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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641357

RESUMO

We report the development of in vitro propagation protocols through an adventitious shoot induction pathway for a rare and medicinal Scutellaria havanensis. In vitro propagation studies using nodal explants showed MS medium supplemented with 10 µM 6-Benzylaminopurine induced the highest number of adventitious shoots in a time-dependent manner. A ten-day incubation was optimum for shoot bud induction as longer exposures resulted in hyperhydricity of the explants and shoots induced. We also report preliminary evidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105-mediated gene transfer transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein in this species. Transformation studies exhibited amenability of various explant tissues, internode being the most receptive. As the plant has medicinal value, research was carried out to evaluate its potential antioxidant capacity and the efficacy of methanolic leaf extracts in curbing the viability of human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. Comparative total polyphenol and flavonoid content measurement of fresh and air-dried leaf extract revealed that the fresh leaf extracts contain higher total polyphenol and flavonoid content. The HCT 116 cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, showed a steady growth inhibition after 24 h of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy of leaf surface revealed a high density of glandular and non-glandular trichomes. This research provides a basis for the conservation of this rare plant and future phytochemical screening and clinical research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Scutellaria/química , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199058

RESUMO

We measured and studied the growth parameters and the qualitative and quantitative composition of the flavones of hairy roots of the Scutellaria genus: S. lateriflora, S. przewalskii and S. pycnoclada. Hairy roots were obtained using wild-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 by co-cultivation of explants (cotyledons) in a suspension of Agrobacterium. The presence of the rol-genes was confirmed by PCR analysis. The hairy roots of the most studied plant from the Scutellaria genus, S. baicalensis, were obtained earlier and used as a reference sample. HPLC-MS showed the predominance of four main flavones (baicalin, baicalein, wogonin and wogonoside) in the methanol extracts of the studied hairy roots. In addition to the four main flavones, the other substances which are typical to the aerial part of plants were found in all the extracts: apigenin, apigetrin, scutellarin and chrysin-7-O-ß-d-glucuronide. According to the total content of flavones, the hairy roots of the studied skullcaps form the following series: S. przewalskii (33 mg/g dry weight) > S. baicalensis (17.04 mg/g dry weight) > S. pycnoclada (12.9 mg/g dry weight) > S. lateriflora (4.57 mg/g dry weight). Therefore, the most promising producer of anti-coronavirus flavones is S. przewalskii.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Flavonas/química , Scutellaria/química , Agrobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonas/farmacologia , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Scutellaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Scutellaria/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205312

RESUMO

In the current study, in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Scutellaria edelbergii Rech. f. (crude extract and subfractions, i.e., n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform, n-butanol (n-BuOH) and aqueous) were explored. Initially, extraction and fractionation of the selected medicinal plant were carried out, followed by phytochemical qualitative tests, which were mostly positive for all the extracts. EtOAc fraction possessed a significant amount of phenolic (79.2 ± 0.30 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (84.0 ± 0.39 mg QE/g) content. The EtOAc fraction of S. edelbergii exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains and significant zones of inhibition were observed against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). However, it was found inactive against Candida Albicans and Fusarium oxysporum fungal strains. The chloroform fraction was the most effective with an IC50 value of 172 and 74 µg/mL against DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and ABTS assays, in comparison with standard ascorbic acid 59 and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the EtOAc fraction displayed significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (54%) using carrageenan-induced assay and significant (55%) in vivo analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writing assay. In addition, nine known compounds, ursolic acid (UA), ovaul (OV), oleanolic acid (OA), ß-sitosterol (BS), micromeric acid (MA), taraxasterol acetate (TA), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy flavone (FL-1), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,3'-dimiethoxyflavone (FL-2) and 7-methoxy catechin (FL-3), were isolated from methanolic extract of S. edelbergii. These constituents have never been obtained from this source. The structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated by spectroscopic means. In conclusion, the EtOAc fraction and all other fractions of S. edelbergii, in general, displayed a significant role as antibacterial, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents which may be due to the presence of these constituents and other flavonoids.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Scutellaria/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
4.
Planta ; 254(2): 36, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302538

