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Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 26: 1-10, mar. 2021. tab, fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357972


O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver e analisar a validade de conteúdo, constructo e a fidedigni-dade de um questionário para avaliar a demanda física e operacional, saúde e condições de trabalho em policiais e bombeiros militares. O Questionário de Saúde e Performance para Militares (QSPM) foi desenvolvido por pesquisadores militares e não militares, a validade foi analisada com o índice de validade de conteúdo (IVC), análise fatorial exploratória e a fidedignidade com o percentual de concordância (%C), coeficiente Kappa e alfa de Cronbach. Nove juízes participaram da validação de conteúdo, 732 militares (15% mulheres) participaram da etapa de validação de constructo e 262 militares (18% mulheres) responderam duas vezes ao QSPM para a verificação da fidedignidade. As análises foram realizadas no software SPSS 26 e o nível de significância mantido em 5%. O QSPM apresentou o IVC de 0,98 e variância total explicada em 54,7%. A reprodutibilidade apresentou valores de %C entre 97,2 - 100,0%, Kappa entre 0,94 - 1,00 (p < 0,05) e alpha de Cronbach entre 0,80 - 1,00 (p < 0,05). Conclui-se que o QSPM apresentou validade de conteúdo, constructo e fidedignidade para avaliar a frequência da demanda física e operacional, as condições de saúde e de trabalho de policiais e bombeiros militares

The aim of this study was to develop and analyze the content and construct validity and reliability of a questionnaire to assess the performance, health and working conditions of police officers and military fire-fighters (QSPM). Civilian and military personnel carried out the development of the QSPM. The validity was analyzed by the content validity index (CVI), factor analysis, and the reproducibility by the simple agreement (%SA), the Kappa coefficient, and Cronbach's alpha. Nine experts participated in the content validation, 732 military personnel (15 women) participated in the construct validation, and 262 military (18% women) answered the QSPM twice to measure reproducibility. The QSPM had a CVI of 0.98. In the exploratory factorial analysis, when considering four factors, and the total explained variance was 54.7%. The reproducibility showed %SA values varying between 97.2 to 100.0%, Kappa values varying between 0.94 to 1.00 (p < 0.05 for all questions) and, Cronbach's α values varying between 0.80 to 1.00 (p < 0.05 for all questions). In conclusion, the QSPM showed content validity, construct validity and reliability to measure the frequency of physical-operational demand, the presence of morbidities, and the working condi-tions of police officers and firefighters

Condições de Trabalho , Aptidão Física , Dor Musculoesquelética , Angústia Psicológica , Ciência Militar
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e1021020048, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287345


Abstract Aims: The present study is a review focused on analyzing the physical, psychological, and demographic factors that lead recruits to be dismissed or to request their dismissal during basic military training periods. Methods: This study is a systematic review of cohort studies. The following databases were searched in June 2019 and updated in July 2020: Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases. The MeSH descriptors military personnel, risk factors, and discharge were used to elaborate the search equations. Reference lists were explored to find studies that examined the association between physical, psychological, and demographic factors that lead recruits to be discharged. The following data were extracted from the studies: profile of the participants, sample size, type of risk factors, the duration of follow-up, and the results of the statistical analysis carried out in the studies included. The risk of bias was analyzed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. Results: A total of 531 titles were retrieved from the databases, and eight articles met the eligibility criteria. The results showed the factors associated with discharge, in descending order: musculoskeletal injuries and other medical questions, depressive and behavioural disorders, performance in physical fitness tests, and others. Factors such as educational level, alcohol use, history of suicide attempt, and imprisonments were not associated with an increased risk of being discharged. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal injuries, depression, running performance, previous physical exercise practice, and demographic factors were associated with an increased risk of being discharged.

