488-493, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645138

RESUMO

On the basis of literatures and standards relating to Tibetan medicine, the varieties, origin, standards and efficacy of Saxifragaceae plant used in Tibetan medicine were summarized. According to the findings, 75 species(including varieties) in 8 genera of Saxifragaceae plants, involving 21 varieties, are used in Tibetan medicine. Among them, 9 commonly used varieties, namely Songdi, Sedi, Yajima, Aoledansaierbao, Jiansidawu, Saiguo, Katuer, Sangdi, Maoqinghong, are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Ministry Standards for Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standards and other local standards, accounting for 42.9% of the total number of varieties. Tibetan names, Tibetan translation of Chinese names, as well as original plant of Tibetan medicine varieties are quite different in relevant Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, which resulted in common phenomena of synonym and homonym. The standards of most varieties only involve characters, and microscopic, physical and chemical identification, with low quality standards. Based on the results of the analysis, this paper suggests strengthening surveys on herbal textual research, resources and current utilization of Saxifragaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine, summarizing the varieties, establishing improved quality standards, and perfor-ming a comparative study on therapeutic material basis and biological activity of different original plants, in order to promote rational use of these medicinal plant resources, and ensuring the accuracy, safety, and effectiveness of clinical medication.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Saxifragaceae , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Padrões de Referência
6.
J Sep Sci ; 44(3): 767-776, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314692

RESUMO

Diabetes, a metabolic disorder, is caused by a high blood sugar level. Diabetes is an increasing health issue and search for potent antidiabetic agents is desirable. Owing to its ethnomedicinal value, the Himalayan perennial herb Bergenia stracheyi (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Engl. (Saxifragaceae Juss) is used to treat diabetes. Herein, an efficient high-speed countercurrent chromatography with elution mode is reported for separation of active compounds from B. stracheyi. In current investigation, six main compounds including ß-arbutin (1), bergenin (2), 6-O-galloylarbutin (3), gallic acid (4), 11-O-galloylbergenin (5), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (6) with above 95% purity were efficiently separated in a single run using biphasic tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/methanol/water (1:3:1:5, v/v/v/v) solvent system. The structures of these compounds were characterized using spectral techniques and compared with the literature. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities evaluation of the study samples showed that ß-arbutin (1) and 6-O-galloylarbutin (3) have a significant protective effect, especially at high dose against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury. Our results might help further in-depth phytochemical and biological evaluation studies in search of potent antidiabetic compounds from B. stracheyi.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Saxifragaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Distribuição Contracorrente , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113617, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307053

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Penthorum chinense Pursh is used for promoting diuresis and alleviating "heat"-associated disorders, which were considered to be related to diabetic in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). AIMS OF THIS STUDY: Here, we aimed to evaluate the ability and underlying mechanism of the ethyl acetate fraction of Penthorum chinense Pursh stems (PSE) to inhibit vascular inflammation in high glucose (HG)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC cells). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HUVEC cells were pre-treated with PSE following HG treatment. The cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were analyzed. Inflammatory, and antioxidant,-related proteins were analyzed using western blotting. Molecular docking and drug affinity targeting experiments (DARTS) were utilized to analyze and verify the binding of the Keap1 protein and polyphenols of PSE. RESULTS: HG can significantly increase the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), destroy the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and promote the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while PSE treatment reversed these changes. Mechanistically, PSE inhibited NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines activation induced by HG through activating the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant proteins Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD (P)H Quinone Dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), Glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), Glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM). Further study indicated that PSE activated Nrf2 antioxidant pathway mainly by the binding of primary polyphenols from PSE and the Keap1 protein. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the present data highlight the health benefits of polyphenols from Penthorum chinense Pursh. regarding diabetes, proving it to be an important source of health care products. Besides, binding of the Keap1 protein may be an effective strategy to activate Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and prevent diabetes.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Saxifragaceae , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1635: 461690, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250159