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of Scutellaria tsinyunensis in this study. Repeat-mediated recombination resulted in the formation of two conformations of the mitochondrial genome in S. tsinyunensis. Scutellaria tsinyunensis belongs to the family Lamiaceae, distributed only in the Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing, China. As a valuable endemic and small population species, it is regarded as a natural resource potentially with significant economic and ecological importance. In this study, we assembled a complete and gap-free mitochondrial genome of S. tsinyunensis. This genome had a length of 354,073 bp and the base composition of the genome was A (27.44%), T (27.30%), C (22.58%), and G (22.68%). This genome encodes 59 genes, including 32 protein-coding genes, 24 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. The Sanger sequencing and Oxford Nanopore sequencing confirmed a pair of direct repeats had mediated genome recombination, resulting in the formation of two conformations. The gene conversation between plastome and mitochondrial genome was also observed in S. tsinyunensis by detecting gene migration, including six tRNA genes (namely, trnW-CCA, trnI-CAU, trnH-UUU, trnD-GUC, trnN-GUU, and trnM-CAU), five protein-coding gene fragments, and the fragments from 2 rRNA genes. Moreover, the dN/dS analysis revealed the atp9 gene had undergone strong negative selection, and four genes (atp4, mttB, ccmFc, and ccmB) probably had undergone positive selection during evolution in Lamiales. This work reported the first mitochondrial genome of S. tsinyunensis, which could be used as a reference genome for the important medicinal plants of the genus Scutellaria, and also provide much-desired information for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Scutellaria , Composição de Bases , China , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética
5.
Phytochem Anal ; 32(6): 1141-1151, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949013

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the wide application of Scutellaria barbata D. Don for hepatitis and mastitis, its quality control issues have also received increasing attention. Based on the multi-component and multi-target characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, there is an urgent need to establish a quality evaluation system. OBJECTIVES: This study intends to integrate the "quality-activity-quantification" strategy and establish an activity-related quality control method to ensure the safety and effectiveness of S. barbata. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/IM-QTOF-MS) was used to characterize the chemical components of S. barbata, and network pharmacological analysis was carried out on the identified components. The index components were determined on the basis of comprehensive activity prediction results and content information. At the same time, the contents of 16 batches of S. barbata from different origins were determined. RESULTS: A total of 94 compounds were identified according to mass spectrometric data, 12 of which were isolated and structure-confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technology. Network pharmacological analysis was applied to predict their key targets and the major pathways mediating their anti-inflammatory effects. On the basis of comprehensive activity prediction and content information, five components were chosen as crucial quality indicators of S. barbata, including scutellarin, scutellarein, luteolin, apigenin, and hispidulin. CONCLUSION: In this study, 16 different S. barbata batches were compared, and five quality indicators were determined on the basis of qualitative and activity results. The present study provides useful information for evaluating the quality of S. barbata in different areas, and also provides a new basis for the development of quality evaluation methods.


Assuntos
Scutellaria , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Phytother Res ; 35(1): 361-373, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869911

RESUMO

The plant Scutellaria barbata (SB) is commonly used as herbal medicines for treating cancer. The present pre-clinical study aimed to validate the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP) recommended dosages of SB water extract (SBW) in treating colon tumors. The content of chemical marker scutellarin in SBW was quantified using UPLC. Mice bearing human HCT116 xenografts or murine colon26 tumors received oral administration of SBW or scutellarin for 4 weeks. Results showed that SBW (615 and 1,230 mg/kg) and scutellarin (7 mg/kg) treatments significantly reduced human xenograft weights by 28.7, 36.9 and 28.8%, respectively. Lung metastasis area could be ameliorated after SBW (615 mg/kg) and scutellarin (7 mg/kg) treatments by 23.4 and 29.5%, respectively. Expressions of colon cancer metastasis-related proteins E-cadherin, Tspan 8 and CXCR4, as well as Src kinase in tumors were first shown to be regulated by SBW. Furthermore, in murine colon26 tumor-bearing mice, SBW (615 mg/kg) and scutellarin (7 mg/kg) treatments reduced the orthotopic tumor burden by 94.7% and lung metastatic tumor burden by 94.1%, respectively. Our findings provided evidences that SBW (at the mouse equivalent dosages to clinical dosages recommended by CP) could exert anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects in colon cancer animal models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apigenina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Scutellaria/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110917, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217688

