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1.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 49(3): 235-239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523238

RESUMO

Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) occurs when skin is repeatedly exposed to various sources of bodily secretions or effluents, often leading to irritant contact dermatitis, characterized by inflammation with or without denudation of affected skin. In 2020, the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society commissioned an initiative that led to the addition of multiple International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes (ICD-10-CM) for irritant contact dermatitis caused by various forms of MASD for use in the United States. In a recent issue of the Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, a clinical practice alert identifying the various new codes was published that summarized each of the new codes and provided highlights of the descriptions for each of these codes. This is the second in a series of 2 follow-up articles providing a more detailed description of the MASD conditions to which the newest irritant contact dermatitis ICD-10-CM codes apply. Specifically, this article reviews the clinical manifestations and assessment, pathophysiology, epidemiology, prevention, and management of irritant contact dermatitis associated with digestive secretions from a stoma or fistula, and fecal or urinary effluent from an abdominal stoma or enterocutaneous fistula.


Assuntos
Dermatite Irritante , Fístula Intestinal , Secreções Corporais , Dermatite Irritante/etiologia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Fístula Intestinal/complicações , Irritantes , Higiene da Pele
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294481

RESUMO

After feeding on a tree leaf, caterpillars in ten families sever the petiole and allow the remaining leaf fragment to fall to the ground. Previous researchers proposed that the caterpillars thereby reduced bird predation by eliminating visual evidence of feeding. In this study, 26 species of caterpillars in five families were filmed clipping leaves. Caterpillar behavior did not conform to the visual cue hypothesis. Some caterpillars clipped midribs and petioles repeatedly even though a single clip would suffice to reduce visual cues for birds. Every caterpillar that clipped a leaf rubbed its spinneret (which secretes saliva from the labial glands) over the petiole or midrib stub. In the notodontids Symmerista albifrons and S. leucitys, petiole stubs were bathed in red fluid. Cauterizing the spinneret eliminated fluid application. Dissections documented that the anterior portion of their labial glands contained red pigment, thereby confirming that the red secretion is saliva. When applied to petiole stubs, the red pigment in Symmerista saliva travelled several mm in five minutes within the petiole xylem demonstrating the potential for rapid movement of salivary constituents into the plant. In diverse caterpillars, including species that clip leaves, saliva contains substances reported to suppress plant defenses. Thus, leaf clipping likely functions primarily not to remove visual cues, but to introduce salivary constituents into the plant that prevent defenses from being mobilized in nearby leaves where the caterpillar feeds next.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Saliva , Animais , Secreções Corporais , Humanos , Larva , Folhas de Planta
3.
Naturwissenschaften ; 109(2): 19, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267095

RESUMO

Pygidial gland secretions are used as repellent defensive allomones in ground beetles. We provide the first precise data on the chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of the secretion of the blue ground beetle, as well as on the morphology of its pygidial glands. The latter structures were not previously studied chemoecologically and morphologically, and we hypothesized that their secretion may have some antimicrobial action, as is the case with certain Carabus species. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify methacrylic and angelic acids as dominant chemicals in the secretion from individuals of three populations of the blue ground beetle in Serbia. We tested its secretion against selected strains of medically important microorganisms. The secretion exibits antimicrobial action against certain bacterial species and all tested micromycetes. The most significant antifungal effect of the secretion was against Penicillium ochrochloron, which is more sensitive to the secretion than to commercial antifungal drugs ketoconazole and bifonazole. Bifonazole achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations against Trichoderma viride at more than three times higher value than did the secretion, indicating a significant antifungal effect of the secretion against this micromycete as well. Additionally, we tested commercially available standards of two dominant chemicals in the secretion to investigate their interaction and antimicrobial role in the secretion. Finally, we describe all glandular morpho-functional units of the blue ground beetle. Our results suggest that the secretion of the blue ground beetle may serve not only defensive but also antimicrobial functions, which likely aid the survival of this beetle in the microbial-rich forest litter habitat.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Besouros , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Secreções Corporais/química , Besouros/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(2): 123-126, mar.-abr. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203753

