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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 173: 106717, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643025

RESUMO

This paper presents an empirical analysis of factors contributing to roadway infrastructure damage from expressway accidents, using a Bayesian random parameters Tobit model. The accident data collected from Kaiyang Expressway, China in 2014 and 2015 are used for the empirical analysis. The results of parameter estimation in the proposed model indicate that: the effects of vehicle types are significantly heterogeneous across observations, and that the effects of horizontal curvature, time of day, vehicle registered province, and accident type are also significant but homogeneous across observations. The marginal effects of these contributing factors are calculated to explicitly quantify their impacts on road infrastructure damage. According to the analysis results, some strategies pertaining to safety education, traffic enforcement, roadway design, and intelligence transportation technology are advocated to reduce road infrastructure damage from expressway accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , China , Humanos , Segurança
2.
Sante Publique ; 33(5): 763-778, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to assess the level of implementation of road safety interventions in Benin. METHOD: The research is based on an evaluative study of road safety aimed to analyze the implementation and logic of road safety interventions, conducted in Benin in 2019. It combined a review of the gray literature and a qualitative component. The data were collected through documents and interviews in structures involved in road safety management. RESULTS: Road safety was a national priority with one lead institution and several structures involved. There was a lack of consensus among stakeholders, insufficient framework documents, resources, legislative texts, and study data. Few roads were in good condition and very few allowed the separation of two-wheeled vehicles. The vehicle fleet was outdated. Various activities were carried out to raise awareness, to educate the population and to enforce the texts but they were insufficient and poorly coordinated. Reference hospitals had the minimum service to deal with trauma cases. The interventions had not yet resulted in a reduction in the number of injuries and fatalities by accidents, which was increasing. CONCLUSION: Benin has made great efforts in the area of road safety. However, there are still some shortcomings to take into account.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Benin/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Segurança , Gestão da Segurança
3.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736397

RESUMO

In 2020, more than 600 people died as a result of a traffic crash in the Netherlands and 6,500 were hospitalized after they had sustained a serious injury (MAIS 3+). These numbers are much lower than those in the beginning of the seventies of the last century, when there were more than 3,000 road fatalities. To reduce the number of fatalities, many measures have been taken to avoid road crashes and reduce injury severity. By road design that makes it impossible for road users to collide, by improving the safety of vehicles, and by educating road users. Traffic psychologists often warn for behavioural adaptations that nullify the expected effect of road safety measures (risk compensation). Numerous studies have shown examples of risk compensation in traffic. What is the psychological mechanism behind risk compensation? Which factors enhance risk compensation? And are there any advantages of risk compensation?


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Morte , Excipientes , Hospitalização , Humanos , Países Baixos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742456

RESUMO

The current study investigates the effects of speed and time headway of human-machine co-driving vehicles on pedestrian crossing speed at uncontrolled mid-block road sections. A VR-based simulation study is conducted to study pedestrian crossing behaviour when facing human-machine co-driving vehicles. A total of 30 college students are recruited, and each participant is required to complete 5 street-crossing simulator trials facing human-machine co-driving vehicles with varying time headway levels and speeds. The correlations and differences between demographic information, time headway, vehicle speed, and pedestrian crossing speed are analyzed. The results show that gender and pedestrian's trust in human-machine co-driving vehicles are significantly correlated with pedestrian crossing speed. The pedestrian crossing speed increases with the increase in vehicle speed and decreases with the increase in vehicle time headway. In addition, the time headway has a stronger correlation with the pedestrian crossing speed than the vehicle speed. The findings will provide theoretical and methodological support for the formulation of pedestrian crossing control measures in the stage of human-machine co-driving.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Realidade Virtual , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Segurança , Caminhada
5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735526

