Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.132
Filtrar
1.
Altern Lab Anim ; 50(1): 62-70, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35184611

RESUMO

In vivo testing has been the gold standard for preclinical drug development and toxicology. However, animal-based methods often lack human relevance and have a low predictability rate, not to mention the enormous ethical and financial concerns associated with their use. For instance, according to the US Congressional Budget Office (cbo.gov), it takes an average of 10.5 years to take a compound from the preclinical phase to the market, with a cost of US$1-US$2 billion. 90% of drugs that are tested in animals and enter clinical trials fail due to lack of safety and efficacy - this fact questions the significance of in vivo testing. Cells in culture can recapitulate certain aspects of physiology and disease, as well as indicate drug responses and toxicity. Thus, they represent a sophisticated human-relevant and humane alternative. With advances in the in vitro field, it is anticipated that confidence will be gained towards a move away from traditional in vivo models. Specialised supplier industries have been a driving force in the transition to non-animal research, by translating new approach methodologies into scalable products that have been adopted by the regulatory and testing industries - but we are still at the beginning. In this article, we introduce the perspective of the device supplier industry on the current challenges and opportunities surrounding the adoption of new in vitro methods, with the goal of promoting effective co-operation with scientists and other stakeholders. In addition, we highlight some examples of where non-animal approaches have been used in regulatory submissions, as well as listing some educational and training resources that can help when selecting the most appropriate assay.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Animais , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro
2.
Chin Med Sci J ; 37(2): 91-94, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796333

RESUMO

Considering the limitations of medical science and the risks associated with medical treatments, we need to re-examine the connotation of medical science from the perspective of philosophy. Medical science is the natural expression of human kindness and human nature of rescuing the dying and healing the wounded. It is a combination of the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. From the perspectives of medical philosophy and humanistic care, this article expounds the concepts and ideas of evidence-based, translational, and precision medicine in modern medicine and emphasizes the importance of avoiding new technical bureaucracy, paying attention to achieving a holistic view and systematic understanding, and avoiding biases in development because of the loss of the humanistic spirit in modern medical practice.


Assuntos
Medicina , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Medicina/tendências , Filosofia Médica
3.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(7): E584-589, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838386

RESUMO

Background: Inspired by research indicating that exposure to humanities correlates with reduced burnout, the Nebraska Medical Orchestra was founded in 2018 as a collaboration between the University of Nebraska Medical Center and the University of Nebraska at Omaha School of Music. Methods: Semistructured interviews about orchestra participants' experiences were conducted with 9 musicians and recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: The interviews suggested that participants are drawn to the orchestra to pursue a love of music, to be part of an ensemble, and to connect with others in an environment that provides a lighthearted, nonjudgmental, noncompetitive forum in which to create and enjoy music for its own sake. Conclusions: This study has implications for designing arts-based wellness activities for clinicians and scaling them nationwide.


Assuntos
Empatia , Música , Criatividade , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Nebraska , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Lancet ; 400(10347): 137, 2022 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843229
5.
Am Nat ; 200(1): 81-88, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737984

RESUMO

AbstractSystems of oppression-racism, colonialism, misogyny, cissexism, ableism, heteronormativity, and more-have long shaped the content and practice of science. But opportunities to reckon with these influences are rarely found within academic science, even though such critiques are well developed in the social sciences and humanities. In this special section, we attempt to bring cross-disciplinary conversations among ecology, evolution, behavior, and genetics on the one hand and critical perspectives from the social sciences and humanities on the other into the pages-and in front of the readers-of a scientific journal. In this introduction to the special section, we recount and reflect on the process of running this cross-disciplinary experiment to confront harms done in the name of science and envision alternatives.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Ciências Sociais , Ecologia
6.
Andrology ; 10(5): 823-824, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763405
7.
Sante Publique ; 33(6): 823-827, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724185

RESUMO

This contribution presents the dynamics generated by the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020 in the humanities and social sciences (SHS) in France. It first describes the main elements of the individual and institutional involvement that give this dynamic the characteristics of an "extra-ordinary" mobilization. Based on a collective research report, it goes on presenting the research themes and issues, as well as the methodological and epistemological reflections put forward by the SHS on the subject of the pandemic and its management. This contribution thus gives an account of the way in which the SHS participate in a social and political understanding of health issues. By carrying out research themes and issues that are sometimes new and sometimes deeply rooted in the scientific capital that is theirs concerning health and environmental crises, the SHS bring their contribution to the description and the analysis of the foundations and consequences of these crises on individuals and societies: knowledge likely to enlighten public decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Pandemias , Ciências Sociais
8.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VII(2): 89-92, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765253

RESUMO

Over the last three decades, medical councils in India have come under fire for rampant corruption and failure in the governance of medical education and practice. In fact, this journal itself grew out of the disquiet felt by a section of medical professionals at the barefaced corruption they witnessed in electoral practices, when contesting elections to the Maharashtra Medical Council in 1992 [1]. That experience triggered a movement of doctors and non-medical individuals for reform in the governance of healthcare, resulting in the birth of this journal in 1993. This also helped advance the disciplines of bioethics and healthcare ethics and humanities in India.


