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2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226698, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1393366

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on undergraduate and graduate students of the Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Methods: Three questionnaires were used: sociodemographic, WHO Abbreviated Quality of Life Inventory, and General Anxiety Disorder-7. Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 7a (α = 5%). Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-tests were used for statistical comparisons. The Spearman test was used as the correlation test. Results: 257 students responded to the online form that assessed their quality of life and anxiety level. On a scale from 1 to 100, with 100 being the best quality of life, the average obtained was 64.71 (± 13.36). In addition, 87.6% of the students rated their quality of life as good or very good. 74.7% reported good or very good health. The anxiety analysis resulted in an average of 10.04 (± 4.5), indicating moderate anxiety levels. There was an inversely proportional correlation between age and degree of anxiety (p = 0.008, r = -0.1628) and self-perceived learning and student commitment (r = 0.69). Conclusion: Despite the good quality of life and the students' good self-perception of health, they showed a moderate degree of anxiety during the social distancing caused by COVID-19, also demonstrating a decrease in interest and commitment during distance education


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estudantes de Odontologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19 , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem
3.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 499-507, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208821

RESUMO

It seems quite interesting that during adolescence anxiety levels can spiral out of control. This is due to several factors; one of the possible determinants is personality traits such as narcissism. Contrary to high self-esteem being a predictive factor of mental health, narcissism needs self-esteem in order to be beneficial for a person. Therefore, as two factors of personality traits, self-esteem and narcissism need to be distinguished from each other. Narcissistic individuals try to meet their affirmation needs by setting perfectionistic goals and significant relationships between perfec-tionism dimensions and anxiety has been revealed in the related literature. Using a structural equation modeling, this study investigated the mediation role of perfectionism dimensions in the relationships between grandiose narcissistic personality trait and trait anxiety when self-esteem was con-trolled. A sample of 338 adolescents (192 females, 146 males, mean age = 15.84 years, SD= 1.01) from five high schools participated in the study. The participants completed the instruments including the Demographic Information Form aimed to gather personal information, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the trait anxiety dimension of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Child and Adolescents Perfectionism Scale, and the Narcis-sistic Personality Inventory. Findings revealed that adaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between grandiose narcissism and trait anxiety when self-esteem was controlled. This study indicates that practitioners working with adolescents should focus on interventions, which aimed to decrease perfectionistic tendencies of adolescents.(AU)


Parece bastante interesante que durante la adolescencia los ni-veles de ansiedad pueden salirse de control. Esto se debe a varios factores; uno de los posibles determinantes son los rasgos de personalidad como el narcisismo. Contrariamente a que la autoestima alta es un factor predictivo de la salud mental, el narcisismo necesita autoestima para ser beneficioso para una persona. Por lo tanto, como dos factores de rasgos de personali-dad, la autoestima y el narcisismo deben distinguirse entre sí. Los indivi-duos narcisistas intentan satisfacer sus necesidades de afirmación estable-ciendo objetivos perfeccionistas y se han revelado relaciones significativas entre las dimensiones del perfeccionismo y la ansiedad en la literatura rela-cionada. Usando un modelo de ecuación estructural, este estudio investigó el papel de mediación de las dimensiones del perfeccionismo en las relacio-nes entre el rasgo de personalidad narcisista grandioso y el rasgo de ansie-dad cuando se controló la autoestima. Participaron en el estudio una mues-tra de 338 adolescentes (192 mujeres, 146 hombres, edad media = 15.84 años, DE= 1.01) de cinco colegios de secundaria. Los participantes com-pletaron los instrumentos, entre ellos el Formulario de Información De-mográfica destinado a recopilar información personal, la Escala de Autoes-tima de Rosenberg, la dimensión de ansiedad rasgo del Inventario de An-siedad Estado-Rasgo, la Escala de Perfeccionismo del Niño y el Adolescen-te y el Inventario de Personalidad Narcisista. Los hallazgos revelaron que el perfeccionismo adaptativo medió en la relación entre el narcisismo gran-dioso y el rasgo de ansiedad cuando se controló la autoestima. Este estudio indica que los profesionales que trabajan con adolescentes deben centrarse en las intervenciones cuyo objetivo sea disminuir las tendencias perfeccio-nistas de los adolescentes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Autoimagem , Narcisismo , Ansiedade , Personalidade , Saúde Mental , Perfeccionismo , Comportamento do Adolescente , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento
4.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 530-537, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208824