RESUMO

Traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) is a valuable source of novel therapeutic lead molecules inspired by natural products (NPs). The health benefits of Saxifraga atrata are well documented in TTM, but reports on its chemical composition are limited, most likely due to the complicated purification process. Herein, target separation and identification of 4 main radical scavenging compounds from the methanolic extract of S. atrata was were performed using medium- and high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with online HPLC-DPPH detection. The sample was pretreated using medium pressure liquid chromatography with MCI GELⓇ CHP20P styrene-divinylbenzene beads as a stationary phase, yielding 1.4 g of the target DPPH inhibitors (Fr4, 11.9% recovery). The compounds were further purified and isolated using HPLC on RP-C18 (ReproSil-Pur C18 AQ) followed by HILIC (Click XIon) column separation, resulting in 2.8 mg of fraction Fr4-1-1, 6.8 mg of fraction Fr4-2, 244.9 mg of the Fr4-3-1 sample, and 38.3 mg of Fr4-4-1. The structure and purity of the target compounds were determined, and four compounds (ethyl gallate, 11-O-galloylbergenin, rutin and isoquercitrin) were isolated with >95% purity. The developed methodology is efficient for targeted isolation of high-purity radical scavengers from NP extracts and could be used for rapid identification and isolation of DPPH inhibitors from various NPs.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Picratos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saxifragaceae/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(12): 2044-2050, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437007

RESUMO

A new monoterpene (1) along with eight known compounds were isolated from the roots of Astilbe grandis Stapf ex E.H. Wilson. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and ECD experiments as (S)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)furan-2(5H)-one (1), caffeic acid (2), mandelic acid (3), sonchifolinin B (4), α-viniferin (5), euscaphic acid (6), cianidanol (7), ß-sitosterol (8), and stigmasterol (9), respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 exhibited inhibitory effects against BRD4 protein with IC50 values of 13.20 and 17.39 µM, respectively. In vitro, compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate cytotoxicity to A549 cells, HCC827 cells and Hela cells with IC50 values ranging from 31.98 to 154.90 µM.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Saxifragaceae/química , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sitosteroides/química , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Estigmasterol/química , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
10.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256153

RESUMO

Bergenia (Saxifragaceae) genus is native to central Asia and encompasses 32 known species. Among these, nine are of pharmacological relevance. In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda), "Pashanabheda" (stone breaker) is an elite drug formulation obtained from the rhizomes of B. ligulata. Bergenia species also possess several other biological activities like diuretic, antidiabetic, antitussive, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-bradykinin, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, anticancer, antioxidant, antiobesity, and adaptogenic. This review provides explicit information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological significance of the genus Bergenia. The extant literature concerned was systematically collected from various databases, weblinks, blogs, books, and theses to select 174 references for detailed analysis. To date, 152 chemical constituents have been identified and characterized from the genus Bergenia that belong to the chemical classes of polyphenols, phenolic-glycosides, lactones, quinones, sterols, tannins, terpenes, and others. B. crassifolia alone possesses 104 bioactive compounds. Meticulous pharmacological and phytochemical studies on Bergenia species and its conservation could yield more reliable compounds and products of pharmacological significance for better healthcare.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Saxifragaceae/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050354