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects, and can be used to treat respiratory tract infections, pneumonia, colitis, hepatitis, and allergic diseases. The main active substances of S. baicalensis, baicalein, baicalin, wogonin, wogonoside, and oroxylin A, can act directly on immune cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils, and inhibit the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, and other inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and reactive oxygen species. The molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of the active compounds of S. baicalensis include downregulation of toll-like receptors, activation of the Nrf2 and PPAR signaling pathways, and inhibition of the nuclear thioredoxin system and inflammation-associated pathways such as those of MAPK, Akt, NFκB, and JAK-STAT. Given that in addition to the downregulation of cytokine production, the active constituents of S. baicalensis also have antiviral and antibacterial effects, they may be more promising candidate therapeutics for the prevention of infection-related cytokine storms than are drugs having only antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory activities.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Scutellaria/química , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113198, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739568

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scutellaria (Lamiaceae), which includes approximately 360-469 accepted species, is widespread in Europe, North America, East Asia, and South America. Several species have a long history being used as traditional medicines to treat respiratory, peptic, neurological, and hepatic and gall diseases. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Scutellaria have been developed dramatically in the past ten years, and the traditional uses and clinical studies of the genus have not been systematically summarized. Therefore, it is especially valuable to review the current state of knowledge to provide a basis for further exploration of its medicinal potential. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The review aims to provide updated information on the ethnopharmacology, the ten-year research progress of phytochemistry and pharmacology, and clinical studies of Scutellaria and to explore the potential medicinal values and further studies of Scutellaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is based on published studies and books from the library and electronic sources, including SciFinder, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, the online ethnobotanical database, and ethnobotanical monographs. This literature is related to ethnopharmacology, the ten-year research progress on the phytochemistry and pharmacology, and clinical studies of Scutellaria. RESULTS: A total of 50 species, 5 subspecies and 17 varieties of the genus Scutellaria are used as traditional medicine with various biological activities. In the past ten years, 208 chemical constituents have been identified from 16 species and 1 variety of the genus Scutellaria, such as neo-clerodane diterpenoids, sesterterpenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids. Pharmacological research has demonstrated that the extracts and compounds identified from this genus exhibit extensive biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial activities, effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases as well as hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. The species S. baicalensis, S. barbata, and S. lateriflora and the main compounds baicalein, baicalin and wogonin are involved in clinical trials, which point the way for us to conduct further studies, such as study on the anticancer, antihypertensive, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and other effects of Scutellaria. CONCLUSIONS: The species included in the genus Scutellaria can be used to treat cancer, infection, hepatic disorders, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases. Some indications in traditional medicines have been confirmed by modern pharmacological studies, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective activity, and hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. The available literature indicated that most of the bioactivities could be attributed to flavonoids and neo-clerodane diterpenoids. Although there are some uses of Scutellaria in clinical practice, the existing research on this genus is still limited. In order to expand the development of medicinal resources of Scutellaria, the already studied species in this genus are recommended for more comprehensive investigation on their active substances, pharmacological mechanisms, quality control, clinical use and new drug research. Additionally, it is necessary to study species that their chemical composition or pharmacological activity have not yet been investigated, especially those used in folk medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Scutellaria/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(21): 5117-5128, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350227

RESUMO

Scutellaria barbata is a recognized anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine, with the effects of clearing heat and detoxi-fication, dispelling blood stasis and stopping bleeding, diuresis and detumescence. At present, terpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides and volatile oils have been isolated from S. barbata, which have many pharmacological effects, such as resisting tumor, virus, bacteria and oxidation, and immunomodulation. This paper reviews the studies on the chemical constituents, pharmacological action and quality control of S. barbata, in the expectation of providing ideas and references for the further development and studies of S. barbata.