RESUMO

Las complicaciones respiratorias son una de las causas de hospitalización más frecuente, e incluso de muerte, en pacientes con enfermedad neuromuscular. El seguimiento multidisciplinar tiene efectos positivos sobre la supervivencia y la calidad de vida en estos pacientes. Este caso supuso un reto terapéutico para el manejo de secreciones bronquiales, por ser un paciente con Esclerosis Lateral Amiotrófica no colaborador y que rechazaba las medidas invasivas. Tras un primer intento fallido de adaptación al sistema mecánico de tos convencional, se modificó la interfase usando una boquilla de tipo buzo invertida, introducida entre los dientes durante la aplicación del equipo con mascarilla nasobucal. Se consiguieron muestras de esputo, lo que nos permitió tratar las infecciones respiratorias con el antibiótico específico. Además, el seguimiento se realizó por videollamada, sin necesidad de desplazar al paciente hasta el hospital. El equipo multidisciplinar se adaptó a las necesidades del paciente tratando de forma novedosa y eficaz las infecciones respiratorias. Además, el uso de nuevas tecnologías evitó ingresos hospitalarios, a pesar de ser un paciente gran dependiente.(AU)


Respiratory complications are one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization and even death in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Multidisciplinary follow-up has been shown to have positive effects on survival and quality of life in these patients. The present case represented a therapeutic challenge in order to manage respiratory secretions in a non-collaborate Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patient due to the negative to accept invasive strategies to cope with respiratory infections. Despite a first failed approach in the adaptation to a mechanical assisted cough device, then a modification in the interfase allowed to mobilize secretions and it was also possible to analyze them and use the correct antibiotic treatment. Moreover, a remotely follow-up was done to handle situations, like respiratory tract infections, whenever possible, without requesting the patient to move to the hospital. The multidisciplinary unit team adapted to his needs offering a newest and efficacy strategy to cope with respiratory infections. Indeed, the use of new technologies avoided in a high dependent patient to require hospitalizations.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Secreções Corporais , Tratamento Conservador , Transtornos Respiratórios
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 38, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073987

RESUMO

Apicomplexans are important pathogens that cause severe infections in humans and animals. The biology and pathogeneses of these parasites have shown that proteins are intrinsically modulated during developmental transitions, physiological processes and disease progression. Also, proteins are integral components of parasite structural elements and organelles. Among apicomplexan parasites, Eimeria species are an important disease aetiology for economically important animals wherein identification and characterisation of proteins have been long-winded. Nonetheless, this review seeks to give a comprehensive overview of constitutively expressed Eimeria proteins. These molecules are discussed across developmental stages, organelles and sub-cellular components vis-à-vis their biological functions. In addition, hindsight and suggestions are offered with intention to summarise the existing trend of eimerian protein characterisation and to provide a baseline for future studies.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Secreções Corporais , Eimeria , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/metabolismo , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/metabolismo , Secreções Corporais/metabolismo , Secreções Corporais/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/metabolismo , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/metabolismo , Genes de Protozoários , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Merozoítos/metabolismo , Oocistos/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Transporte Proteico , Esporozoítos/metabolismo
6.
Andrologia ; 54(2): e14317, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850444

RESUMO

Immunoglobulins free light chains (FLCs) are assayable in several biological fluids. Currently, there are no reports on FLCs in seminal plasma. The aims of our study were to investigate the presence and detectability of FLCs in seminal plasma and to evaluate the usefulness of this assay in the diagnostic approach to infertile patients. We enrolled 61 patients aged 18-50 years. Semen analysis was performed. They were divided into four groups: controls-normozoospermic, 10 patients, mean ± SEM age 35 ± 1.5 years; varicoceles (VAR), 18 patients aged 24.3 ± 0.96 years; inflammatory (INF) seminal fluids, 24 patients, aged 38.8 ± 2.2 years; and varicoceles and inflammatory (VAR/INF) seminal fluids, 9 patients, aged 29.5 ± 0.71 years. A trend towards higher λ FLCs levels was evidenced in the INF and VAR/INF groups. κ FLCs were higher in normozoospermic patients with lower levels in VAR, both isolated and associated with inflammatory parameters. This differential pattern of the two types of FLCs reached statistical significance when comparing κ/λ ratio, with significant lower levels in VAR vs controls. This is the first report of FLCs assay in seminal plasma. We can hypothesize that λ FLCs are increased in inflammatory processes, whether κ FLCs seem to be influenced by other molecular mechanisms related to varicocele.