RESUMO

The demand for rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms is growing due to considerable importance in all areas related to public health and safety. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and label-free strategy for the identification of microorganisms by integrating terahertz-attenuated total reflection (THz-ATR) spectroscopy with an automated recognition method based on multi-classifier voting. Our results show that 13 standard microbial strains can be classified into three different groups of microorganisms (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi) by THz-ATR spectroscopy. To detect clinical microbial strains with better differentiation that accounts for their greater sample heterogeneity, an automated recognition algorithm is proposed based on multi-classifier voting. It uses three types of machine learning classifiers to identify five different groups of clinical microbial strains. The results demonstrate that common microorganisms, once time-consuming to distinguish by traditional microbial identification methods, can be rapidly and accurately recognized using THz-ATR spectra in minutes. The proposed automatic recognition method is optimized by a spectroscopic feature selection algorithm designed to identify the optimal diagnostic indicator, and the combination of different machine learning classifiers with a voting scheme. The total diagnostic accuracy reaches 80.77% (as high as 99.6% for Enterococcus faecalis) for 1123 isolates from clinical samples of sputum, blood, urine, and feces. This strategy demonstrates that THz spectroscopy integrated with an automatic recognition method based on multi-classifier voting significantly improves the accuracy of spectral analysis, thereby presenting a new method for true label-free identification of clinical microorganisms with high efficiency.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Espectroscopia Terahertz , Aprendizado de Máquina , Saúde Pública , Segurança , Análise Espectral , Espectroscopia Terahertz/métodos , Vírus/classificação
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(7): e1391-e1395, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that educational programs in conjunction with provision of free or low-cost safety equipment increases the likelihood of parents changing behaviors at home. This project surveyed caregivers in the pediatric emergency department (ED) about safety behaviors before and after provision of education and safety equipment related to medication storage, firearm storage, and drowning. METHODS: A convenience sample of families presenting to the ED for any complaint with a child of any age were approached for participation in this feasibility study. Exclusion criteria included patients presenting for a high acuity problem (Emergency Severity Index 1 or 2) and non-English-speaking caregivers. Enrollment, surveys, and educational intervention were performed by the graduate student investigator from the School of Public Health. Participants were surveyed regarding presence of firearms and medications within the home and their storage practices. Additional questions included relationship to the patient, number and age of children younger than 18 years in the home, and zip code of residence. Educational handouts were reviewed, and participants were provided with a medication lock box, trigger lock, toilet lock, and/or pool watcher tag as indicated by answers given to the survey questions. Process measures were collected for number of products given out, number of children potentially affected by the intervention, and time spent by the investigator. Follow-up calls assessed use of the products provided. RESULTS: The student investigator spent a total of 180 hours and enrolled 357 caregivers accounting for 843 children. Fifty-seven percent of the participants answered the follow-up phone call. Only 9% initially reported that they stored medications in a locked or latched place. Medication lock boxes were given to 316 participants. On follow-up, 88% of those who received a lock box reported using it to store medications and 86% reported satisfaction with the lock box and how it worked. Of the 161 participants who admitted to gun ownership, 45% reported storing their guns locked and unloaded. Of those who reported unsafe manners of gun storage, 96% also reported unsafe manners of medication storage. Although only 161 participants endorsed gun ownership, 236 participants took a gun lock when offered. At follow-up, 66% of participants had used the gun lock and 67% of participants who took the gun lock reported satisfaction with the device. For water safety, 195 toilet latches and 275 drowning prevention lanyards were provided. On follow-up, 48% of those who had received a toilet latch were using it and 62% reported satisfaction with the device. Data were not collected on use of or satisfaction with the drowning prevention lanyards. CONCLUSIONS: Families often report unsafe home storage of medications and firearms, which together account for a large amount of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics. Drowning risk for young children is ubiquitous in the home setting, and low rates of use of home safety devices indicates need for further education and outreach on making the home environment safe. Despite relying on self-reported behaviors and the risk of reporting bias skewing the data, the behaviors reported in the preintervention survey were still very unsafe, suggesting that children may have a much higher risk of injury in the actual home environments. The ED is traditionally thought of as a place to receive care when injuries happen, but any encounter with families should be seen as an opportunity for injury prevention messaging. Partnering with a local school of public health and other community resources can result in the establishment of a low-cost, consistent, and effective injury prevention program in the pediatric ED that reaches a large number of individuals without the added burden of additional tasks that take time away from already busy ED providers and staff.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Armas de Fogo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Segurança , Autorrelato
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742797

