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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150002, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482143

RESUMO

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) produced by marine algae represents the largest natural emission of sulfur to the atmosphere. The oxidation of DMS is a key process affecting new particle formation that contributes to the radiative forcing of the Earth. In this study, atmospheric DMS and its major oxidation products (methanesulfonic acid, MSA; non-sea-salt sulfate, nss-SO42-) and particle size distributions were measured at King Sejong station located in the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral spring-summer period in 2018-2020. The observatory was surrounded by open ocean and first-year and multi-year sea ice. Importantly, oceanic emissions and atmospheric oxidation of DMS showed distinct differences depending on source regions. A high mixing ratio of atmospheric DMS was observed when air masses were influenced by the open ocean and first-year sea ice due to the abundance of DMS producers such as pelagic phaeocystis and ice algae. However, the concentrations of MSA and nss-SO42- were distinctively increased for air masses originating from first-year sea ice as compared to those originating from the open ocean and multi-year sea ice, suggesting additional influences from the source regions of atmospheric oxidants. Heterogeneous chemical processes that actively occur over first-year sea ice tend to accelerate the release of bromine monoxide (BrO), which is the most efficient DMS oxidant in Antarctica. Model-estimates for surface BrO confirmed that high BrO mixing ratios were closely associated with first-year sea ice, thus enhancing DMS oxidation. Consequently, the concentration of newly formed particles originated from first-year sea ice, which was a strong source area for both DMS and BrO was greater than from open ocean (high DMS but low BrO). These results indicate that first-year sea ice plays an important yet overlooked role in DMS-induced new particle formation in polar environments, where warming-induced sea ice changes are pronounced.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Água do Mar , Regiões Antárticas , Sulfetos/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131675, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358890

RESUMO

Caffeine has been identified as emerging contaminant of concern due to its widespread occurrence in the aquatic environment and potential to be biologically active. Recently, these concerns have been translated in an increasing research on its occurrence and effects on biota. However, there is still a limited knowledge on seawater matrices and the implications of caffeine presence in coastal and marine ecosystems are not fully known. The present review aims to fill these knowledge gaps, analysing the existing literature regarding the occurrence, effects and potential risks of caffeine residues to coastal ecosystems, contributing to the risk assessment of this psychoactive drug in the aquatic environment. The analysed literature reported caffeine concentrations in the coastal ecosystems, raising high concerns about the potential adverse impacts on the ecological safety and human health. Caffeine has been found in tissues from coastal and marine biota including microalgae, coral reefs, bivalves and fish due to bioaccumulation after chronic, long-term exposures in a contaminated environment. Additionally, caffeine residues had been demonstrated to have adverse impacts on aquatic organisms, at environmentally realistic concentrations, inducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, neurotoxicity, changing energy reserves and metabolic activity, affecting reproduction and development and, in some cases, causing mortality. Considering the increasing adverse impacts of caffeine pollution in the coastal environment, this review highlights the urgent need to minimize the increasing load of caffeine to the aquatic ecosystems; being imperative the implementation of scientific programs and projects to classify effectively the caffeine as a high-priority environmentally hazardous emerging pollutant.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cafeína/análise , Cafeína/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131711, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340115

RESUMO

The levels, fate, and potential sources of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in coral tissues and the surrounding air-seawater system from the South China Sea (SCS) were elucidated for the first time. ∑22OCPs (total concentration of 22 OCPs) (16.1-223 pg L-1) was relatively higher in coastal seawater than in offshore seawater, which may be the widespread influence of coastal pollution inputs under the western boundary current. The atmospheric ∑22OCPs were predominantly distributed in the gas phase (48.0-2264 pg m-3) and were mainly influenced by continental air mass origins. The air-seawater exchange of selected OCPs showed that OCPs tended to migrate from the atmosphere to seawater. The distribution of ∑22OCPs in coral tissues (0.02-52.2 ng g-1 dw) was significantly correlated with that in air samples, suggesting that OCPs may have a migration pattern of atmosphere-ocean corals in the SCS. Corals exhibited higher bioaccumulation ability (Log BAFs: 2.42-7.41) for OCPs. Source analysis showed that the new application of technical Chlordanes (CHLs) was primarily responsible for the current levels of CHLs in the surrounding environment over the SCS, while historical residues were the primary sources of other OCPs.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Água do Mar
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131751, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399257