Assuntos
Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina , Adolescente , Adulto , Secreções Corporais , Humanos , Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Adulto Jovem
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18912, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364430

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to establish and compare models of mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) using two different methods. The models provide information on the relationship between mammary gland hyperplasia and associated hormones. Model A was constructed using intramuscular injections of estradiol benzoate injection (EBI), followed by progesterone (P), and then metoclopramide dihydrochloride (MDI). Model B was designed by administering MDI, follow by EBI, and then P intramuscularly. Model B showed higher MGH progression compared with model A. Notably, increase in estradiol (E2) was negatively correlated with prolactin (PRL) secretion. However, PRL levels in model B were significantly higher compared with the levels in model A. Estrogen (ER), prolactin receptor (PRLR), and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and protein expression levels in model B rats were positively correlated with changes in the corresponding hormone levels. However, E2, P, and PRL levels in model A showed no direct relationship with levels of the mRNAs of related hormones and protein expression levels. Our results suggest that model B is an appropriate model of MGH with HPRL that can be used to perform further studies about the interactions of the E2, P, and PRL hormones in this disorder.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Hiperprolactinemia , Hiperplasia/patologia , Progesterona , Prolactina , Receptores da Prolactina , Receptores de Progesterona , Western Blotting/métodos , Secreções Corporais , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anatomia & histologia , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intramusculares/instrumentação , Métodos
8.
Plant Sci ; 314: 111120, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895549

RESUMO

Little is known about how different plant-based diets influence the insect herbivores' oral secretion (OS) composition and eventually the plant defense responses. We analyzed the OS composition of the generalist Lepidopteran insect, Helicoverpa armigera feeding on the host plant tomato (OSH), non-host plant capsicum (OSNH), and artificial diet (OSAD) using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. Higher numbers and levels of alkaloids and terpenoids were observed in OSH and OSNH, respectively while OSAD was rich in phospholipids. Interestingly, treatment of H. armigera OSAD, OSH and OSNH on wounded tomato leaves showed differential expression of (i) genes involved in JA and SA biosynthesis and their responsive genes, and (ii) biosynthetic pathway genes of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and trehalose, which exhibited increased accumulation along with several other plant defensive metabolites. Specifically, high levels of CGA were detected after OSH and OSNH treatments in tomato leaves. There was higher expression of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, which may lead to the increased accumulation of CGA and related metabolites. In the insect bioassay, CGA significantly inhibited H. armigera larval growth. Our results underline the differential accumulation of plant and insect OS metabolites and identified potential plant metabolite(s) affecting insect growth and development.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/química , Dieta , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/fisiologia , Animais
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0009977, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860839

RESUMO

Virologic surveillance of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) relies on collecting pig blood specimens and adult mosquitoes in the past. Viral RNAs extracted from pig blood specimens suffer from low detecting positivity by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The oronasal transmission of the virus has been demonstrated in experimentally infected pigs. This observation suggested oronasal specimens could be useful source in the virus surveillance. However, the role of this unusual route of transmission remains unproven in the operational pig farm. In this study, we explore the feasibility of using pig oronasal secretions collected by chewing ropes to improve the positivity of detection in commercial pig farms. The multiplex genotype-specific RT-PCR was used in this study to determine and compare the positivity of detecting JEV viral RNAs in pig's oronasal secretions and blood specimens, and the primary mosquito vector. Oronasal specimens had the overall positive rate of 6.0% (95% CI 1.3%-16.6%) (3/50) to 10.0% (95% CI 2.1%-26.5%) (3/30) for JEV during transmission period despite the negative results of all blood-derived specimens (n = 2442). Interestingly, pig oronasal secretions and female Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito samples collected from the same pig farm showed similar viral RNA positive rates, 10.0% (95% CI 2.1%-26.5%) (3/30) and 8.9% (95% CI 2.5%-21.2%) (4/45), respectively (p> 0.05). Pig oronasal secretion-based surveillance revealed the seasonality of viral activity and identified closely related genotype I virus derived from the mosquito isolates. This finding indicates oronasal secretion-based RT-PCR assay can be a non-invasive, alternative method of implementing JEV surveillance in the epidemic area prior to the circulation of virus-positive mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Boca/virologia , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Animais , Bioensaio , Culex/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Encefalite Japonesa/transmissão , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos
10.
Sci Justice ; 61(6): 771-778, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802651