RESUMO

Black ice is one of the main causes of traffic accidents in winter, and warning signs for black ice are generally ineffective because of the lack of credible information. To overcome this limitation, new warning signs for black ice were developed using materials that change color in response to different temperatures. The performance and effects of the new signs were investigated by conducting driver behavior analysis. To this end, driving simulator experiments were conducted with 37 participants for two different rural highway sections, i.e., a curve and a tangent. The analysis results of the driving behavior and visual behavior experiments showed that the conventional signs had insufficient performance in terms of inducing changes in driving behavior for safety. Meanwhile, the new signs actuated by weather conditions offered a statistically significant performance improvement. Typically, driver showed two times higher speed deceleration when they fixed eyes on the new weather-actuated warning sign (12.80 km/h) compared to the conventional old warning sign (6.84 km/h) in the curve segment. Accordingly, this study concluded that the new weather-actuated warning signs for black ice are more effective than the conventional ones for accident reduction during winters.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Gelo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Segurança , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Anesth Analg ; 135(1): 1, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709438
9.
J Safety Res ; 81: 1-8, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, pedestrians are one of the most vulnerable road-user groups. Their vulnerability increases while crossing the road at controlled intersections during the "don't walk" phase. Previous literature shows that driver yielding behavior has an association with pedestrian safety at intersections. Though several studies have explored driver yielding behavior towards pedestrians at conflict points, evidence on how pedestrian actions influence driver yielding behavior at intersections is yet to be investigated. METHOD: To pursue this end, a binary logistic regression model was developed using the collected data to explore the effect of non-compliant pedestrian characteristics and their road crossing behavior on driver yielding behavior towards pedestrians at six controlled intersections of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The data were collected through videography survey. RESULTS: Results showed that drivers were more likely to yield to pedestrians who were female, crossing in a group, carrying baggage, not using a mobile, making some hand gesture to the driver, or crossing by rolling gap strategy. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: These findings add new insights for transportation planners into the complex interaction between vehicles and pedestrians at busy controlled intersections, and thus would help to make a pedestrian friendly street.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Segurança , Caminhada
10.
J Safety Res ; 81: 313-325, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pedestrians are more vulnerable to traffic crashes than other road users, particularly at non-signalized crosswalks. Safety measures (such as law enforcement cameras) can be implemented to regulate road users' behavior and traffic safety. This study evaluates the effects of such cameras on pedestrian-vehicle conflicts by investigating different interaction patterns of pedestrian risk perception and driving style. DATA: Field investigations were conducted at four non-signalized crosswalks. Video data were collected using unmanned aerial vehicles and roadside cameras. METHOD: Two-step cluster analysis and k-means cluster analysis were employed to classify the pedestrian's behavior and driving style, respectively. Surrogate safety measures were adopted to measure the pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the implementation of cameras would decrease both the actual and perceived risks of pedestrians, while the heterogeneity between the actual and perceived risk is more obvious at camera sites. They also indicate that the cameras have a positive influence on reducing drivers' aggressiveness and conflict severity. In terms of pedestrian-vehicle interaction patterns, the most severe conflicts occur when the pedestrian perceived risk level is low and the driving style is aggressive. Such dangerous interactions are observed more frequently at camera sites. In contrast, a safer interaction pattern is associated with a moderate driving style and cautious crossing behavior, which is more frequently observed at comparison sites. However, regardless of which interaction pattern is observed, the conflict severity is found to be lower at camera sites, indicating the effectiveness of the cameras. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Supplementary facilities, such as warning signs, flash lights, and speed control measures, should be implemented to maintain the effectiveness of the law enforcement cameras.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Percepção , Segurança , Caminhada
11.
J Safety Res ; 81: 9-20, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse weather has a considerable negative impact on safety and mobility of transportation networks. Microsimulation models are one of the potential tools that could be used to evaluate the safety and operational impacts of adverse weather. The development of a realistic microsimulation model requires the adjustment of driving behavior parameters with disaggregate trajectory-level data. This study presented a novel approach to update and adjust lane change model parameters for the development of realistic microsimulation models in different weather conditions by leveraging the trajectory-level data from SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS). METHOD: Representative key lane change parameters in various weather conditions were extracted from an automatic identification algorithm. These lane change parameters were used to develop microsimulation models in VISSIM in an attempt to assess the safety and operational impacts of adverse weather on a freeway weaving segment. RESULTS: The evaluation of safety impacts of adverse weather with regard to three Surrogate Measures of Safety (SMoS) namely Time-to-Collision (TTC), Post Encroachment Time (PET), and Deceleration Rate to Avoid Collision (DRAC) suggested that extreme adverse weather (including heavy rain, heavy snow, and heavy fog) produced a higher total number of simulated conflicts compared to clear weather. The operational analysis results revealed that adjusted parameters in most of the adverse weather produced lower average speeds with higher total travel times and total delays than clear weather. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of safety and operational assessments for the adjusted parameters showed that the development of microsimulation models should be based on weather-specific, rather than default parameters. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The methodology presented in this study could be adopted by transportation agencies to develop weather-specific microsimulation models. Moreover, the demonstrated approach could be used to evaluate different Connected Vehicle (CV) applications related to lane change in terms of safety and operations in microsimulation platforms.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Algoritmos , Humanos , Segurança , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 173: 106711, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598396

