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1.
Mil Med ; 187(1-2): 9-11, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990511

RESUMO

In response to the COVID pandemic, Uniformed Services University (USU) suspended clerkships. As the nation's military medical school, USU had to keep students safe while still preparing them to be military physicians. In this commentary, we, a group of USU students, explore what this experience taught us about military medicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação Médica , Medicina Militar , Militares , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Medicina Militar/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Faculdades de Medicina
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 24, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented changes to medical education. However, no data are available regarding the impact the pandemic may have on medical training in Mexico. The aim of our study was to evaluate and identify the medical school students' perceptions of the changes in their clinical training due to the pandemic in Mexico. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study where a previous validated online survey was translated and adapted by medical education experts and applied to senior medical students from March to April of 2021. The 16-item questionnaire was distributed online combining dichotomous, multiple-choice, and 5-point Likert response scale questions. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to compare the student's perceptions between public and private schools. RESULTS: A total of 671 responses were included in the study period. Most participants were from public schools (81%) and female (61%). Almost every respondent (94%) indicated it was necessary to obtain COVID-19 education, yet only half (54%) received such training. Students in private schools were less likely to have their clinical instruction canceled (53% vs. 77%, p = 0.001) and more likely to have access to virtual instruction (46% vs. 22%, p = 0.001) when compared to students from public schools. Four out of every five students considered their training inferior to that of previous generations, and most students (82%) would consider repeating their final year of clinical training. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the COVID-19 on medical education in Mexico has been significant. Most final-year medical students have been affected by the cancellation of their in-person clinical instruction, for which the majority would consider repeating their final year of training. Efforts to counterbalance this lack of clinical experience with virtual or simulation instruction are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Faculdades de Medicina
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 15, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The year 2013 marks a watershed in the history of medical education in Taiwan. Following Taiwan's Taskforce of Medical School Curriculum Reform recommendations, the medical school curriculum was reduced from 7 to 6 years. This study aimed to analyze the impact of medical school curriculum reform on medical students' performance in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the OSCE records at Taipei Veterans General Hospital (Taipei VGH), one of Taiwan's largest tertiary medical centers, between November 2016 and July 2020. The eligibility criteria were medical students receiving a full one-year clinical sub-internship training at Taipei VGH and in their last year of medical school. All medical students received a mock OSCE-1 at the beginning of their sub-internship, a mock OSCE-2 after six months of training, and a national OSCE at the end of their sub-internship. The parameters for performance in OSCEs included "percentage of scores above the qualification standard" and "percentage of qualified stations." RESULTS: Between November 2016 and July 2020, 361 undergraduates underwent clinical sub-internship training at Taipei VGH. Among them, 218 were taught under the 7-year curriculum, and 143 were instructed under the 6-year curriculum. Based on baseline-adjusted ANCOVA results, medical students under the 7-year curriculum had a higher percentage of scores above the qualification standard than those under the 6-year curriculum at the mock OSCE-1 (7-year curriculum vs. 6-year curriculum: 33.8% [95% CI 32.0-35.7] vs. 28.2% [95% CI 25.9-30.4], p < 0.001), and mock OSCE-2 (7-year curriculum vs. 6-year curriculum: 89.4% [95% CI 87.4-91.4] vs. 84.0% [95% CI 81.5-86.4], p = 0.001). Moreover, medical students in the 7-year curriculum had a higher percentage of qualified stations in mock OSCE-1 (7-year curriculum vs. 6-year curriculum: 89.4% [95% CI 87.4-91.4] vs. 84.0% [95% CI 81.5-86.4], p = 0.001) and mock OSCE-2 (7-year curriculum vs. 6-year curriculum: 91.9% [95% CI 90.1-93.8] vs. 86.1% [95% CI 83.8-88.3], p = 0.001). After clinical sub-internship training, there were no differences in the percentage of scores above the qualification standard (7-year curriculum vs. 6-year curriculum: 33.5% [95% CI 32.2-34.9] vs. 34.6 [95% CI 32.9-36.3], p = 0.328) and percentage of qualified stations (7-year curriculum vs. 6-year curriculum: 89.4% [95% CI 88.1-90.7] vs. 90.2% [95% CI 88.6-91.8], p = 0.492). CONCLUSIONS: At the beginning of the sub-internship, medical students under the 7-year curriculum had better OSCE performance than those under the 6-year curriculum. After the clinical sub-internship training in Taipei VGH, there was no difference in the national OSCE score between the 6- and 7-year curricula. Our study suggests that clinical sub-internship is crucial for the development of clinical skills and performance in the national OSCE.