Humanos , Exercício Físico , Demografia/métodos , Militares/psicologia , Ciência Militar/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 920-923, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525473


The biological motor behind the current coronavirus pandemic has placed microbiology on a global stage, and given its practitioners a role among the architects of recovery. Planning for a return to normality or the new normal is a complex, multi-agency task for which healthcare scientists may not be prepared. This paper introduces a widely used military planning framework known as the Joint Military Appreciation Process, and outlines how it can be applied to deal with the next phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recognition of SARS-CoV-2's critical attributes, targetable vulnerabilities, and its most likely and most dangerous effects is a necessary precursor to scoping, framing and mission analysis. From this flows course of action development, analysis, concept of operations development, and an eventual decision to act on the plan. The same planning technique is applicable to the larger scale task of setting a microbiology-centric plan in the broader context of social and economic recovery.

Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Ciência Militar/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , COVID-19 , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/provisão & distribuição , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/tendências , Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias
Infez Med ; 28(1): 108-124, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172270


The living conditions of Italian prisoners during the First World War were extremely difficult. At the end of the conflict, the treatment of Italian soldiers in Austro-Hungarian POW camps and in those of the German territories was recognized as particularly harsh in comparison with that of other prisoners. The reasons may be ascribed to three main factors. The Italian prisoners paid the price of being considered traitors, since Italy was allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire and with Germany until 1914, subsequently switching to the side of France, the United Kingdom and Russia. The Italian government and the Italian High Command considered their soldiers poorly inclined to engage in a war which became over time increasingly costly in terms of human sacrifice. The strategy pursued by the General-in-Chief Luigi Cadorna was very aggressive and showed little care for the life conditions of his troops, who were frequently thrown into the fray and exposed to potential slaughter. Due to this negative judgement on their troops' willingness to fight, the government did not help, and even hindered, the despatch of packages of food and clothes to prisoners in the Austro-Hungarian and German camps via the Red Cross. The idea of a better life in the trenches compared with that expected in the camps as prisoners was widespread. Thirdly, the maritime blockade of the Adriatic Sea over time reduced to starvation the populations of Austria, Hungary and Germany, which obviously had grave repercussions on prisoners. It was estimated that around 100,000 Italians lost their lives in POW camps; after the defeat at Caporetto, when over 250,000 prisoners were captured, the number of deaths rose. The main causes of death were: tuberculosis, pneumonia, malnutrition and typhoid fever. At the end of the war, when coming back to Italy, former POWs were interned for months in camps (located predominantly in the Emilia region) and had to face interrogation and trials to demonstrate they were not deserters and were free to go back home. In the meantime, many lost their lives due to "Spanish" flu, pneumonia and other infectious diseases. Only the mobilization both of families and public opinion forced the Italian government to close the camps at the end of the year 1919.

Campos de Concentração/história , Prisioneiros de Guerra/história , I Guerra Mundial , Áustria , Campos de Concentração/normas , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hungria , Cooperação Internacional/história , Itália/etnologia , Ciência Militar/história , Inanição/história
New Dir Stud Leadersh ; 2020(165): 137-148, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187873


This chapter focuses on the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) and how military science programs develop leaders for service in the military profession.

Currículo , Liderança , Militares , Ciência Militar , Universidades , Humanos
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 30(3): 77-101, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372599


According to Carl Schmitt, the antonym of 'The ethics of mankind' contained in outer space law is nomos and polemos, ie the idea that (international) law and politics have as their respective nuclei the sharing of territory and a relation of hostility, both of which combine in conquest, in the sense of taking possession of a territory by the use of armed force. The big question is knowing if outer space escapes or will escape the nomos and polemos, or if it also experiences or will experience the struggle for domination. In order to answer this question, the article examines outer space law concerning the military; then 'the ethics of mankind' vis-à-vis nomos and polemos; finally the militarisation and arsenalisation of outer space, from the angle of anti-missile defences and the relationship to nuclear dissuasion, ie the essence of the problem of defence in outer space.

Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Militares , Ciência Militar/ética , Voo Espacial/ética , Armas/ética , Humanos , Política