Assuntos
Scutellaria , Flavonoides , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Controle de Qualidade
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4819-4826, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350252

RESUMO

Flavones are widely distributed in terrestrial plants and act as important bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Baicalein, wogonin and their glycosides baicalin and wogonoside are major active components found in medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis. These flavones can induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, with such pharmacological activities as anti-oxidation, antivirus and liver protection. In recent years, the biosynthesis pathways of flavones in Scutellaria have been studied thoroughly. In particular, the biosynthesis pathways of baicalein and wogonin in S. baicalensis were interpreted completely. In this review, the biosynthesis of flavones in Scutellaria, the regulation of environmental factors and elicitors on their biosynthesis, and the metabolic engineering of the flavones were discussed.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Flavonas , Plantas Medicinais , Scutellaria , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas , Scutellaria baicalensis
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4938-4948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350267

RESUMO

This work was carried out to establish and validate the specific characteristic chromatography of Scutellaria Extract and evaluate the quality of commercial Scutellaria Extract and optimize production process parameters. Scutellaria Extract and formulation samples collected from different manufacturers were analyzed using HPLC-characteristic chromatogram. The HPLC characteristic peaks were considered to be the index for the parameters optimization in preparations of Scutellaria Extract. The chemical pattern recognization was applied for the analysis of characteristic peak data. The established characteristic fingerprint method possessed a good precision, repeatability, and stability. Ten common characteristic peaks were determined and identified in the specific chromatogram of 31 batches of Scutellaria Extract and 4 batches of formulation. The process parameters influenced the characteristic peaks area significantly. The similarity analysis results showed that after removing baicalin peak, the similarity of the characteristic chromatography of 9 samples were less than 0.90, indicating that the quality of commercial Scutellaria Extract was inconsistent. Non-parametric test result showed that the relative peaks area of the number 4, 6, 7 characteristic peaks had significant differences(P<0.05), indicating the differences of the Scutellaria Extract quality were mainly reflected in the characteristic peaks 4, 6 and 7(norwogonin-7-O-glucuronide, oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide, wogonoside, respectively). The cluster analysis accurately classified 31 extract samples and 4 formulation samples into five categories based on 10 characteristic peaks. The quality of Scutellaria Extracts was comprehensively evaluated and ranked by PCA. The result showed that the higher content of baicalin, the score value of quality(F value) was lower, and the quality of the Scutellaria Extract should be evaluated by multi-components instead of a single baicalin component. The optimized characteristic peaks method is stable and reliable. It is advantageous for the extract and formulations integrative quality control by combining the chemical pattern recognization.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scutellaria , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(18): 4448-4454, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164375

RESUMO

To explore the mechanism of Scutellaria barbata-Hedyotis diffusa against breast cancer based on network pharmacological methods. The active components and corresponding target proteins of S. barbata and H. diffusa were screened by using Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database(TCMSP), and the targets of breast cancer were screened through the Genecards and OMIM databases. Venn online software was used to obtain the common targets of drugs and the disease, and then the "compound-target-disease" network diagram was constructed by using Cytoscape 3.7.2 software. The STRING database was used to draw the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, and the David database was used to perform GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis on effective targets. The results showed that 29 S. barbata compounds, 7 H. diffusa compounds, and 109 effective targets were screened. The 59 common targets for drugs and disease were obtained through Venn diagrams. The PPI network showed that MYC, CCND1, EGFR, ESR1, CASP3, VEGFA, etc. might be the key targets for "S. barbata-H. diffusa" in the treatment of breast cancer. In the GO function analysis, 88 entries were found, involving the regulation of transcription factor activity, receptor activity, cytokine activity, enzyme activity, and biosynthetic processes. In KEGG pathway analysis, 37 entries related to cancer, cell cycle, apoptosis, angioge-nesis and other pathways were found, including p53 signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, nod like receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway and mTOR signaling pathway and other classic signaling pathways. This study preliminarily revealed the key targets, biological processes and signal pathway of "S. barbata-H. diffusa" against breast cancer. It was found that its function was in a multi-target and multi-channel manner, which laid a foundation for future molecular biological experiments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Hedyotis , Scutellaria , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
13.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 18(3): 230-240, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157301