RESUMO

Oil spills in Arctic marine environments are expected to increase concurrently with the expansion of shipping routes and petroleum exploitation into previously inaccessible ice-dominated regions. Most research on oil biodegradation focusses on the bulk oil, but the fate of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), mainly composed of toxic aromatic compounds, is largely underexplored. To evaluate the bacterial degradation capacity of such dissolved aromatics in Greenlandic seawater, microcosms consisting of 0 °C seawater polluted with WAF were investigated over a 3-month period. With a half-life (t1/2) of 26 days, m-xylene was the fastest degraded compound, as measured by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Substantial slower degradation was observed for ethylbenzene, naphthalenes, phenanthrene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene and fluorenes with t1/2 of 40-105 days. Colwellia, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was the main potential degrader of m-xylene. This genus occupied up to 47 % of the bacterial community until day 10 in the microcosms. Cycloclasticus and Zhongshania aliphaticivorans, potentially utilizing one-to three-ringed aromatics, replaced Colwellia between day 10 and 96 and occupied up to 6 % and 23 % of the community, respectively. Although most of the WAF can ultimately be eliminated in microcosms, our results suggest that the restoration of an oil-impacted Arctic environment may be slow as most analysed compounds had t1/2 of over 2-3 months and the detrimental effects of a spill towards the marine ecosystem likely persist during this time.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Regiões Árticas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Gammaproteobacteria , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120474, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689088

RESUMO

A new fluorescent sensing microtiter plate (MTP) was developed for high sensitivity monitoring of anthracene in seawater samples. For this purpose, two ternary complexes of Tb(III) ions with dibenzoylmethane and neocuproine [Tb(DBM)2(MePhen)] or with dibenzoylmethane and bathocuproine [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)] were synthesized. Elemental analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared and ultraviolet-visible emission, and thermal analysis were conducted on the Tb(III) complexes. The limits of detection (DL) were 0.14 and 1.05 µmol L-1 for [Tb(DBM)2(MePhen)] and [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)], respectively. [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)] MTP is embedded in a membrane made of cellulose acetate. The first high-throughput anthracene sensor MTP, based on [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)] sensor showed a linear range, from 0.2 to 20 µmol L-1. [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)] MTP was validated for accurate and precise monitoring of anthracene using gas chromatography. The selectivity of the [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)] MTP toward anthracene was examined. The data indicated that [Tb(DBM)2(PhMePhen)] MTP is suitable for rapid and direct detection of anthracene.


Assuntos
Antracenos , Térbio , Íons , Água do Mar , Difração de Raios X
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150208, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798741

RESUMO

European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) migrate towards habitats where salinity can reach levels over 60‰, notably in Mediterranean lagoons. D. labrax are genetically subdivided in Atlantic and Mediterranean lineages and have evolved in slightly different salinities. We compared Atlantic and West-Mediterranean populations regarding their capacity to tolerate hypersalinity with a focus on the involvement of the intestine in solute-driven water reabsorption. Fish were analyzed following a two-week transfer from seawater (SW, 36‰) to either SW or hypersaline water (HW, 55‰). Differences among lineages were observed in posterior intestines of fish maintained in SW regarding NKA activities and mRNA expressions of nkaα1a, aqp8b, aqp1a and aqp1b with systematic higher levels in Mediterranean sea bass. High salinity transfer triggered similar responses in both lineages but at different magnitudes which may indicate slight different physiological strategies between lineages. High salinity transfer did not significantly affect the phenotypic traits measured in the anterior intestine. In the posterior intestine however, the size of enterocytes and NKA activity were higher in HW compared to SW. In this tissue, nka-α1a, nkcc2, aqp8ab and aqp8aa mRNA levels were higher in HW compared to SW as well as relative protein expression of AQP8ab. For aqp1a, 1b, 8aa and 8b, an opposite trend was observed. The sub-apical localization of AQP8ab in enterocytes suggests its role in transepithelial water reabsorption. Strong apical NKCC2/NCC staining indicates an increased Na+ and Cl- reuptake by enterocytes which could contribute to solute-coupled water reuptake in cells where AQP8ab is expressed.