RESUMO

El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la estructura factorial, la confiabilidad y proporcionar alguna evidencia de validez de la versión en español del Inventario de Roles Sexuales de Bem (BSRI), que evalúa la autodescripción en términos de rasgos de género. Una muestra de 2.672 participantes españoles, adultos heterosexuales (1.289 hombres, 1.383 mujeres) distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55, 56 años o más), completó una versión en español de 40 ítems delBSRI. Se propone una escala de 8 ítems con estructura bidimensional: Masculinidad (M) y Feminidad (F). Ambos factores presentan una fiabilidad adecuada. Con respecto a la evidencia de validez, los hombres (vs. las mujeres) obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en M y las mujeres (vs. los hombres) en F. Las puntuaciones M fueron más altas para los participantes menores de 56 años. No se encontraron diferencias en las puntuaciones F entre grupos de edad. Discutimos la utilidad de esta medida para evaluar las diferencias interindividuales, según el sexo y la edad, en la autoatribución de los rasgos de género tradicionales.(AU)


The study objective was to examine the factorial structure, reliability and to provide some evidence for validity of the Spanish version of the Bem Sexual Roles Inventory (BSRI), which assesses self-description in terms of gender traits. A sample of 2,672 Spanish participants, heterosexual adults (1,289 men, 1,383 women) distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55, 56 years or more), completed a Spanish 40-item version of BSRI. An 8-item scale is proposed with a two-dimensional structure: Masculinity (M) and Femininity (F). Both factors present adequate reliability. Regarding evidence for validity, men (vs. women) scored higher in M, and women (vs. men) in F. The M scores were higher for the participants aged less than 56 years. No differences were found in the F scores among age groups. We discuss the usefulness of this measure to assess interindividual differences, across sex and age, in the self-attribution of traditional gender traits.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Identidade de Gênero , Autoimagem , Saúde Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Diferenciação Sexual , Masculinidade , Feminilidade , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Espanha , Medicina do Comportamento
5.
Evol Psychol ; 20(3): 14747049221120095, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066014

RESUMO

Evolutionary models suggest that self-concept is a dynamic structure shaped jointly by interpersonal motivations and social challenges. Yet, empirical data assessing this claim are sparse. We examined this question in two studies. In study 1, participants (N = 386) generated spontaneous self-descriptions and filled out questionnaires assessing dominance and affiliation motivations. We found that self-descriptions categorized as communion or agency were associated with affiliation and dominance motivations, respectively. In study 2, participants (N = 360) underwent an inclusionary manipulation (exclusion, inclusion, popularity) and completed self-description and motivation measures. We found that exclusion (compared to inclusion/popularity) enhanced the salience of communion self-descriptions such that participants described themselves using more communion traits. Finally, in the popularity condition (compared to exclusion/inclusion), an enhanced positive association between salience of agency self-descriptions and dominance motivation was found. Our results support evolutionary models suggesting that self-concept organization shapes and is being shaped by social motivations to enhance interpersonal functioning.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Personalidade , Autoimagem
6.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 123(4): 884-888, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136781