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) and Scutellaria barbata (S. barbata) are common medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family. Both produce specific flavonoid compounds, including baicalein, scutellarein, norwogonin, and wogonin, as well as their glycosides, which exhibit antioxidant and antitumor activities. Here, we report chromosome-level genome assemblies of S. baicalensis and S. barbata with quantitative chromosomal variation (2n = 18 and 2n = 26, respectively). The divergence of S. baicalensis and S. barbata occurred far earlier than previously reported, and a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event was identified. The insertion of long terminal repeat elements after speciation might be responsible for the observed chromosomal expansion and rearrangement. Comparative genome analysis of the congeneric species revealed the species-specific evolution of chrysin and apigenin biosynthetic genes, such as the S. baicalensis-specific tandem duplication of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase, and the S. barbata-specific duplication of genes encoding 4-CoA ligase. In addition, the paralogous duplication, colinearity, and expression diversity of CYP82D subfamily members revealed the functional divergence of genes encoding flavone hydroxylase between S. baicalensis and S. barbata. Analyzing these Scutellaria genomes reveals the common and species-specific evolution of flavone biosynthetic genes. Thus, these findings would facilitate the development of molecular breeding and studies of biosynthesis and regulation of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Genoma de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Scutellaria/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Scutellaria/classificação , Scutellaria/metabolismo
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22032, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease with widespread concern in the world. It has the characteristics of high incidence rate and high disability rate, which seriously affects economic and social development. large dose herb Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian) and Scutellaria (Huangqin) or compound prescription contain large dose Huanglian and Huanglian for treatment of T2DM has already been confirmed. However, due to the lack of evidence, there is no specific method or suggestion, so it is necessary to carry out systematic evaluation on Coptidis and Scutellaria and provide effective evidence for further research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be searched from their inception to June 2020: Electronic database includes PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Nature, Science online, Chinese Biomedical Database WanFang, VIP medicine information, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Primary outcomes: fasting blood-glucose (FBG), 2 Hours Postprandial Blood Glucose (2hPBG), Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). additional outcomes: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), total serum cholesterol (TC). Data will be extracted by 2 researchers independently, risk of bias of the meta-analysis will be evaluated based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by data statistics software Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The results of this study will systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of large dose Huanglian and Huangqin intervention for people with T2DM. CONCLUSION: The systematic review of this study will summarize the current published evidence of large dose Huanglian and Huangqin for the treatment of T2DM, which can further guide the promotion and application of it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is a systematic review, the outcomes are based on the published evidence, so examination and agreement by the ethics committee are not required in this study. We intend to publish the study results in a journal or conference presentations. OPEN SCIENCE FRAMEWORK (OSF) REGISTRATION NUMBER: July 21, 2020. osf.io/b6r3z. (https://osf.io/b6r3z).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria , Glicemia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22(6): 1013-1021, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772473

RESUMO

Within an Open Science project, research was carried out to describe to the public of the Ghirardi Botanic Garden (BS, Lombardy, Italy) the invisible features of plants. This work is dedicated to Scutellaria altissima L. (Lamiaceae). Micromorphological, histochemical and phytochemical investigations were conducted on the vegetative and reproductive organs to correlate the structures involved in the emission of substances and their unique productivity. This work reports volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles of leaves and flowers and the composition of essential oil (EO) obtained from aerial parts of plants cultivated in Italy that have never been described before. Three morphotypes of glandular trichomes were observed: peltate, short-stalked capitate and long-stalked capitate. Peltate trichomes were the main producers of terpenes, short-stalked capitates of polysaccharides and long-stalked capitates of terpenes and polyphenols. The leaf VOC profile showed heterogeneous composition, with non-terpene derivatives as the major chemical class (71.04%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons represented almost the totality of the flower (99.73%). The leaf presented a higher number of total (37 versus 11) and exclusive (33 versus 7) compounds. (Z)-3-Hexenol acetate was most abundant in the leaf and (E)-ß-ocimene in the flower. Four common compounds were detected: ß-pinene, ß-caryophyllene, γ-muurolene and germacrene-D. The EO contaied 21 compounds, dominated by ß-caryophyllene, linalool and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. This research allowed us to correlate morphotypes of the secretory structures with the production of secondary metabolites, with the aim of providing the public of the Ghirardi Botanic Garden with a dedicated iconographic approach, which accounts for olfactory perception linked to S. altissima.