Assuntos
Currículo , Faculdades de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
4.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2011605, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978277

RESUMO

Of Being a First Generation (First Gen) college graduate is an important intersectionality which impacts the lens through which First Gen students learn to become physicians. In this Perspective, we define the First Gen identity and review some of the salient First Gen literature as it applies to the medical school experience. We discuss the conception, design and execution of First Gen initiatives and program development at our medical school as a call to action and model for other institutions to create communities for their First Gen populations, focusing on inclusion and tailored support. We describe the framework through which we envisioned our programming for First Gen medical students, trainees, staff, and faculty at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Faculdades de Medicina , Universidades
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 31, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A new generation of medical students, Generation Z (Gen Z), is becoming the predominant population in medical schools and will join the workforce in a few years' time. Medicine has undergone serious changes in high-income countries recently. Therefore, it is unclear how attractive the medical profession still is for high school students of Gen Z. The aim of this study was to investigate what motivation leads Gen Z students in their choice to study human medicine, and how they see their professional future. Our study was guided by motivation theory and the influence of personality traits and other personal factors on students' choice of university major. METHODS: In a cross-sectional online survey, we included third- and fourth-year high school students in Northern Switzerland. We examined the importance of criteria when choosing a university major: personality traits, career motivation, life goals, and other considerations influencing the choice of human medicine versus other fields of study. Results Of 1790 high school students, 456 (25.5%) participated in the survey (72.6% women, mean age 18.4 years); 32.7% of the respondents aspired to major in medicine at university. For all respondents, the foremost criterion for selecting a field of study was 'interest in the field,' followed by 'income' and 'job security.' High school students aiming to study human medicine attached high importance to 'meaningful work' as a criterion; supported by 36.2% of those students answering that helping and healing people was a core motivation to them. They also scored high on altruism (p < 0.001 against all groups compared) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001) and were highly performance- (p < 0.001) and career-minded (p < 0.001). In contrast, all the other groups except the law/economics group had higher scores on extraprofessional concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Swiss Gen Z students aspiring to study human medicine show high intrinsic motivation, altruism, and willingness to perform, sharing many values with previous generations. Adequate work-life balance and job security are important issues for Gen Z. Regarding the current working conditions, the ongoing shortage of physicians, and recent findings on physicians' well-being, the potential for improvement and optimization is high.


Assuntos
Motivação , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 35, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Social Media (SM) for academic information seeking is common among undergraduates nowadays. There is limited data on OER and SM use for education in Sri Lanka. This study was aimed at evaluating the OER and SM use for education among the medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya. Stratified random sampling was used to select students from the first year to the final year. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data. RESULTS: The study included 257 responses (response rate: 89.5%), of which 185 (72.0%) were females. The OER and SM use for educational purposes at least once a month among students was 96.1% (95%CI: 93.7-98.5%) and 88.3% (95%CI: 84.4-92.3%) respectively. There was no gender difference in OER and SM use. The main reasons for accessing OER were the availability of information at any time (36.1%) and ease of information access (31.5%). Wiki sites (84.4%) and Facebook (79.8%) were the highest accessed OER and SM platforms. The majority of students were in view that the information on wiki sites (51.4%) and results of general non-specific web searches (56.0%) were reliable. Only 33.9% of students searched information from educational and government-related sources and 18.7% had accessed e-journals. Through SM, 79.0% joined educational groups and 77.0% followed the medical-related sites, pages and people. More than one-third of students (35.8%) could not find academic information from SM due to the information overload and 31.1% mentioned that SM distracted their education. CONCLUSION: The majority of the students used OER and SM for education; however, only a minority accessed reliable information. Students accepted information available in wiki sites and general non-specific web searchers without considering the credibility of sources. The majority of the students did not refer to e-journals. Distractions to academic work and the difficulty to access accurate information were major concerns of using SM. This study highlights the importance of improving information literacy among medical students.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Sri Lanka
7.
Can J Rural Med ; 27(1): 22-28, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975113