RESUMO

The current scientific techniques for locating body fluids focus on quick and effective methodologies for easy and reliable identification. Efficient detection and identification of body fluids play a vital role in establishing the 'corpus delecti' of a crime. Non-destructive techniques such as the use of Alternate Light Sources (ALS) have been exploited for crime scene searches over large areas and detection of body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva on a range of substrates. Tears are rarely found but can be considered as potential body fluid evidence due to their unique biochemical and molecular properties. Tears are secreted in response to physical or emotional stimuli. Due to the small volume of secretions, they are often overlooked in the crime scene. Tears may be found on surfaces such as clothing, bedding, tissue, handkerchief, or balaclava. The use of ALS to locate tears on tissue paper and fabric surfaces was tested which were not apparent to the naked eye. Tears stains were successfully detected on surfaces of forensic interest with varying sample ages up to three months with a broad excitation spectrum between 254 nm and 410 nm. Dried stains on tissue paper and fabric substrates were better detected with sharp margins, clear stain pattern visibility, and fluorescence intensity in comparison with moist and fresh stains. Tears stains can hence be detected with the use of ALS and suitable filter combinations under normal conditions and do not require any specific settings to locate them. These findings are suggestive for easy and quick identification of tears on large surfaces and as a presumptive test for forensic casework evidence examination.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Medicina Legal , Secreções Corporais , Líquidos Corporais/química , Corantes/análise , Feminino , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Saliva/química , Sêmen/química
11.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835078

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous particles secreted by all cell types (including virus infected and uninfected cells) into the extracellular milieu. EVs carry, protect, and transport a wide array of bioactive cargoes to recipient/target cells. EVs regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in recipient cells and are important in therapeutics/drug delivery. Despite these great attributes of EVs, an efficient protocol for EV separation from biofluids is lacking. Numerous techniques have been adapted for the separation of EVs with size exclusion chromatography (SEC)-based methods being the most promising. Here, we review the SEC protocols used for EV separation, and discuss opportunities for significant improvements, such as the development of novel particle purification liquid chromatography (PPLC) system capable of tandem purification and characterization of biological and synthetic particles with near-single vesicle resolution. Finally, we identify future perspectives and current issues to make PPLC a tool capable of providing a unified, automated, adaptable, yet simple and affordable particle separation resource.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Gel , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Secreções Corporais/química , Secreções Corporais/citologia , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Meios de Cultura/química , Exossomos/química , Humanos
12.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103436, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700103

RESUMO

In both men and women, pathogenic bacteria enter the reproductive tract and cause harmful symptoms. Intrauterine and oviductal inflammation after copulation may have severe effects, such as infertility, implantation failure, oviduct obstruction, and robust life-threatening bacterial infection. Human seminal plasma is considered to be protective against bacterial infection. Among its components, Semenogelin-I/-II proteins are digested to function as bactericidal factors; however, their sequences are not conserved in mammals. Therefore, alternative antibacterial (bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic) systems may exist across mammals. In this study, we examined the antibacterial activity in the seminal plasma of mice lacking a gene cluster encoding Semenogelin-I/-II counterparts. Even in the absence of the majority of seminal proteins, antibacterial activity remained in the seminal plasma. Moreover, a combination of gel chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the prostate and testis expressed 4 protein as a novel antibacterial (specifically, bacteriostatic) protein, the sequence of which is broadly conserved across mammals. Our results provide the first evidence of a bacteriostatic protein that is widely present in the mammalian seminal plasma.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Proteínas Secretadas pela Vesícula Seminal/metabolismo , Animais , Secreções Corporais , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Proteínas Secretadas pela Vesícula Seminal/genética
13.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684764