Assuntos
Bioética , Educação Médica , Atenção à Saúde , Ciências Humanas/educação , Humanos , Índia
9.
10.
Anesthesiol Clin ; 40(2): 287-299, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659401

RESUMO

Racism represents a public health crisis, adversely impacting patient outcomes and health care workplace inclusivity. Dismantling racism requires transforming both racist systems and individual and collective consciousness. Focusing on antiracism in health professions education through the transdisciplinary lens of the health humanities can spur self-reflection, critical thinking, and collaboration among health professions educators and trainees to create more equitable structures of care. This article describes how the health humanities provide a powerful framework for antiracist health professions education. The authors conclude with a snapshot of an existing humanities-based antiracist curriculum, with suggestions to facilitate implementation in other settings.


Assuntos
Ciências Humanas , Racismo , Currículo , Atenção à Saúde , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10803, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750712

RESUMO

Language endangerment is one of the most urgent issues of the twenty-first century. Languages are disappearing at unprecedented rates, with dire consequences that affect speaker communities, scientific community and humanity. There is impetus for understanding the nature of language endangerment, and we investigate where language endangerment occurs by performing network analysis on 3423 languages at various levels of risk. Macro-level analysis shows evidence of positive assortative mixing of endangerment statuses-critically endangered languages are surrounded by similarly endangered languages, indicating the prevalence of linguistic hotspots throughout the world. Meso-level analysis using community detection returned 13 communities experiencing different levels of threat. Micro-level analysis of closeness centrality shows that more geographically isolated languages tend to be more critically endangered. Even after accounting for the statistical contributions of linguistic diversity, the structural properties of the spatial network were still significantly associated with endangerment outcomes. Findings support that the notion of hotspots is useful when accounting for language endangerment but go beyond that to establish that quantifying spatial structure is crucial. Language preservation in these hotspots and understanding why endangered languages pattern the way they do in their environments becomes more vital than ever.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 490, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reporting on the effect of health humanities teaching in health professions education courses to facilitate sharing and mutual exchange internationally, and the generation of a more interconnected body of evidence surrounding health humanities curricula is needed. This study asked, what could an internationally informed curriculum and evaluation framework for the implementation of health humanities for health professions education look like? METHODS: The participatory action research approach applied was based on three iterative phases 1. Perspective sharing and collaboration building. 2. Evidence gathering 3. Development of an internationally relevant curriculum and evaluation framework for health humanities. Over 2 years, a series of online meetings, virtual workshops and follow up communications resulted in the production of the curriculum framework. RESULTS: Following the perspective sharing and evidence gathering, the InspirE5 model of curriculum design and evaluation framework for health humanities in health professions education was developed. Five principal foci shaped the design of the framework. ENVIRONMENT: Learning and political environment surrounding the program. Expectations: Graduate capabilities that are clearly articulated for all, integrated into core curricula and relevant to graduate destinations and associated professional standards. EXPERIENCE: Learning and teaching experience that supports learners' achievement of the stated graduate capabilities. EVIDENCE: Assessment of learning (formative and/or summative) with feedback for learners around the development of capabilities. Enhancement: Program evaluation of the students and teachers learning experiences and achievement. In all, 11 Graduate Capabilities for Health Humanities were suggested along with a summary of common core content and guiding principles for assessment of health humanities learning. DISCUSSION: Concern about objectifying, reductive biomedical approaches to health professions education has led to a growing expansion of health humanities teaching and learning around the world. The InspirE5 curriculum and evaluation framework provides a foundation for a standardised approach to describe or compare health humanities education in different contexts and across a range of health professions courses and may be adapted around the world to progress health humanities education.


Assuntos
Currículo , Ciências Humanas , Ocupações em Saúde , Ciências Humanas/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
13.
Med Humanit ; 48(2): 133-137, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672141
14.
Med Humanit ; 48(2): 169-176, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501122

RESUMO

This article puts critical disability studies and global health into conversation around the phenomenon of scarf injury in Bangladesh. Scarf injury occurs when a woman wearing a long, traditional scarf called an orna rides in a recently introduced autorickshaw with a design flaw that allows the orna to become entangled in the vehicle's driveshaft. Caught in the engine, the orna pulls the woman's neck into hyperextension, causing a debilitating high cervical spinal cord injury and quadriplegia. The circumstances of the scarf injury reveal the need for more critical cultural analysis than the fields of global health and rehabilitation typically offer. First, the fatal design flaw of the vehicle reflects different norms of gender and dress in China, where the vehicle is manufactured, versus Bangladesh, where the vehicle is purchased at a low price and assembled on-site-a situation that calls transnational capitalist modes of production and exchange into question. Second, the experiences of women with scarf injuries entail many challenges beyond the injury itself: the transition to life with disability following the rehabilitation period is made more difficult by negative perceptions of disability, lack of resources and accessible infrastructure, and cultural norms of gender and class in Bangladesh. Our cross-disciplinary conversation about women with scarf injuries, involving critical disability studies, global health and rehabilitation experts, exposes the shortcomings of each of these fields but also illustrates the urgent need for deeper and more purposeful collaborations. We, therefore, argue that the developing subfield of global health humanities should include purposeful integration of a humanities-based critical disability studies methodology.