RESUMO

Polysaccharides from Bergenia emeiensis (PBE) showed a robust antioxidant ability on scavenging free radicals in vitro. However, the further antioxidant potential in cell level and in vivo was still unknown. Therefore, in this present study, the protective effect of PBE on human cervical carcinoma cell (Hela) cells and Caenorhabditis elegans against oxidative stress was evaluated. The results showed PBE could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in Hela cells and promote the mitochondrial membrane potential. Then, the cell apoptosis was reduced. Moreover, PBE could enhance the survival of C. elegans under thermal stress to 13.44%, and significantly reduce the ROS level, which was connected with the overexpression of sod-3 and the increased nuclear localization of daf-16 transcription factor. Therefore, PBE exhibited a strong antioxidant capacity in the cellular level and for a whole organism. Thus, polysaccharides from B. emeiensis have natural potential to be a safe antioxidant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saxifragaceae/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 302, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation. Astilbe chinensis is one of perennial herbs belonging to the genus Astilbe. Plants in the genus have been used for pain, headaches, arthralgia, and chronic bronchitis. However, the effect of A.chinensis on inflammation remains unclear. To study the anti-inflammatory action of A.chinensis ethanol extract (ACE), we investigated the effect of ACE on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in macrophages. METHODS: We evaluated the effectiveness of ACE in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and thioglycollate (TG)-elicited peritoneal macrophages from male C57BL/6 mice. We measured the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and examined the anti-inflammatory actions of ACE on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in the macrophages. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to determine protein level and translocation, respectively. RESULTS: ACE suppressed the output of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in stimulated macrophages via inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins. ACE suppressed mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We examined the efficacies of ACE on NF-κB activation by measuring the expressions including IκB kinase (IKK), inhibitor of κB (IκB), and nuclear p65 proteins. In addition, the inhibition of NF-κB p65's translocation was determined with immunofluorescence assay. CONCLUSION: Our findings manifested that ACE inhibited LPS or TG-induced inflammation by blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages. It indicated that ACE is a potential therapeutic mean for inflammation and related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saxifragaceae , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , República da Coreia
13.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932931

RESUMO

This study was the first designed to evaluate the extraction and antioxidant ability of triterpenes from Bergenia emeiensis rhizomes. The yield of triterpenes from B. emeiensis was mainly affected by the concentration of ethanol, followed by the extraction time, solvent to sample ratio, and the power of ultrasound. Thus, the response surface method was applied to investigate the interaction between the two factors and to optimize the extraction process. The optimal extraction conditions were 210 W, 75% ethanol, 40 min and 25 mL/g with a maximum yield of 229.37 ± 7.16 mg UAE/g. Moreover, the antioxidant ability of triterpenes from B. emeiensis (TBE) was evaluated by determining the scavenging capacity on free radicals and the protection on CHO cells and Caenorhabditis elegans against oxidative stress. The results showed the triterpenes could clear 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals well and had a strong reducing power. In addition, the survival of CHO cells was higher than that of the control group as a result of reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and promoting the activities of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, TBE could also enhance the survival of C. elegans under H2O2 conditions. Therefore, triterpenes from B. emeiensis could be developed into a beneficial potential for antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Saxifragaceae/química , Triterpenos/química , Ultrassom , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Células CHO , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Malondialdeído/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Solventes
14.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 621, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chrysosplenium L. (Saxifragaceae) is a genus of plants widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere and usually found in moist, shaded valleys and mountain slopes. This genus is ideal for studying plant adaptation to low light conditions. Although some progress has been made in the systematics and biogeography of Chrysosplenium, its chloroplast genome evolution remains to be investigated. RESULTS: To fill this gap, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of six Chrysosplenium species and analyzed their genome structure, GC content, and nucleotide diversity. Moreover, we performed a phylogenetic analysis and calculated non-synonymous (Ka) /synonymous (Ks) substitution ratios using the combined protein-coding genes of 29 species within Saxifragales and two additional species as outgroups, as well as a pair-wise estimation for each gene within Chrysosplenium. Compared with the outgroups in Saxifragaceae, the six Chrysosplenium chloroplast genomes had lower GC contents; they also had conserved boundary regions and gene contents, as only the rpl32 gene was lost in four of the Chrysosplenium chloroplast genomes. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the Chrysosplenium separated to two major clades (the opposite group and the alternate group). The selection pressure estimation (Ka/Ks ratios) of genes in the Chrysosplenium species showed that matK and ycf2 were subjected to positive selection. CONCLUSION: This study provides genetic resources for exploring the phylogeny of Chrysosplenium and sheds light on plant adaptation to low light conditions. The lower average GC content and the lacking gene of rpl32 indicated selective pressure in their unique habitats. Different from results previously reported, our selective pressure estimation suggested that the genes related to photosynthesis (such as ycf2) were under positive selection at sites in the coding region.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Saxifragaceae/genética , Sequência Conservada , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saxifragaceae/classificação , Seleção Genética
15.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605306