RESUMO

Introduction: This study seeks to explore influential factors leading to physician turnover in designated Rural Northern Physician Group Agreement (RNPGA) communities in Northern Ontario, as well as physician's perceptions of the RNPGA contract and effects of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) on physician retention in these communities. Methods: Twelve qualitative semi-structured interviews were completed with rural physicians who had RNPGA contracts within the past 5 years but had left their practice community. Data collected from recorded interviews were analysed using a thematic analysis approach in order to identify common themes. Results: A range of factors influencing physician's decisions to leave were identified including lack of partner career prospects, burnout and lack of opportunities and amenities. Common challenges were sometimes also perceived as rewards of rural practice. The concern of lack of flexibility of the RNPGA contract was identified, as well as a perceived lack of presence of NOSM graduates in RNPGA communities. Conclusion: A variety of factors influence physician turnover in RNPGA communities. These may be considered by communities hoping to inform recruitment and retention policy. Renewal of the RNPGA contract may require consideration for availability of part-time positions, increasing the number of physicians funded and incentivising physician wellness. NOSM may consider mandatory postgraduate programme placements in RNPGA communities and further development of infrastructure in these communities to improve learner, graduate and institutional engagement.


Résumé Introduction: Cette étude visait à examiner les facteurs qui influent sur le roulement des médecins dans les communautés désignées du groupe de médecins en milieu rural et dans le Nord (GMMRN) du Nord de l'Ontario, ainsi que la perception qu'on les médecins du contrat du GMMRN et des effets de l'École de médecine du Nord de l'Ontario (ÉMNO) sur la rétention des médecins dans ces communautés. Méthodes: On a réalisé 12 entrevues semi-structurées auprès de médecins ayant travaillé sous contrat avec le GMMRN dans les 5 dernières années, mais qui avaient quitté leur communauté de pratique. Une approche d'analyse thématique a servi à analyser les données recueillies dans les entrevues enregistrées afin de cerner les thèmes communs. Résultats: Absence d'occasion de faire carrière avec un partenaire, épuisement professionnel et absence d'occasions et d'équipement font partie de la gamme de facteurs qui influent sur la décision des médecins de partir. Les difficultés courantes étaient parfois aussi perçues comme la récompense de la pratique rurale. Des préoccupations quant à la rigidité du contrat avec le GMMRN ont été soulevées, ainsi que l'absence perçue de diplômés de l'ÉMNO dans les communautés du GMMRN. Conclusion: Une gamme de facteurs influencent le roulement des médecins dans les communautés du GMMRN. Les communautés qui espèrent éclairer le recrutement et la politique de rétention pourraient en tenir compte. Le renouvellement du contrat avec le GMMRN pourrait nécessiter d'envisager d'ouvrir des postes à temps partiel, d'augmenter le nombre de médecins financés et de favoriser le bien-être des médecins. L'ÉMNO pourrait envisager des placements dans les communautés du GMMRN dans le cadre du programme obligatoire de 2e cycle et le développement plus poussé de l'infrastructure dans ces communautés afin d'améliorer l'engagement de l'apprenant, des diplômés et de l'établissement. Mots-clés: recrutement des médecins ruraux, rétention des médecins ruraux.