Assuntos
Bass , Animais , Bass/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Intestinos , Osmorregulação , Salinidade , Água do Mar , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150386, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560458

RESUMO

The Caplina/Concordia transboundary coastal aquifer system, located in the Atacama Desert, is the primary source of water supply for domestic use and irrigation for La Yarada-Los Palos (Peru) and Concordia (Chile) agriculture districts, and to a lesser extent, for Tacna province public supply use (Peru). Despite the scarce amount of rainfall (<20 mm/year) in the area and the limited recharge coming from the Andean highlands, this transboundary aquifer system has been overexploited mainly for agriculture since before the 2000s on the Peruvian side. Consequently, this has caused groundwater depletion and seawater intrusion. In this study, comprehensive hydrogeological information was integrated to understand the aquifer system's behavior and the effects to which it has been subjected to groundwater overexploitation. To that end, a 3D hydrogeological framework was developed using the LEAPFROG software and a constant-density groundwater flow model with equivalent heads was generated in FEFLOW software, which was adjusted with Monte Carlo analysis and conventional automated calibration. Finally, eight scenarios, considering various water resource management options proposed by the authority and potential climatic trends (CMIP6), were simulated from 2020 to 2040. The results showed that between 2002 and 2020, the increase in the seawater wedge and the average groundwater level decline were 216 hm3/year and 7 m, respectively. It is expected that the depletion will continue with a groundwater level decline between 5 and 8 m and an increase in the seawater wedge between 1120 hm3/year and 1175 hm3/year for the forecast period. The study concludes that the aquifer system will remain unsustainable for the next 20 years, regardless of the selected scenarios, and suggests that any mitigation measure requires the participation of stakeholders from Peru, Chile, and Bolivia.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Chile , Peru , Água do Mar , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118275, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626717

RESUMO

The lack of standardization on the definition and methods in microplastic (MP) research has limited the overall interpretation and intercomparison of published data. This has presented different solutions to assess the presence of these pollutants in the natural environment, bringing the science forward. Microplastics have been reported worldwide across different biological levels and environmental compartments. In the Mediterranean Sea, numerous research efforts have been dedicated to defining the MP pollution levels. The reported MP concentrations are comparable to those found in the convergence zone of ocean gyres, pointing to this basin as one of the world's greatest plastic accumulation areas. However, to what extent are the data produced limited by the methods? Here, we present the results of a systematic review of MP research methods and occurrence targeting the seawater and sediment bodies of the Mediterranean Sea. Based on this dataset, we 1) assess the discrepancies and similarities in the methods, 2) analyze how these differences affect the reported concentrations, and 3) identify the limitations of the data produced for the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, we reaffirm the pressing need of developing a common reporting terminology, and call for international collaboration between Mediterranean countries, especially with North African countries, to provide a complete picture of the MP pollution status in this basin.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118329, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634406

RESUMO

Since the last decade, several studies have reported the presence and effects of pharmaceutical residues in the marine environment, especially those of the antihypertensive class, such as losartan. However, there is little knowledge about the physiological effects of losartan in marine invertebrates regarding its behavior under possible coastal ocean acidification scenarios. The objective of this study was to evaluate biological effects on marine organisms at different levels of the biological organization caused by the compound losartan in water and sediment under coastal ocean acidification scenarios. Water and sediment samples were collected at five sites around the Santos Submarine Sewage outfall (SSO) and two sites around the Guarujá Submarine Sewage Outfall (GSO). Losartan was found in concentrations ranging from

Assuntos
Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos , Organismos Aquáticos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Losartan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131588, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293555

RESUMO

Non-targeted analysis for the monitoring of organic pollutants resulting from agricultural and industrial practices, plastics and pharmaceutical products of seawater from the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) is proposed using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initially, a home-made MS database including 118 environmental organic pollutants, whose presence in different ecosystems has already been reported, was created. The analytical method was applied for the analysis of 42 samples and a total of 18 pollutants were detected and identified. Samples were obtained from different sites around the Mar Menor in three sampling campaigns, enabling the assessment of impact of rain on the input of the detected chemicals and their distribution. In addition, this methodology was validated using a standard mixture containing 54 of the environmental pollutants included in the database, allowing the quantification of the 9 of the identified compounds (dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, anthracene, 2-methylnaphthalene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and oleamide) with concentration between 3 and 271 µg L-1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Água do Mar
11.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118337, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644624