RESUMO

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ≥2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Saxifragaceae , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Calicivirus Felino/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 324, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plastid gene loss and pseudogenization has been widely documented in parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plants, which have relaxed selective constraints on photosynthetic function. More enigmatic are sporadic reports of pseudogenization and loss of important photosynthesis genes in lineages thought to be fully photosynthetic. Here we report the complete plastid genome of Saniculiphyllum guangxiense, a critically endangered and phylogenetically isolated plant lineage, along with genomic evidence of reduced chloroplast function. We also report 22 additional plastid genomes representing the diversity of its containing clade Saxifragales, characterizing gene content and placing variation in a broader phylogenetic context. RESULTS: We find that the plastid genome of Saniculiphyllum has experienced pseudogenization of five genes of the ndh complex (ndhA, ndhB, ndhD, ndhF, and ndhK), previously reported in flowering plants with an aquatic habit, as well as the surprising pseudogenization of two genes more central to photosynthesis (ccsA and cemA), contrasting with strong phylogenetic conservatism of plastid gene content in all other sampled Saxifragales. These genes participate in photooxidative protection, cytochrome synthesis, and carbon uptake. Nuclear paralogs exist for all seven plastid pseudogenes, yet these are also unlikely to be functional. CONCLUSIONS: Saniculiphyllum appears to represent the greatest degree of plastid gene loss observed to date in any fully photosynthetic lineage, perhaps related to its extreme habitat specialization, yet plastid genome length, structure, and substitution rate are within the variation previously reported for photosynthetic plants. These results highlight the increasingly appreciated dynamism of plastid genomes, otherwise highly conserved across a billion years of green plant evolution, in plants with highly specialized life history traits.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saxifragaceae/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Organelas/genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Pseudogenes/genética
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 198, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bergenia species are perennial herbs native to central Asia, and one of the most promising medicinal plants of the family Saxifragaceae which are popularly known as 'Pashanbheda'. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant and α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, tyrosinase, elastase, and cholinesterases inhibition potential of Bergenia pacumbis of Nepali origin collected from the Karnali region of Nepal. METHODS: The sequential crude extracts were made in hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. Antioxidant activities were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay. The α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, tyrosinase, elastase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were analyzed by the 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA), p-Nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (p-NPG), 4-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB), l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide (AAAPVN), acetylthiocholine, and butyrylcholine as a respective substrate. The major metabolites were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with electron spray ionization- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) profiling. RESULTS: Our results revealed the great antioxidant ability of crude extract of B. pacumbis in ethyl acetate extract against both DPPH (IC50 = 30.14 ± 0.14 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 17.38 ± 1.12 µg/mL). However, the crude methanol extract of B. pacumbis showed the comparable enzymes inhibitions with standard drugs; α-amylase (IC50 = 14.03 ± 0.04 µg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.00 µg/mL), lipase (IC50 = 67.26 ± 0.17 µg/mL), tyrosinase (IC50 = 58.25 ± 1.63 µg/mL), elastase (IC50 = 74.00 ± 3.03 µg/mL), acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 31.52 ± 0.58 µg/mL), and butyrylcholinesterase (IC50 = 11.69 ± 0.14 µg/mL). On the basis of HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling of metabolites, we identified major compounds such as Bergenin, Catechin, Arbutin, Gallic acid, Protocatechuic acid, Syringic acid, Hyperoside, Afzelechin, Methyl gallate, Paashaanolactone, Astilbin, Quercetin, Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, Diosmetin, Phloretin, and Morin in methanol extract which has reported beneficial bioactivities. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a plethora of scientific evidence that the crude extracts of B. pacumbis from Nepalese origin in different extracting solvents have shown significant potential on inhibiting free radicals as well as enzymes involved in digestion, skin related problems, and neurological disorders compared with the commercially available drugs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saxifragaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Nepal , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
18.
J Sep Sci ; 43(16): 3233-3241, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521119