Assuntos
Médicos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Humanos , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , População Rural , Faculdades de Medicina
8.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2024488, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For years, US medical schools have relied on community-based, private clinicians to educate medical students. There has been a steady decline in the number of physicians willing to take on medical students in their clinical practices. Recent issues related to the pandemic raise questions about how many patients students should see to have a meaningful clinical experience. METHODS: As part of a 16-week longitudinal clinical experience, medical students spend 2 days each week in a family medicine or internal medicine clinic. As repetition enhances learning, maximizing the number of patients students see is important. Using a mixed integer linear program, we sought to determine the optimal schedule that maximizes the number of patients whom students see during a rotation. Patient visits were collected from January to April 2018 for clinics used by the medical school. By maximizing the minimum number of patients per learner over all non-empty day-clinic combinations, we deliver equitable rotation plans based on our assumptions. RESULTS: For this pilot study, multiple experiments were performed with different numbers of students assigned to clinics. Each experiment also generated a weekly rotation plan for a given student. Based on this optimization model, the minimum number of patients per student over 16 weeks was 87 (3 patients per day) and actually increased the number of students who could be assigned to one of the clinics from 1 student per rotation to 8 students. CONCLUSIONS: The mixed integer linear program assigned more students to clinics that have more total visits in order to achieve the optimal and fairest learning quality. In addition, by conducting various experiments on different numbers of students, we observed that we were able to allocate more students without affecting the number of patients students see.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Projetos Piloto , Faculdades de Medicina
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 36, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accreditation systems strive to ensure the quality of undergraduate (basic) medical education and encourage ongoing improvements. Despite increasing global emphasis on quality assurance activities, there is limited research linking accreditation of medical education to improved student and graduate outcomes. The purpose of this study is to compare the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) performance of students and graduates who attended international medical schools accredited by an agency recognized by the World Federation of Medical Education (WFME) to individuals who attended schools that did not meet this criterion. METHODS: During the 2018-2020 study period, 39,650 individuals seeking Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates® (ECFMG®) certification took one or more USMLE examinations. We cross-tabulated USMLE performance (first-attempt pass/fail result) and medical school accreditation status. RESULTS: Individuals seeking ECFMG certification who attended international medical schools accredited by an agency recognized by WFME had higher or comparable USMLE first-attempt pass rates compared to individuals who attended medical schools that did not meet this criterion. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing and maintaining meaningful accreditation systems requires substantial resources. These results provide important positive evidence that external evaluation of educational programs is associated, on average, with better educational outcomes, including in the domains of basic science, clinical knowledge, and clinical skills performance.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Faculdades de Medicina , Certificação , Avaliação Educacional , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros , Humanos , Licenciamento em Medicina , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 26, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-peer tutoring appears to be an efficient approach for teaching clinical skills. However, the clinical experience gained in the form of student medical internships may offset any interest in such tutoring programme. We then investigated the long-term benefits of this programme. METHODS: This study was conducted in a medical school that experimented in near-peer tutoring for semiology intended for undergraduate medical students. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations and a written semiology test were used to assess students' clinical skills immediately on its conclusion and repeated one and 2 years after the tutoring was completed. RESULTS: 116 students were evaluated initially (80 tutored and 36 untutored), 38 at 1 year (16 tutored and 22 untutored), 42 at 2 years (21 tutored and 21 untutored). In the global score for Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: at 1 year, the tutored group scored 14.0 ± 1.05 and the untutored group scored 11.3 ± 2.3 (p < 0.001), at 2 years, the tutored group scored 15.1 ± 1.5 and the untutored group scored 12.4 ± 2.2 (p < 0.001). We found a similar but smaller difference for the written semiology test. The difference for Objective Structured Clinical Examinations between tutored and untutored students vanished over time for cross-cutting skills. CONCLUSIONS: Near-peer tutoring in semiology for undergraduate medical students led to better results that remained with the passing of time. Though internships do allow an improvement in the clinical skills of untutored students, they did not reach the level of tutored students.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Faculdades de Medicina , Ensino
11.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(1): e8-e15, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Literature suggests that funding for pediatric clinical trials is inequitably awarded. Furthermore, although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected all hospitals, institutions with already limited resources were more severely impacted. We hypothesized that there would be difference in schools and hospitals that were able to participate in the initial round of pediatric COVID-19 clinical research. METHODS: We searched online databases for preregistered studies using the keywords "COVID-19," "COVID," "SARS-CoV-2," "2019-nCov," "2019 novel coronavirus," and "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2." Search results were limited to studies enrolling participants from birth to 17 years, studies started in 2020, and studies originating in the United states. We calculated the proportion of institutions with active COVID-19 pediatric clinical studies in 2020 and compared institutional characteristics between institutions with and without at least one qualifying COVID-19 study, using rank-sum tests, χ2 tests, or Fisher's exact tests, as appropriate. RESULTS: We identified 150 allopathic medical schools, 34 osteopathic medical schools, and 178 children's hospitals meeting inclusion criteria. Among included institutions, 25% of medical schools and 20% children's hospitals participated in 1 of the registered pediatric COVID-19 studies the year before the study period. Institutions that participated in pediatric COVID-19 studies had more publications, more National Institutes of Health funding, and more studies registered on Clinicaltrials.gov in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the pandemic affecting everyone, participation in early clinical research on the impact of COVID-19 in pediatric populations was concentrated in a few well-resourced institutions that were highly experienced in research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Faculdades de Medicina , Estados Unidos
12.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2010291, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898403