RESUMO

Condition-based regression analysis (CRA) is a statistical method for testing self-enhancement effects. That is, CRA indicates whether, in a set of empirical data, people with higher values on the directed discrepancy self-view S minus reality criterion R (i.e., S-R) tend to have higher values on some outcome variable (e.g., happiness). In a critical comment, Fiedler (2021) claims that CRA yields inaccurate conclusions in data with a suppressor effect. Here, we show that Fiedler's critique is unwarranted. All data that are simulated in his comment show a positive association between S-R and H, which is accurately detected by CRA. By construction, CRA indicates an association between S-R and H only when it is present in the data. In contrast to Fiedler's claim, it also yields valid conclusions when the outcome variable is related only to the self-view or when there is a suppressor effect. Our clarifications provide guidance for evaluating Fiedler's comment, clear up with the common heuristic that suppressor effects are always problematic, and assist readers in fully understanding CRA. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 719, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, women`s bodies undergo rapid changes in body weight and body size within a relatively short period of time. Pregnancy may therefore be associated with an increased vulnerability for the development of body image dissatisfaction that has been linked to adverse health outcomes for mother and child. The present study aims to examine changes in body image during pregnancy as well as predictors of body image dissatisfaction. This is the first study using a tailored, multidimensional measure of body image especially developed for the pregnant population. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal design with a quantitative approach was applied. Healthy pregnant women (N = 222) were assessed using standardized instruments at two time points (T1: 18th-22th week of gestation, T2: 33th-37th week of gestation). The impact of demographic, weight- and health-related, behavioral, and psychological factors assessed at T1 on body image dissatisfaction at T1 and T2 was examined using stepwise linear regression analyses. RESULTS: T-tests for paired samples revealed that dissatisfaction with strength-related aspects of body image, dissatisfaction with body parts, and concerns about sexual attractiveness increased significantly from the middle to the end of pregnancy. In contrast, preoccupation with appearance, dissatisfaction with complexion, and prioritization of appearance over function were significantly reduced over time. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed that factors influencing body image depend on the component of body image investigated. Overall, a low level of self-esteem and a high level of pregnancy-specific worries were risk factors for several components of body image dissatisfaction. Besides these, poor sleep quality, low levels of physical activity, disturbed eating behavior, and higher levels of BMI and weight gain were significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the multidimensional nature of body image and show positive as well as negative changes during pregnancy. Overall, modifiable psychological, behavioral, and weight-related factors appear relevant to the extent of body image dissatisfaction.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem
8.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 52(4): 421-434, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of parental self-esteem on late school-aged children's media device addiction by mediating marital conflict and children's self-esteem. METHODS: This study used data from the 11th (2018) Panel Study on Korean Children. The participants consisted of 1,082 family triads (fathers, mothers, and children). Data were collected using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Marital Conflict Scale, and K-Internet Addiction Scale. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with SPSS/WIN 27.0 and Mplus 8.7. RESULTS: The final model showed a good fit for the data. Children's media device addiction was directly related to mothers' self-esteem, mothers' marital conflict, and children's self-esteem. Fathers' self-esteem had a significant indirect effect on children's media device addiction by mediating both fathers' and mothers' marital conflict. In addition, mothers' self-esteem had a significant indirect effect on children's media device addiction by mediating mothers' marital conflict. CONCLUSION: The findings indicates that self-esteem and marital conflict for both fathers and mothers have a significant effect on children's media device addiction. It suggests that more attention might be given to fathers and mothers in developing interventions to prevent children's media device addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Conflito Familiar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem
9.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 33(3): 196-205, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148570

RESUMO

In recent years we have witnessed a rebirth of interest in the field of subjectivity and its disorders, particularly the severity and quality of non-psychotic abnormal subjective experience. Contemporary research on abnormal subjective experiences in schizophrenia has used several different theoretical frameworks. The most common of these is the phenomenological approach. A prominent example of the phenomenological approach is the minimal self disorder model. In this article, we will discuss, prominent theories on the concept of 'self ', historical background of the minimal self disorder model in schizophrenia and the current approach to this model. According to this model, self disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia. The model suggests that this minimal self is disturbed in three ways in people with schizophrenia: hyperreflexivity, diminished self-affection (diminished self-presence) and disturbed grip or hold on the cognitive-perceptual world. Hyperreflexivity is defined as the excessive attention to processes that would ordinarily be implicitly experienced. Diminished self-affection (diminished self-presence) refers to an experience of a loss of self-agency. Disturbed grip or hold on the cognitive-perceptual world refers to the disturbances of spatio-temporal structuring of the experiential field. These three aspects are intimately interlinked, and should be understood more as the components of a single entity. Finally, clinical symptoms that may indicate minimal self disorder and the abnormal self experiences of two patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia are discussed. Keywords: Schizophrenia, phenomenology, self-disorders, hyperreflexivity, diminished self-affection.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autoimagem
10.
Clin Plast Surg ; 49(4): 509-516, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162946