Assuntos
Flores , Óleos Voláteis , Folhas de Planta , Scutellaria , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/química , Jardins , Itália , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Scutellaria/química , Scutellaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricomas/anatomia & histologia
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 263: 113072, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738393

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 5-hydroxy-7,8,2',6'-tetramethoxy flavanone (TMF) is a dihydroflavonoid extracted from Scutellaria javanica Jungh. It is a species of genus Scutellaria, and a representative southern herb and Li nationality medicine. The plant has been used as an ethnic medicine in treating cancer and the main components are dihydroflavonoids. However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed at investigating the efficacy of TMF in cancer and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The s180 cancer-bearing mice experiment in vivo was designed to study the tumor growth inhibition of TMF. Also, we investigated the latent mechanism of TMF induced apoptosis and the inhibitory action of TMF on the metastasis and proliferation in HepG-2 cells. The in vitro experimental groups were treated with TMF or hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT) for 24 h. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was detected by ELISA. The expressions of PCNA, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, E-Cadherin, MMP-9, MMP-2, STAT3, p-STAT3, JAK2, p-JAK2, AKT, p-AKT, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 were examined by Western blot. RESULTS: After oral administration of TMF in s180 cancer-bearing mice, tumor growth in vivo was suppressed significantly. The MTT assay result and the reduction of PCAN proved that TMF could inhibit HepG-2 cells proliferation. TMF also caused dose-dependent apoptosis on HepG-2 cells. The experimental results showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was reduced, and the expressions of caspase-3, Bax and p53 were increased. Therefore, we speculated that TMF-induced apoptosis might be achieved by regulating the p53-Bcl-2/Bax-caspase-3 pathways. Transwell cell migration and invasion assay showed that treatment with TMF inhibited the invasion and migration in HepG-2 cells. The expressions of MMP-9 and MMP-2 were decreased while that of E-cadherin was enhanced significantly by TMF. Additionally, the expressions of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, p-AKT and p-ERK1/2 were decreased, but those of JAK2, STAT3, AKT and ERK1/2 remained unchanged. Thus, it is indicated that TMF induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation and metastasis on HepG-2 cells via JAK2/STAT3, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that TMF could stimulate anticancer activity of s180 cancer-bearing mice, induce apoptosis, and inhibit invasion and migration on HepG-2 cells. Our findings displayed a systematic insight into the mechanisms underlying anticancer action of TMF, and provided a better understanding of its use for cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379799

RESUMO

Scutellaria, or skullcaps, are medicinally important herbs in China, India, Japan, and elsewhere. Though Scutellaria is the second largest and one of the more taxonomically challenging genera within Lamiaceae, few molecular systematic studies have been undertaken within the genus; in part due to a paucity of available informative markers. The lack of informative molecular markers for Scutellaria hinders our ability to accurately and robustly reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, which hampers our understanding of the diversity, phylogeny, and evolutionary history of this cosmopolitan genus. Comparative analyses of 15 plastomes, representing 14 species of subfamily Scutellarioideae, indicate that plastomes within Scutellarioideae contain about 151,000 nucleotides, and possess a typical quadripartite structure. In total, 590 simple sequence repeats, 489 longer repeats, and 16 hyper-variable regions were identified from the 15 plastomes. Phylogenetic relationships among the 14 species representing four of the five genera of Scutellarioideae were resolved with high support values, but the current infrageneric classification of Scutellaria was not supported in all analyses. Complete plastome sequences provide better resolution at an interspecific level than using few to several plastid markers in phylogenetic reconstruction. The data presented here will serve as a foundation to facilitate DNA barcoding, species identification, and systematic research within Scutellaria, which is an important medicinal plant resource worldwide.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Scutellaria/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 259: 112929, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416245