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to establish the complete microbiological profile of boar semen (Sus scrofa domesticus) and to choose the most effective antiseptic measures in order to control and optimize AI reproduction in pig farms. One hundred and one semen samples were collected and analyzed from several pig farms. The microbiological profile of ejaculates was determined by evaluating the degree of contamination of fresh semen and after dilution with specific extenders. The bacterial and fungal load of fresh boar semen recorded an average value of 82.41/0.149 × 103 CFU/mL, while after diluting the ejaculates the contamination value was 0.354/0.140 × 103 CFU/mL. Twenty-four germs (15 bacterial and 9 fungal species) were isolated, the most common being Candida parapsilosis/sake (92%) and Escherichia coli (81.2%). Modification of the sperm collection protocol (HPBC) reduced contamination in raw sperm by 49.85% in bacteria (significant (p < 0.00001) and by 9.67% in fungi (non-significant (p < 0.111491). The load in bacteria and filamentous fungi can be controllable, but not in levuras fungi. Some fluconazole-added extenders (12.5 mg%), ensure fungal aseptization, and even an increase in sperm progressivity (8.39%) for at least a 12 h shelf life after dilution. Validation of sperm aseptization was done by maintaining sow fecundity unchanged after AI (insignificant p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Sêmen/microbiologia , Esterilização/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Secreções Corporais , Líquidos Corporais , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/microbiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Suínos/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555059

RESUMO

Nicrophorus is a genus of beetles that bury and transform small vertebrate carcasses into a brood ball coated with their oral and anal secretions to prevent decay and that will serve as a food source for their young. Nicrophorus pustulatus is an unusual species with the ability to overtake brood of other burying beetles and whose secretions, unlike other Nicrophorus species, has been reported not to exhibit antimicrobial properties. This work aims to better understand how the presence or absence of a food source influences the expression of genes involved in the feeding process of N. pustulatus. To achieve that, total RNA was extracted from pooled samples of salivary gland tissue from N. pustulatus and sequenced using an Illumina platform. The resulting reads were used to assemble a de novo transcriptome using Trinity. Duplicates with more than 95% similarity were removed to obtain a "unigene" set. Annotation of the unigene set was done using the Trinotate pipeline. Transcript abundance was determined using Kallisto and differential gene expression analysis was performed using edgeR. A total of 651 genes were found to be differentially expressed, including 390 upregulated and 261 downregulated genes in fed insects compared to starved. Several genes upregulated in fed beetles are associated with the insect immune response and detoxification processes with only one transcript encoding for the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) defensin. These results confirm that N. pustulatus does not upregulate the production of genes encoding AMPs during feeding. This study provides a snapshot of the changes in gene expression in the salivary glands of N. pustulatus following feeding while providing a well described transcriptome for the further analysis of this unique burying beetle.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Secreções Corporais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo
15.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572122

RESUMO

There is considerable evidence that female reproductive fluid (FRF) interacts intimately with sperm, affecting several sperm traits, including sperm motility and longevity, and ultimately fertilization success. One of the first documented interactions between FRF and sperm is the ability of FRF to attract and guide sperm towards the eggs. However, most of the evidence of FRF's chemoattraction proprieties comes from a limited number of taxa, specifically mammals and invertebrate broadcasting spawners. In other species, small FRF volumes and/or short sperm longevity often impose methodological difficulties resulting in this gap in chemoattraction studies in non-model species. One of the outcomes of sperm chemotaxis is sperm accumulation towards high chemoattractant concentrations, which can be easily quantified by measuring sperm concentration. Here, we tested sperm accumulation towards FRF in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, using an ad hoc developed, 3D printed, device ('sperm selection chamber'). This easy-to-use tool allows to select and collect the sperm that swim towards a chemical gradient, and accumulate in a chemoattractant-filled well thus providing putative evidence for chemoattraction. We found that sperm accumulate in FRF in zebrafish. We also found that none of the sperm quality traits we measured (sperm swimming velocity and trajectory, sperm motility, and longevity) were correlated with this response. Together with the 3D printable project, we provide a detailed protocol for using the selection chamber. The chamber is optimized for the zebrafish, but it can be easily adapted for other species. Our device lays the foundation for a standardized way to measure sperm accumulation and in general chemoattraction, stimulating future research aimed at understanding the role and the mechanisms of sperm chemoattraction by FRF.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/metabolismo , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Pathog Dis ; 79(6)2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347083