RESUMO

Genital self-image describes the perception of one's genital appearance as being "normal" or "abnormal," and a disharmonious image leads to an increasing number of women seeking esthetic genital surgery each year. The concept of what constitutes "normal" is strongly influenced by the media, cultural norms, and sexual relations. In reality, the extent of normalcy is highly variable and overall patient education regarding extremes of size and shape should be provided to all patients considering surgery. When performed with appropriate training, expertise, and attention to detail in a properly selected patient, esthetic genital surgery is associated with minimal complications or sequelae.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Cirurgia Plástica , Estética , Feminino , Genitália , Humanos , Autoimagem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141511

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been a noticeable increase in the interest in aesthetic and corrective surgery regardless of a patient's age. Both aesthetical and practical considerations are a motivation for patients undergoing plastic surgery. The goal of this study is to analyze dependencies between welfare, self-assessment and body self-perception in patients that qualified for plastic and aesthetic surgical procedures. The study group included 164 female patients, of whom 124 patients filled out a questionnaire before and after surgery. The questionnaire included demographic data and scales such as the Body Esteem Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-SES, the Satisfaction with Life Scale-SWLS, the Flourishing Scale and the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience-SPANE. The first hypothesis concerned the subjective assessment of body self-perception after the procedure. The results of the study confirm this hypothesis-female patients after surgery rate their body self-perception higher, which indicates a positive influence of plastic and aesthetic surgery that increased in the subjective assessment of 66 examined patients. Moreover, the study revealed a higher self-assessment after procedures. On the other hand, the results indicated that younger patients had a higher body assessment, but there was no increase in self-assessment. Except for breast augmentation surgery, there was no influence on self-assessment and life satisfaction improvement after other surgical procedures. In patients up to 48 years old, after surgery, there was a significant dependence between subjective body self-assessment and all surveyed forms of welfare. In the case of patients after 48 year of age, there was a relationship between life satisfaction and body self-perception both before and after surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Mamoplastia , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141740

RESUMO

With the prevalence of the internet, there is growing attention on the impacts of social networking sites use among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between different types of online activities (i.e., information searching, social interaction and entertainment) and self-esteem. It examined whether the relationships vary across gender. One hundred and ninety-three students (57.5% males; Mage = 13.33, SDage = 1.58) participated in the present study. Unexpectedly, the associations between online activities and self-esteem were not significant (p > 0.05). Path analysis showed gender moderated the relationships between social interaction activities and self-esteem. Females reported higher levels of engagement in social interaction activities and self-esteem than their male counterparts. The present study shows the importance of assessing different types of online activities as a predictor for understanding the impact of social media use among adolescents.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rede Social , Estudantes
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent suicide can have serious consequences for individuals, families and society, so we should pay attention to it. As social media becomes a platform for adolescents to share their daily lives and express their emotions, online identification and intervention of adolescent suicide problems become possible. In order to find the suicide mechanism path of high-suicide-risk adolescents, we explore the factors that influence is, especially the relations between psychological pain, hopelessness and suicide stages. METHODS: We identified high-suicide-risk adolescents through machine learning model identification and manual identification, and used the Weibo text analysis method to explore the suicide mechanism path of high-suicide-risk adolescents. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis showed that 36.2% of high-suicide-risk adolescents suffered from mental illness, and depression accounted for 76.3% of all mental illnesses. The mediating effect analysis showed that hopelessness played a complete mediating role between psychological pain and suicide stages. In addition, hopelessness was significantly negatively correlated with suicide stages. CONCLUSION: mental illness (especially depression) in high-suicide-risk adolescents is closely related to suicide stages, the later the suicide stage, the higher the diagnosis rate of mental illness. The suicide mechanism path in high-suicide-risk adolescents is: psychological pain→ hopelessness → suicide stages, indicating that psychological pain mainly affects suicide risk through hopelessness. Adolescents who are later in the suicide stages have fewer expressions of hopelessness in the traditional sense.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Suicídio , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Dor , Fatores de Risco , Autoimagem , Suicídio/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141815