RESUMO

Many U.S. medical schools conduct holistic review of applicants to enhance the socioeconomic and experiential diversity of the physician workforce. The authors examined the role of first-generation college-graduate status on U.S. medical school application, acceptance, and matriculation, hypothesizing that first-generation (vs. continuing-generation) college graduates would be less likely to apply and gain acceptance to medical school.Secondary analysis of de-identified data from a retrospective national-cohort study was conducted for individuals who completed the 2001-2006 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Pre-Medical College Admission Test Questionnaire (PMQ) and the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT). AAMC provided medical school application, acceptance, and matriculation data through 06/09/2013. Multivariable logistic regression models identified demographic, academic, and experiential variables independently associated with each outcome and differences between first-generation and continuing-generation students. Of 262,813 PMQ respondents, 211,216 (80.4%) MCAT examinees had complete data for analysis and 24.8% self-identified as first-generation college graduates. Of these, 142,847 (67.6%) applied to U.S. MD-degree-granting medical schools, of whom 86,486 (60.5%) were accepted, including 14,708 (17.0%) first-generation graduates; 84,844 (98.1%) acceptees matriculated. Adjusting for all variables, first-generation (vs. continuing-generation) college graduates were less likely to apply (odds ratio [aOR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.86) and be accepted (aOR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83-0.88) to medical school; accepted first-generation college graduates were as likely as their continuing-generation peers to matriculate. Students with (vs. without) paid work experience outside hospitals/labs/clinics were less likely to apply, be accepted, and matriculate into medical school. Increased efforts to mitigate structural socioeconomic vulnerabilities that may prevent first-generation college students from applying to medical school are needed. Expanded use of holistic review admissions practices may help decision makers value the strengths first-generation college graduates and other underrepresented applicants bring to medical educationand the physician workforce.


Assuntos
Teste de Admissão Acadêmica , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades
13.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2016243, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958286