RESUMO

Pedestrian distraction may provoke severe difficulties in automated vehicle (AV) control, which may significantly affect the safety performance of AVs, especially at unsignalized mid-block crosswalks (UMCs). However, there is no available motion-planning model for AVs that considers the effect of pedestrian distraction on UMCs. This study aims to explore innovative approaches for safe and reasonable automated driving in response to distracted pedestrians with various speed profiles at UMCs. Based on two common model design concepts, two new models are established for AVs: a rule-based model that solves motion plans through a fixed calculation procedure incorporating several optimization models, and a learning-based model that replaces the deterministic optimization process with policy-gradient reinforcement learning. The developed models were assessed through simulation experiments in which pedestrian speed profiles were defined using empirical data from field surveys. The results reveal that the learning-based model has outstanding safety performance, whereas the rule-based model leads to remarkable safety problems. For distracted pedestrians with significant crossing-speed changes, rule-based AVs lead to a 5.1% probability of serious conflict and a 1.4% crash probability. The learning-based model is oversensitive to risk and always induces high braking rates, which results in unnecessary efficiency loss. To overcome this, a hybrid model based on the learning-based model was developed, which introduces a rule-based acceleration value to regularize the action space of the proposed learning-based model. The results indicate that the hybrid approach outperforms the other two models in preventing crash hazards from distracted pedestrians by employing appropriate braking behaviors. The high safety performance of the hybrid models can be attributed to the spontaneous slowing down of the vehicle that initiates before detecting pedestrians on UMCs. Although such a cautious driving pattern leads to extra delay, the time cost of the hybrid model is acceptable considering the significant improvements in ensuring pedestrian safety.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Aceleração , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Segurança , Caminhada
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 173: 106715, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623304

RESUMO

With the advance of intelligent transportation system technologies, contributing factors to crashes can be obtained in real time. Analyzing these factors can be critical in improving traffic safety. Despite many crash models having been successfully developed for safety analytics, most models associate crash observations and contributing factors at the aggregate level, resulting in potential information loss. This study proposes an efficient Gaussian process modulated renewal process model for safety analytics that does not suffer from information loss due to data aggregations. The proposed model can infer crash intensities in the continuous-time dimension so that they can be better associated with contributing factors that change over time. Moreover, the model can infer non-homogeneous intensities by relaxing the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) exponential assumption of the crash intervals. To demonstrate the validity and advantages of this proposed model, an empirical study examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on traffic safety at six interstate highway sections is performed. The accuracy of our proposed renewal model is verified by comparing the areas under the curve (AUC) of the inferred crash intensity function with the actual crash counts. Residual box plot shows that our proposed models have lower biases and variances compared with Poisson and Negative binomial models. Counterfactual crash intensities are then predicted conditioned on exogenous variables at the crash time. Time-varying safety impacts such as bimodal, unimodal, and parabolic patterns are observed at the selected highways. The case study shows the proposed model enables safety analytics at a granular level and provides a more detailed insight into the time-varying safety risk in a changing environment.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , COVID-19 , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Segurança
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 172: 106682, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490472