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Scutellaria barbata and Hedyotis diffusa (SH) herb pair is extensively used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for efficacy enhancement in cancer treatment in China and Asian countries. Superior clinical efficacy observations based on high dosages (≥60 g) motivated us to explore appropriate dosages and the underlying mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the efficacy and potential mechanisms of actions of SH through in vitro and in vivo experiments and network pharmacology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SH lyophilized powder (SHLP) was prepared from decoctions and the active ingredients were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proliferation and migration experiments in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were performed to evaluate the effects of SHLP on breast cancer. Corresponding potential target genes for SHLP components and breast cancer were extracted from established databases and the Protein-Protein Internetwork of shared genes were constructed using STRING database. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional annotation clusters were acquired and the top 30 pathways were presented. At last, as one of pathways indicated by enriched results, apoptosis was validated with flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3, 8, 9 activities. RESULTS: Seventy-five ingredients were identified from SHLP by HPLC. High SHLP doses inhibited proliferation and migration of three types of breast cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice. After target genes extraction and intersection, the top 30 KEGG clusters were enriched, including PI3K-Akt, cell cycle and other related pathways like VEGF, Micro-RNAs and NF-κB, besides, key genes in apoptosis were mapped. In the last, apoptosis was validated by flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3, 8, 9 activities after SHLP treatment. CONCLUSION: High SHLP dosages inhibited breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, enriched by network pharmacology and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis and caspase activation, with apoptosis was identified as one of the mechanisms of action of SHLP. SHLP administration with higher doses is recommended for clinical usage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Scutellaria/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hedyotis , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
19.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(9): 1799-1809, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448093

RESUMO

Various mixtures were prepared depending on the mixing ratio of Scutellaria baicalensis hot water extract (SB-HW), and Chrysanthemum morifolium ethanol extract (CM-E) and their anti-inflammatory activity were compared. Among them, SB-HW (80 µg/mL)/CM-E (120 µg/mL) or SB-HW (40 µg/mL)/CM-E (160 µg/mL) significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated NO and IL-6 levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The SB-HW (80 µg/mL)/CM-E (120 µg/mL) mixture, which was determined as active mixture, significantly reduced MUC5AC secretion in PMA and LPS-induced NCI-H292 cells. The active mixture also reduced the production of PGE2 and IL-8 in PMA-induced A549 cells. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the active mixture was composed of high contents of flavone glycosides, such as baicalin and cynaroside. Western blot analysis indicated that the active mixture suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38, associating with the inhibition of MAPK signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that the active mixture could be applied as a new anti-inflammatory herbal medicine. ABBREVIATIONS: JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinases; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CM: Chrysanthemum morifolium; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; ERK: extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; IL-6: interleukin-6; IL-8: interleukin-8; IL-12: interleukin-12; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; NO: nitric oxide; NK- κB: nuclear factor kappa B; p38: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; PMA: phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate; SB: Scutellaria baicalensis; PGE2: prostaglandin E2; TBST: Tris-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween 20; TIC: total ion chromatogram; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Chrysanthemum/química , Medicina Herbária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Scutellaria/química , Células A549 , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19770, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common health problem in the world. The overall goal of diabetes management is to control blood glucose and lipids, so as to reduce the incidence of complications. Pueraria, scutellaria, and coptis decoction (PSCD) is 1 of the representative Traditional Chinese medicine formula in the treatment of diabetes, which is widely used in clinical practice in China. At present, there are many clinical reports about this formula, but these reports have their own defects.Therefore, there is an urgent need for a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the current clinical evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive literature search will be conducted and randomized controlled trials will be selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fasting blood glucose and 2 hours postprandial blood glucose will be selected as the main outcomes. The secondary outcomes are glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, glycerol, low-density cholesterol, high-density cholesterol and adverse effects. Chi-square and I test will be used to test the heterogeneity of the study. Subgroup analysis will be conducted to explore the source of heterogeneity and sensitivity will be conducted to test the stability of the results. Funnel plot will be used to evaluate publication bias. Finally, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluate system will be used to summarize the quality of evidence. RESULTS: The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: This research will evaluate the efficacy of Pueraria, scutellaria, and coptis decoction in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. It will provide strong evidence-based support for clinical practice. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/WVDE5.


Assuntos
Coptis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pueraria , Scutellaria , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Fitoterapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
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