RESUMO

Social accountability is a powerful concept. It is applied to medical education to encourage future doctors to take action to address health inequalities and overlooked health needs of disadvantaged populations. Problem-based learning (PBL) provides an ideal setting to teach medical students about these topics. The objective of this study is to explore how well the components of social accountability are covered in a pre-clinical PBL medical curriculum and to determine the usefulness of an adapted validated social accountability framework. We identified Irish health needs and social issues through a literature review. The retrieved documents were aligned to four values (relevance, equity, cost-effectiveness and quality) from a validated social accountability inventory, to generate a map of social accountability values present in the Irish health system and population. We then used the adapted validated social accountability inventory to evaluate the content of the PBL medical curriculum at an Irish medical school. We identified 45 documents, which upon analysis lead to the identification of health and social issues related to social accountability. 66 pre-clinical PBL cases included demographic, health and psychosocial issues similar to the local population. Analysing along the four social accountability values, the PBL cases demonstrated room for improvement in the equity and relevance domains. Topics for expansion are Traveller health, LGBTI health, alcohol use, climate change and more. Medical educators can use the paper as an example of how to apply this methodology to evaluate PBL cases. Adapting and applying a validated framework is a useful pedagogical exercise to understand established societal values related to social accountability to inform a medical curriculum. We identified opportunities to improve the PBL cases to depict emerging global and social issues.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Currículo , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Responsabilidade Social
14.
Perspect Med Educ ; 11(1): 1-14, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systematic and structural inequities in power and privilege create differential attainment whereby differences in average levels of performance are observed between students from different socio-demographic groups. This paper reviews the international evidence on differential attainment related to ethnicity/race in medical school, drawing together the key messages from research to date to provide guidance for educators to operationalize and enact change and identify areas for further research. METHODS: Authors first identified areas of conceptual importance within differential attainment (learning, assessment, and systems/institutional factors) which were then the focus of a targeted review of the literature on differential attainment related to ethnicity/race in medical education and, where available and relevant, literature from higher education more generally. Each author then conducted a review of the literature and proposed guidelines based on their experience and research literature. The guidelines were iteratively reviewed and refined between all authors until we reached consensus on the Do's, Don'ts and Don't Knows. RESULTS: We present 13 guidelines with a summary of the research evidence for each. Guidelines address assessment practices (assessment design, assessment formats, use of assessments and post-hoc analysis) and educational systems and cultures (student experience, learning environment, faculty diversity and diversity practices). CONCLUSIONS: Differential attainment related to ethnicity/race is a complex, systemic problem reflective of unequal norms and practices within broader society and evident throughout assessment practices, the learning environment and student experiences at medical school. Currently, the strongest empirical evidence is around assessment processes themselves. There is emerging evidence of minoritized students facing discrimination and having different learning experiences in medical school, but more studies are needed. There is a pressing need for research on how to effectively redress systemic issues within our medical schools, particularly related to inequity in teaching and learning.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
15.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(1): 25-29, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865644

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To highlight radiology's merits and boost appeal to medical students in the digital era, it is increasingly important for radiology departments to be readily accessible to medical students. We report the results of a multivariate analysis of the virtual presence of radiology medical student education of 152 allopathic United States (US) medical schools, the first report of its kind to the authors' knowledge. We detail eight elements to include when optimizing a radiology medical student education website. METHODS: In August 2020, the Department of Radiology websites at 152 allopathic US medical schools were assessed for the presence of a medical student radiology education website and accessibility of collated information about preclinical and clinical course offerings, radiology interest groups, and outreach initiatives in the form of student radiology mentorship, shadowing, and research opportunities. RESULTS: 65.1% (99/152) of allopathic US medical schools' radiology departments have a dedicated medical student radiology education website, one of which was excluded from further review due to password protected content. 58.2% (57/98) of departmental websites include information about preclinical radiology coursework and 90.8% (89/98) of departments provide information about clinical courses. Details about interest groups were found on 26.5% (26/98) of departmental websites. Information about mentorship and shadowing was identified on less than half of departmental websites. 51% (50/98) of Department of Radiology websites provide information about research opportunities for students. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the majority of allopathic US medical schools' radiology departments lack full information of relevance to medical students. To engage today's and tomorrow's medical learners digitally, there is opportunity and need to improve the online availability of information about preclinical and clinical radiology courses, student interest groups, shadowing opportunities, student mentorship, and student research. We detail eight elements to include when optimizing a radiology medical student education website. In most instances, this can be accomplished by revising an existing radiology department website in a manner that engages, educates, and recruits medical students. As a specialty, radiology must expand our digital footprint to reach tomorrow's colleagues and leaders.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Radiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Radiologia/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Estados Unidos
16.
Clin Anat ; 35(1): 15-18, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378242