RESUMO

The design of travel lane configuration and lane width is crucial to traffic safety, especially in an urban mixed traffic environment where Powered-Two-Wheelers (PTWs) are prevalent and share the same roads with larger vehicles such as cars, buses, and trucks. However, there have been limited studies on the effects of the design of travel lane configuration and lane width on safety in such a mixed traffic environment. It's true the above-mentioned research question can be evaluated simply in terms of the number of crashes. However, doing so not only requires a few years of crash and traffic data, but limited insight can be gained in terms of how driver and rider behaviours are affected, and this has implications for further improvement in road safety. This study examines the changes in driving/riding behaviours and surrogate events before and after the adjustments of travel lane configuration and lane width by proposing a micro perspective approach as a complement to conventional studies. A before-and-after site-based investigation was conducted at two study sites which had opposite adjustments for travel lane configuration and lane widths: at one site the number of lanes was reduced, thereby widening the lane width in the outer lane on one road section, and at the second site the number of lanes was increased, thereby narrowing lane width in the outer lane on the other road section. The results showed that an increase in lane width resulted in a considerable increase in the number of speeding events as well as unsafe driving/riding behaviours and surrogate events related to lane splitting, lane sharing, and overtaking.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Automóveis , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Segurança
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 172: 106683, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490474

RESUMO

Built-environment factors potentially alleviate or aggravate traffic safety problems in urban areas. This paper aims to investigate the relationships of these factors with vehicle-bicycle and vehicle-vehicle property damage only (PDO) and killed and severe injury (KSI) crashes in urban areas. For this purpose, an area-level analysis using 100x100m2 cells, along with a Spatial Hurdle Negative Binomial regression model were employed. The study area is composed of a selection of municipalities in the Netherlands-Randstad Area where major land-use developments have occurred since the 1970s. The study was conducted by developing a rich dataset composed of various national and local databases. The findings reveal that built-environment factors and land-use policies have substantial impacts on safety, which cannot be neglected. The factors explaining the land-use density and diversity in the area (e.g., urbanity and function mixing levels), as well as the land-use design characteristics (indicated by average age of the neighborhoods), traffic and road network characteristics, and proximity to different destinations influence the probability, frequency, and severity of crashes in urban areas. Furthermore, low socioeconomic levels are associated with a higher frequency of traffic crashes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ambiente Construído , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade , Segurança
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 172: 106690, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533421