RESUMO

Marine microplastics have received considerable attention as a global environmental issue. However, despite the constant accumulation of microplastics in the ocean, their transport processes and mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study investigated microplastics in the sediments of seagrass meadows and nearby regions without seagrass along the Shandong coast and found that the sediment in the seagrass meadows was a sink for microplastics. Subsequently, we evaluated the influence of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a common coastal seagrass, on the sedimentation of suspended polystyrene microplastics. The results showed that 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/L eelgrass leaves decreased the abundance of microplastics in seawater in a dose-dependent manner over a period of 3-48 h under shaking conditions at 120 rpm at 22 °C. After 48 h of shaking, microplastic abundances in the 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/L eelgrass groups significantly decreased by 46.9%, 53.1%, and 88.4%, respectively. Microplastics can adhere to eelgrass leaves and form biofilms, which promoted the formation of white floc that traps the suspended microplastics, causing them to sink. Furthermore, two epiphytic bacteria (Vibrio and Exiguobacterium) isolated from the eelgrass leaves decreased the abundances of suspended microplastics by 95.7% and 94.5%, respectively, in 48 h by accelerating the formation of biofilms on the microplastics. Therefore, eelgrass and its epiphytic bacteria facilitated the sinking of microplastics and increased the accumulation of microplastics in the sediments of seagrass meadows in coastal regions.


Assuntos
Zosteraceae , Bactérias , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Água do Mar
12.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118255, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600061

RESUMO

Seven organophosphate esters (OPEs) in atmospheric particles and surface seawater were observed during a cruise in the western South China Sea (SCS) in 2014. The median concentrations of ∑OPEs were 688 pg/m3 and 5.55 ng/L for particle and seawater samples, respectively. Total OPEs were dominated by tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). The spatial distribution of OPEs indicates that the OPEs in particle phase were mainly influenced by the air masses originating from China, Indochina Peninsula and Malay Archipelago, showing the significant contribution of anthropogenic sources from these regions. Significant positive correlations between Tri-n-butylphosphate (TnBP) and organic carbon (P < 0.05) in particle phase over the western SCS suggests that it might be a potential tracer for the source regions of Indochina Peninsula and Malay Archipelago. The spatial distribution of OPEs in seawater was contributed by freshwater inputs associating with variations of human activities as well as salinity. Seawater pollution levels of OPEs in the eastern coast of Vietnam were increased compared to those measured in the northern SCS. The loadings of ∑OPEs transported to the vast area of western SCS vias atmospheric deposition and air-seawater gas exchange were estimated to be 59 tons/year and 105 tons/year, respectively. This work highlights the importance of transport processes and air-seawater interface behavior of OPEs in the oceanic area.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Água do Mar
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132137, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496335

RESUMO

Uranium extraction and recovery play a critical role in guaranteeing the sustainable nuclear energy supply and protecting the environmental safety. The ideal uranium sorbents possess high adsorption capacity, excellent selectivity and reusability, as well as outstanding antimicrobial property, which are greatly desired for the real application of uranium extraction from seawater. To address this challenge, a novel magnetic core-shell adsorbent was designed and fabricated by a facile method. The obtained amidoximed Fe3O4@TiO2 particles (Fe3O4@TiO2-AO) achieved equilibrium in 2 h and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir model is 217.0 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. Meanwhile, the Fe3O4@TiO2-AO exhibited great selectivity when competitive metal ions and anions coexisted. In addition, the magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2-AO could be conveniently separated and collected by an external magnetic field, the regeneration efficiency maintained at 78.5% even after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. In natural seawater, the uranium uptake reached 87.5 µg/g in 33 days. Furthermore, the TiO2 contained adsorbent showed effective photo induced bactericidal properties against both E. coli and S. aureus. The Fe3O4@TiO2-AO with great U(VI) adsorption performance is highly promising in uranium extraction and reclamation.