RESUMO

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with middle chromatogram isolated gel column was employed for the efficient preparative separation of the arylbutanoid-type phenol [(-)-rhododendrin] from Saxifraga tangutica. Universal C18 (XTerra C18) and XCharge C18 columns were compared for (-)-rhododendrin fraction analysis and preparation. Although tailing and overloading occurred on the XTerra C18 column, the positively charged reversed-phase C18 column (XCharge C18) overcame these drawbacks, allowing for favorable separation resolution, even when loading at a on a preparative scale (3.69 mg per injection). The general separation process was as follows. First, 365.0 mg of crude (-)-rhododendrin was enriched from 165 g Saxifraga tangutica extract via a middle chromatogram isolated gel column. Second, separation was performed on an XTerra C18 preparative column, from which 73.8 mg of the target fraction was easily obtained. Finally, the 24.0 mg tailing peak of (-)-rhododendrin on XTerra C18 column was selectively purified on the XCharge C18 analytical column. These results demonstrate that the tailing nonalkaloid peaks can be effectively used for preparative isolation on XCharge C18 columns.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Géis/química , Glicosídeos/química , Conformação Molecular , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saxifragaceae/química , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 155: 656-665, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251745

RESUMO

As a renewable source of unique aromatic compounds, lignin attracts the attention of many researchers. However, for its successful application, it is necessary to have a clear and accurate idea of its chemical structure. Therefore, it is necessary to expand knowledge about the structure of lignins of various nature using the informative analytical methods. The aim of this study was to characterize the dioxane lignin of the Saxifraga oppositifolia L. - the northernmost angiosperm. The lignin of plants growing in the Arctic zone may differ significantly from other plants, both due to species differences and peculiarities of growing conditions. Studies were conducted on an isolated lignin preparation obtained by the Pepper's method. Analysis of Py-GC/MS data and NMR spectroscopy showed that saxifrage lignin belongs to GH-type. This is evidenced by a significant proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl units (40%), while the content of syringyl units is about 14%. The major substructures of the studied lignin were ß-aryl ether, phenylcoumaran, and resinol. It was found that the γ­carbon of the lignin side chains are partly acetylated, and forms ester bonds with the p-hydroxybenzoate structure. In addition, the NMR spectrum showed a signal of the phenylglycoside evidenced the presence of the lignin-carbohydrate complex.


Assuntos
Lignina/química , Caules de Planta/química , Saxifragaceae/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lignina/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
20.
Physiol Plant ; 169(2): 276-290, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072645

RESUMO

In the context of future climate change new habitats will be threatened and unique species will be forced to develop different strategies to survive. Saxifraga longifolia Lapeyr. is an endemic species from the Pyrenees with a very particular habitat. We explored the capacity and strategies of S. longifolia plants to face different severities of drought stress under both natural conditions and controlled water stress followed by a re-watering period of 20 days. Our results showed a role for abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and cytokinins (CKs) in plant survival from drought stress, and as the stress increased, ABA lost significance and SA appeared to be more associated with the response mechanisms. Moreover, photo-oxidative stress markers revealed that both xanthophyll cycles played a photoprotection role with a stronger participation of the lutein epoxide cycle as the stress was more intense. Severe drought decreased the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) below 0.45, being this the limit to survive upon rewatering. Overall, our results proved different strategies of S. longifolia plants to cope with drought stress and suggested a Fv /Fm threshold to predict plant survival in high-mountain environments.


Assuntos
Secas , Saxifragaceae/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/análise , Citocininas/análise , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Água
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