RESUMO

Newborn anatomy, despite being distinctly different than adult anatomy, does not constitute a major component of a typical medical school course in gross anatomy. Accordingly, there is a perception that other than the well-known late 20th-century atlas and small textbook by Edmund Crelin on newborn anatomy, there is almost no information available for anatomists and clinicians to refer to on normal infant anatomy. This perception, as verbalized by Crelin in his books, is not correct. There is an amazing wealth of accurate descriptive and pictorial information on infant anatomy available from late 19th- and early 20th-century sources. One of these sources is a comprehensive 200-page chapter on pediatric anatomy by Richard Scammon that was published in 1923 and that is freely available. Because of some inconsistencies and inaccuracies we have identified in the Crelin works, we suggest that any anatomist or clinician who wishes to learn and teach about infant anatomy refer to Scammon's chapter before using any text or image from the Crelin books.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Anatomia , Adulto , Anatomia/educação , Criança , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizagem , Faculdades de Medicina
17.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2007561, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many medical schools are moving toward integrated curricula in response to the 2010 Carnegie report. However, there is often apprehension that student performance on standard assessment metrics of medical knowledge acquisition could suffer during the transition period. Therefore, we sought to analyze the impact of curriculum redesign on the medical knowledge acquisition of the transitional cohort, as measured by NBME subject exam scores. METHODS: The University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Legacy curriculum followed a standard 2 + 2 medical school educational model, including traditional, department-based, third-year clinical clerkships. In the new ForWard curriculum, students enter clinical rotations one semester earlier, and those core clinical experiences are organized within four integrated blocks combining traditional clerkship specialties. This retrospective program evaluation compares NBME subject exam scores between the final cohort of Legacy third-year students (2016-17) and first cohort of ForWard students (2018) for the Adult Ambulatory Medicine, Medicine, Neurology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, and Surgery exams. RESULTS: NBME subject exam mean scores ranged from 75.5-79.4 for the Legacy cohort and 74.9-78.7 for the ForWard cohort, with no statistically significant differences in scores identified for each individual exam analyzed. Results remained constant when controlled for student demographic variables. DISCUSSION: Faculty and students may worry about impacts to the transitional cohort during curriculum redesign, however our results suggest no substantive negative effects to acquisition of medical knowledge during transition to an integrated curriculum. Further monitoring is necessary to examine whether medical knowledge acquisition remains stable or changes after the integrated curriculum is established.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Obstetrícia , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Criança , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina
18.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151832, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536539

RESUMO

The attitudes of medical students towards the clinical importance of neuroanatomy have been little studied. Because it has been reported that medical students find neuroanatomy difficult and can have 'neurophobia', here we test the hypothesis that early-stage medical students across Europe have a low regard for neuroanatomy's clinical relevance. The work was conducted under the auspices of the Trans-European Pedagogic Research Group (TEPARG), with just over 1500 students from 12 European medical schools providing responses to a survey (52% response rate) that assessed their attitudes using Thurstone and Chave methodologies. Regardless of the university surveyed, and of the teaching methods employed for neuroanatomy, our findings were not consistent with our hypothesis. However, the students had a less favourable opinion of neuroanatomy's importance compared to gross anatomy; although their attitudes were more positive than previously reported for histology and embryology. The extent to which neuroanatomy plays a significant role in the early years of medical education is moot. Nevertheless, we conclude that in addition to newly recruited medical students being informed of the subject's role in a healthcare profession, we advocate the use of modern imaging technologies to enhance student understanding and motivation and cognisance of the core syllabus for the subject being developed by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA).


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Currículo , Humanos , Neuroanatomia/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 190-205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924036

RESUMO

A significant body of evidence shows that law schools and many elite colleges use large admissions preferences based on race, and other evidence strongly suggests that large preferences can undermine student achievement in law school and undergraduate science majors, thus producing highly counterproductive effects. This article draws on available evidence to examine the use of racial preferences in medical school admissions, and finds strong reasons for concern about the effects and effectiveness of current affirmative action efforts. The author calls for better data and careful investigation of several identified patterns.


Assuntos
Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Faculdades de Medicina , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Política Pública , Estados Unidos
20.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 211-221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924057

RESUMO

Ideas of racial genetic determinism, though unsupported by scientific evidence and atavistic, are common and readily apparent in American medical education. These theories of biologic essentialism have documented negative effects in learners, including increased measures of racial prejudice.


Assuntos
Empatia , Racismo , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina
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