Assuntos
Urânio , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Oximas , Água do Mar , Staphylococcus aureus , Titânio
14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132169, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500334

RESUMO

Due to the shortage of freshwater around the world, seawater is becoming an important water source. However, seawater contains a high concentration of bromide that can form harmful disinfection by-products during water disinfection. Therefore, the current seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has to adopt two-pass reverse osmosis (RO) configuration for effective bromide removal, increasing the overall desalination cost. In this study, a bromide selective composite electrode was developed for membrane capacitive deionisation (MCDI). The composite electrode was developed by coating a mixture of bromide selective resin and anion exchange polymer on the surface of the commercial activated carbon electrode, and its performance was compared to that of conventional carbon electrode. The results demonstrated that the composite electrode has ten times better bromide selectivity than the conventional carbon electrode. The study shows the potential application of MCDI for the selective removal of target ions from water sources and the potential for resource recovery through basic modification of commercial electrode.


Assuntos
Brometos , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Eletrodos , Membranas Artificiais , Água do Mar , Águas Residuárias
15.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132218, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509769

RESUMO

Bisphenol analogues (BPs), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) are well-known environmental endocrine disrupters. Many studies have characterized their occurrence in the freshwater environment. However, their environmental behaviors in the coastal marine environment remain poorly understood. Here, matched seawater and sediment samples were collected from East China Sea, and analyzed for 13 BPs (including halogenated derivatives of bisphenol A), TCC, and TCS. Bisphenol A (BPA; mean 23 ng/L) was the predominant BP in seawaters, followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA; 2.3 ng/L) and bisphenol S (BPS; 2.2 ng/L). Seawater concentrations of TCS (

Assuntos
Carbanilidas , Triclosan , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Carbanilidas/análise , China , Fenóis , Água do Mar , Triclosan/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150098, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508930

RESUMO

Contrary to epipelagic waters, where biogeochemical processes closely follow the light and dark periods, little is known about diel cycles in the ocean's mesopelagic realm. Here, we monitored the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and planktonic heterotrophic prokaryotes every 2 h for one day at 0 and 550 m (a depth occupied by vertically migrating fishes during light hours) in oligotrophic waters of the central Red Sea. We additionally performed predator-free seawater incubations of samples collected from the same site both at midnight and at noon. Comparable in situ variability in microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon concentration suggests a diel supply of fresh DOM in both layers. The presence of fishes in the mesopelagic zone during daytime likely promoted a sustained, longer growth of larger prokaryotic cells. The specific growth rates were consistently higher in the noon experiments from both depths (surface: 0.34 vs. 0.18 d-1, mesopelagic: 0.16 vs. 0.09 d-1). Heterotrophic prokaryotes in the mesopelagic layer were also more efficient at converting extant DOM into new biomass. These results suggest that the ocean's twilight zone receives a consistent diurnal supply of labile DOM from the diel vertical migration of fishes, enabling an unexpectedly active community of heterotrophic prokaryotes.


Assuntos
Células Procarióticas , Água do Mar , Animais , Peixes , Processos Heterotróficos , Oceano Índico
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150138, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517308

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) fibers are present in all environmental media, yet little is known about their distribution, sources, and transport in the water column of marginal seas. In this study, we conducted an intensive sampling campaign in the marginal sea water column off southeast China, which is an area that is greatly influenced by high MP emissions. We found that hydrological effects largely regulated the spatial variations of MP fiber distribution and that MP fibers likely were not entering the South China Sea through terrestrial input from southeast China during the summer monsoon. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers were pervasive in the surface water (SW) (89.47%), subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCML) (92.65%), and bottom water (BW) (94.29%) of the water column during the sampling period. Approximately 32% of MP fibers in the samples were smaller than 330 µm. The abundance of MP fibers in SW was significantly lower than that in the SCML and BW. Based on this observation, we estimated the inventory of MP fibers in the SW, SCML, and BW of the sampling area to be 1.377-1.378, 2.820-2.825, and 2.627-2.629 metric tons, respectively. These results improved our understanding of the source-to-sink process of MP fiber contamination in the water column of marginal seas.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Prevalência , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149807, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450439