Assuntos
Estudos sobre Deficiências , Pessoas com Deficiência , Bangladesh , Feminino , Saúde Global , Ciências Humanas , Humanos
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(5): 100615, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584633

RESUMO

The voices of medical students are underrepresented in the long-running debate over the role of the humanities in medical education. This commentary describes the experience of a student at the University of Southern California, who believes the humanities are often neglected but could make students into better doctors.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Ciências Humanas/educação , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina
16.
Med Humanit ; 48(2): 211-220, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584895

RESUMO

The essay outlines the ways in which narrative approaches to COVID-19 can draw on imaginative literature and critical oral history to resist the 'closure' often offered by cultural representations of epidemics. To support this goal, it analyses science and speculative fiction by Alejandro Morales and Tananarive Due in terms of how these works create alternative temporalities, which undermine colonial and racist medical discourse. The essay then examines a new archive of emerging autobiographical illness narratives, namely online Facebook posts and oral history samples by 'long COVID' survivors, for their alternate temporalities of illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Narração
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 302, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical humanities courses that incorporate the visual arts traditionally require in-person instruction and visits to museums. The COVID-19 pandemic afforded medical educators a unique opportunity to implement and evaluate virtual visual arts programming. METHODS: A two-week, 7-module visual arts and medicine elective course for third and fourth-year medical students was conducted virtually in the Spring of 2021. The course included traditional didactic components as well as a range of hands-on creative art activities including painting, graphic medicine, photovoice, and Kintsugi (Japanese craft). Digital tools including Canvas, Google Jamboard, and Zoom facilitated student engagement. Student feedback was collected through anonymous post-course surveys. RESULTS: We successfully conducted a virtual visual arts and medicine elective which integrated hands-on creative art activities. Most students "strongly agreed" that remote instruction was sufficient to meet course objectives. However, all students also "agreed" that in-person instruction may promote more in-depth engagement with the visual arts. The hands-on creative art activities were appreciated by all students. CONCLUSION: Visual arts-based medical humanities courses can be delivered virtually and can include hands-on creative art activities such as painting. Future visual arts and medicine courses may benefit from incorporating a range of pedagogical methodologies, digital tools, control groups, and pre-/post-course assessments.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Ciências Humanas/educação , Humanos , Pandemias
18.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 110(2): 247-252, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440898

RESUMO

Over the past ten years, there has been a growing interest in integrating arts and humanities in medicine to increase learners' empathy and resilience; improve personal well-being, communication, and observational skills; enhance self-reflection; and promote professionalism. These desired skills and qualities are becoming increasingly important for the physicians of tomorrow. Parallel to curricular interventions of integrating arts and humanities to medical education, there has been an increasing research interest in investigating the impact of such interventions on medical students with respect to improving and sustaining students' empathy as they progress in their medical education and develop their professional identity. Research has yielded interesting findings on the types and effect of the interventions in the medical curriculum. The Association of the American Medical Colleges (AAMC), recognizing the unique and unrealized role of arts and humanities in preparing and equipping physicians for twenty-first-century challenges, proposed seven recommendations for advancing arts and humanities integration into medical education to improve the education, practice, and well-being of physicians and physician learners across the spectrum of medical education. Institutional initiatives of arts and humanities integration in the medical curriculum in response to the AAMC's recommendations afford health sciences librarians expansive opportunities and a new landscape of playing an important role in these initiatives. With their diverse educational background in arts, humanities, social sciences, and many other disciplines and fields, health sciences librarians are poised for meaningful contributions to their institutional goals in developing a humanistic, compassionate workforce of future physicians.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Bibliotecários , Médicos , Currículo , Ciências Humanas , Humanos
20.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(6): 823-827, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485012

RESUMO

This contribution presents the dynamics generated by the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020 in the humanities and social sciences (SHS) in France. It first describes the main elements of the individual and institutional involvement that give this dynamic the characteristics of an "extra-ordinary" mobilization. Based on a collective research report, it goes on presenting the research themes and issues, as well as the methodological and epistemological reflections put forward by the SHS on the subject of the pandemic and its management. This contribution thus gives an account of the way in which the SHS participate in a social and political understanding of health issues. By carrying out research themes and issues that are sometimes new and sometimes deeply rooted in the scientific capital that is theirs concerning health and environmental crises, the SHS bring their contribution to the description and the analysis of the foundations and consequences of these crises on individuals and societies: knowledge likely to enlighten public decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , França/epidemiologia , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Ciências Sociais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...