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects millions of people around the world. Larval excretion/secretion (ES) of the larvae of flies of the Calliphoridae family has microbicidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, in addition to some species of Leishmania. Our study aimed at assessing the in vitro efficacy of Lucilia cuprina larval ES against the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, elucidating possible microbicidal mechanisms and routes of death involved. Larval ES was able to inhibit the viability of L. amazonensis at all concentrations, induce morphological and ultrastructural changes in the parasite, retraction of the cell body, roughness of the cytoplasmic membrane, leakage of intracellular content, ROS production increase, induction of membrane depolarization and mitochondrial swelling, the formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and phosphatidylserine exposure, thus indicating the possibility of apoptosis-like death. To verify the efficacy of larval ES on amastigote forms, we performed a phagocytic assay, measurement of total ROS and NO. Treatment using larval ES reduced the percentage of infection and the number of amastigotes per macrophage of lineage J774A.1 at all concentrations, increasing the production of ROS and TNF-α, thus indicating possible pro-inflammatory immunomodulation and oxidative damage. Therefore, treatment using larval ES is effective at inducing the death of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. amazonensis even at low concentrations.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Calliphoridae/química , Larva/química , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose/terapia , Animais , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Secreções Corporais/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Leishmania/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Vero
17.
Zoology (Jena) ; 148: 125948, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343745

RESUMO

Morphology of the pygidial glands and chemical compositions of their secretion were analysed in the adults of three selected ground beetle taxa. Secretions of pygidial glands of Cychrus (Cychrus) semigranosus, Patrobus atrorufus and Pterostichus (Platysma) niger were chemically tested. Additionally, pygidial glands of the latter two species were investigated using bright-field microscopy and nonlinear microscopy and morphological features of the glands were described in detail. Both C. (C.) semigranosus and P. atrorufus were studied for the first time in terms of chemical ecology, while the latter species was analysed for the first time in terms of pygidial gland morphology. Altogether, eight compounds were detected in the dichloromethane extracts of the pygidial gland secretions of the three ground beetle taxa analysed. The simplest secretion mixtures were present in C. (C.) semigranosus and P. atrorufus (with two compounds each), while the extract of P. (P.) niger contained five compounds. The presence of 1-tetradecanol in the secretion of P. (P.) niger represents the first finding of this compound from the pygidial gland secretion extracts of ground beetles.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Secreções Corporais/química , Besouros/fisiologia , Animais , Besouros/classificação , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445760

RESUMO

Identifying secretory proteins from blood, saliva or other body fluids has become an effective method of diagnosing diseases. Existing secretory protein prediction methods are mainly based on conventional machine learning algorithms and are highly dependent on the feature set from the protein. In this article, we propose a deep learning model based on the capsule network and transformer architecture, SecProCT, to predict secretory proteins using only amino acid sequences. The proposed model was validated using cross-validation and achieved 0.921 and 0.892 accuracy for predicting blood-secretory proteins and saliva-secretory proteins, respectively. Meanwhile, the proposed model was validated on an independent test set and achieved 0.917 and 0.905 accuracy for predicting blood-secretory proteins and saliva-secretory proteins, respectively, which are better than conventional machine learning methods and other deep learning methods for biological sequence analysis. The main contributions of this article are as follows: (1) a deep learning model based on a capsule network and transformer architecture is proposed for predicting secretory proteins. The results of this model are better than the those of existing conventional machine learning methods and deep learning methods for biological sequence analysis; (2) only amino acid sequences are used in the proposed model, which overcomes the high dependence of existing methods on the annotated protein features; (3) the proposed model can accurately predict most experimentally verified secretory proteins and cancer protein biomarkers in blood and saliva.


Assuntos
Secreções Corporais/metabolismo , Aprendizado Profundo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
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