RESUMO

Tunnels have a unique driving environment; thus, a small incident in a tunnel may result in severe consequences and a high probability of secondary crashes. Fortunately, studies have found that adopting safe driving behavior in a tunnel minimizes the severe outcomes of an incident. Therefore, implementing driver-oriented safety policies and conducting public awareness campaigns that emphasize safe behavior when driving through tunnels are essential. However, before devising policies and campaigns on the right issues, it is necessary to understand drivers' current level of knowledge regarding tunnel safety, their habits, behavioral intentions, and psychological condition while driving through tunnels. To achieve this objective, a sample of 841 responses was collected from China using a questionnaire survey consisting of fifty-two items. The results showed that several gaps exist in drivers' knowledge regarding tunnel safety and equipment. Drivers often adopt inappropriate habits and behaviors while driving through tunnels. Also, the tunnel environment has a significant influence on the psychological condition of the drivers. Moreover, drivers' demographic characteristics significantly affect their knowledge, reported habits and behavioral intentions, and psychological condition. The authorities and safety analysts could employ the suggestions highlighted in the present study for improving tunnel safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Hábitos , Humanos , Intenção , Políticas , Segurança
18.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 23(6): 346-351, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pedestrian-related death rates are increasing in the United States, partly due to increased use of distracting smartphones by pedestrians. Previous research documents high frequency of smartphone use while crossing streets near college campuses and in downtown business districts, but little is known about distracted pedestrian behavior in other urban environments. The current study used observational methods to examine and compare distracted pedestrian behavior in four urban areas - near an urban college campus, in a downtown commercial business district, near middle and high schools, and in entertainment districts - as well as examining whether the occurrence of distraction was associated with unsafe crossing behaviors. METHODS: We observed 112 intersections in 46 downtown, 30 school, 25 entertainment district, and 11 college campus-area intersections. Coders recorded distraction, crossing safety, pedestrian demographics, and traffic volume. Chi-square tests compared pedestrian characteristics by intersection type. Log binomial regressions estimated risk ratios (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between pedestrians walking alone and traffic volume with distracted crossing behavior, adjusting for age and gender. Similar models examined risk of unsafe crossing behavior by distraction behavior. All models were stratified by intersection type. RESULTS: Distraction incidence was highest in campus locations (52.9%) and lowest in entertainment districts (16.2%). Walking alone was associated with a 45% higher risk of distraction (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.30-1.62), although the increased association was limited to entertainment locations (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.25-2.08) and was significantly decreased in all other locations. Higher traffic volume was associated with lower risk of distraction in downtown locations (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.85) but higher distraction risk in entertainment locations (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.27-2.31). Associations between distraction and unsafe crossing behaviors were minimal. CONCLUSION: Distracted pedestrian behavior occurs at different rates and in different circumstances, depending on the setting. These results offer valuable data to inform intervention programs that target appropriate populations in appropriate locations.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Segurança , Caminhada
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 173: 106707, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594743

RESUMO

Despite improvements to road safety, accidents involving pedestrians are still numerous, for example in the UK there were over 20,000 pedestrian casualties on public roads in 2019. One of the potential causal factors is pedestrian distraction. Therefore, this study aimed to predict pedestrian intention to cross the road under conditions of distraction (using phone maps, talking to another pedestrian, listening to music through headphones), by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using an online survey. This also involved investigation of the impact of selected traffic characteristics (traffic density, vehicle speed) and crossing type (pelican, zebra, unmarked). The survey consisted of 72 questions and took approximately 15 min to complete. The results (N = 81) revealed that the TPB construct of perceived behavioural control (PBC) was a significant predictor of intention to cross the road while distracted across all scenarios. Furthermore, crossing type was a significant predictor of PBC across all scenarios, with marked crossings facilitating feelings of PBC. Findings suggest that high feelings of PBC, as measured through ease and confidence, are linked with stronger intention to cross the road while distracted. This understanding of pedestrian motivation can be used to help design interventions (such as auditory and visual pedestrian warnings) that prevent conflict between distracted pedestrians and vehicles. These interventions should target marked crossing types, whereby pedestrians are more likely to cross while distracted.


Assuntos
Música , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intenção , Segurança , Caminhada
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591029

RESUMO

With the increasing number of automated vehicles (AVs) being tested and operating on roads, external Human-Machine Interfaces (eHMIs) are proposed to facilitate interactions between AVs and other road users. Considering the need to protect vulnerable road users, this paper addresses the issue by providing research evidence on various designs of eHMIs. Ninety participants took part in this experiment. Six sets of eHMI prototypes-Text, Arrowed (Dynamic), Text and Symbol, Symbol only, Tick and Cross and Traffic Lights, including two sub-designs (Cross and Do Not Cross)-were designed. The results showed that 65.1% of participants agreed that external communication would have a positive effect on pedestrians' crossing decisions. Among all the prototypes, Text, and Text and Symbol, eHMIs were the most widely accepted. In particular, for elderly people and those unfamiliar with traffic rules, Text, and Text and Symbol, eHMIs would lead to faster comprehension. The results confirmed that 68.5% of participants would feel safer crossing if the eHMI had the following features: 'Green', 'Text', 'Symbol', or 'Dynamic'. These features are suggested in the design of future systems. This research concluded that eHMIs have a positive effect on V2X communication and that textual eHMIs were clear to pedestrians.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Idoso , Comunicação , Humanos , Segurança , Caminhada
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