RESUMO

It is expected that by 2050 human population will exceed nine billion leading to increased pressure on marine ecosystems. Therefore, it is conjectured various levels of ecosystem functioning starting from individual to population-level, species distribution, food webs and trophic interaction dynamics will be severely jeopardized in coming decades. Ocean warming and acidification are two prime threats to marine biota, yet studies about their cumulative effect on marine fish and shellfishes are still in its infancy. This review assesses existing information regarding the interactive effects of global environmental factors like warming and acidification in the perspective of marine capture fisheries and aquaculture industry. As climate change continues, distribution pattern of species is likely to be altered which will impact fisheries and fishing patterns. Our work is an attempt to compile the existing literatures in the biological perspective of the above-mentioned stressors and accentuate a clear outline of knowledge in this subject. We reviewed studies deciphering the biological consequences of warming and acidification on fish and shellfishes in the light of a molecule to ecosystem perspective. Here, for the first time impacts of these two global environmental drivers are discussed in a holistic manner taking into account growth, survival, behavioural response, prey predator dynamics, calcification, biomineralization, reproduction, physiology, thermal tolerance, molecular level responses as well as immune system and disease susceptibility. We suggest urgent focus on more robust, long term, comprehensive and ecologically realistic studies that will significantly contribute to the understanding of organism's response to climate change for sustainable capture fisheries and aquaculture.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água do Mar , Animais , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Frutos do Mar
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149787, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464796

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effect of the climatic change on the phototrophic communities of hypersaline microbial mats. Ocean acidification and warming were simulated alone and together on microbial mats placed into mesocosms. As expected, the temperature in the warming treatments increased by 4 °C from the initial temperature. Surprisingly, no significance difference was observed between the water pH of the different treatments despite of a decrease of 0.4 unit pH in the water reserves of acidification treatments. The salinity increased on the warming treatments and the dissolved oxygen concentration increased and was higher on the acidification treatments. A total of 37 pigments were identified belonging to chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls families. The higher abundance of unknown chlorophyll molecules called chlorophyll derivatives was observed in the acidification alone treatment with a decrease in chlorophyll a abundance. This change in pigmentary composition was accompanied by a higher production of bound extracellular carbohydrates but didn't affect the photosynthetic efficiency of the microbial mats. A careful analysis of the absorption properties of these molecules indicated that these chlorophyll derivatives were likely bacteriochlorophyll c contained in the chlorosomes of green anoxygenic phototroph bacteria. Two hypotheses can be drawn from these results: 1/ the phototrophic communities of the microbial mats were modified under acidification treatment leading to a higher relative abundance of green anoxygenic bacteria, or 2/ the highest availability of CO2 in the environment has led to a shift in the metabolism of green anoxygenic bacteria being more competitive than other phototrophs.


Assuntos
Bacterioclorofilas , Mudança Climática , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Água do Mar
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126780, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358974

RESUMO

The microbial colonization profiles on microplastics (MPs) in marine environments have recently sparked global interest. However, many studies have characterized plastisphere microbiomes without considering the ecological processes that underly microbiome assembly. Here, we carried out a three-timepoint exposure experiment at 1-, 4-, and 8-week and investigated the colonization dynamics for polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene MP pellets in natural coastal water. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA, we found diversity and evenness were higher (p < 0.05) in the plastisphere communities than those in seawater, and microorganisms colonizing were co-influenced by environmental factors, polymer types, and exposure duration. Functional potential and co-occurrence network analysis revealed that MP exposure enriched the xenobiotic biodegradation potential and reduced the complexity of the MP microbial network. Simultaneously, null-model analyses indicated that stochastic processes contributed a bigger role than deterministic processes in shaping plastisphere microbial community structure with dispersal limitations contributing to a greater extent to microbial succession trajectories. These results implied the plastic surface had a more important role as a raft onto which microbes attach rather than selectively recruiting plastic-specific microbial colonizers. Our work strengthened the understanding of the ecological mechanisms by which microbial community patterns are controlled during colonization by plastic-associated microbes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar
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