RESUMO

In the first year of life, the child's caregivers, including parents and daycare staff, play an essential role, as they are responsible for implementing daily activities to promote the motor development of young children. However, what does the research show about interventions to promote the motor development of 0-36-month-olds carried out by the child's caregivers, and what are the caregivers' experiences and attitudes hereof? This scoping review aims to provide an overview of the published studies to derive an overall interpretation. A systematic search was conducted in five scientific databases, resulting in 10,219 articles, of which 9 met the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that providing early intervention to 0-36-month-old children, in which the caregivers carry out the activities, promotes the young child's motor development. Furthermore, the interventions increase the caregivers' interest and motivation to promote the young child's motor development, which is essential in maintaining the behaviour after the end of the interventions. Supervision and guidance provided for the child's caregivers concerning knowledge and skills about age-appropriate behaviours and facilitation of their child's motor development increases the caregivers' self-confidence, interest, and motivation.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Autoimagem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141818

RESUMO

A discrepancy is encountered between the esthetic self-perception and the actual need for treatment. The aim was to determine the influence of dental education on the patients' attitude, esthetic self-perceptions, and shade selection. This cross-sectional study asked participants to select the perceived shade of their incisors using a shade guide, and to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing their attitude regarding teeth shade. The color coordinates (L*, a*, and b*) of their actual shades were recorded clinically, using a digital spectrophotometer. A Pearson correlation assessed the relation between the perceived and actual color coordinates. A linear regression assessed the association between the attitude towards the esthetic self-perception, background factors, and actual shades. A clinical shade selection was done digitally for 536 participants, comprising 40.1% preclinical dental students, 37.3% clinical dental students, and 22.6% non-dental participants. The perceived and actual a* and b* values were significantly correlated in the preclinical students, and L* and b* were correlated in the clinical students. Those who had not received any dental education showed better attitude scores than the clinical students. The color-matching skills were improved by education; therefore, this emphasizes the importance of teaching color selection in dental schools. Dental esthetic self-perception is also improved by increasing knowledge and skills through exposure to a variety of comprehensive dental cases.


Assuntos
Pigmentação em Prótese , Estudantes de Odontologia , Cor , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Odontologia , Estética , Humanos , Incisivo , Autoimagem
16.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(3-4): 257-265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151827

RESUMO

Research on mental health inequalities between sexual minority and heterosexual young adults has historically focussed on the additional stress processes that might explain this disparity. However, more recently there has been a shift towards research focussed on resilience factors that might promote mental health in sexual minority young adults. Self-esteem is one such proposed resilience factor. This study aimed to explore the factors that promote or protect self-esteem itself in sexual minority young adults. A semi-structured interview study was conducted with 20 sexual minority young adults (aged 16-24) to explore their perspectives on the factors, responses and strategies that have helped to protect or promote their self-esteem. Six themes were identified from thematic analysis: helpful responses to minority stress; sexuality acceptance; positive LGBTQ + social connections and representations; positive social relationships and evaluation; successes and positive qualities and general coping strategies for low self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(3-4): 383-391, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151832

RESUMO

Sexual minority young adults (lesbian, gay and bisexual), are at increased risk of experiencing mental health problems than their heterosexual peers. On average they also have lower self-esteem which may contribute to the development or maintenance of mental illnesses. Interventions to improve self-esteem could improve well-being and reduce mental ill-health risk in sexual minority young adults. It is important to understand the processes that contribute to lower self-esteem in this population. The present study aimed to explore these processes. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a sample of 20 sexual minority young adults (age 16-24 years) with a range of self-esteem levels. Using thematic analysis, three overarching areas were idenitified: 'Negative social evaluations and reduced belonging', 'Striving and failing to meet standards', and 'Negative sexual orientation processes'. These findings have theoretical implications for minority stress models of mental health inequalities, highlighting the potential interaction between minority-specific and more general risk factors for mental health problems. Findings also have clinical implications for the development of tailored interventions to help improve low self-esteem in sexual minority young adults.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078232

RESUMO

Psychological theories of suicide posit conceptually similar constructs related to the development of suicidal thinking. These constructs often evince high-magnitude interrelationships across studies. Within these theories, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness standout as conceptually and quantitatively similar. Theoretical improvements may be facilitated through clarifying the subscale and item-level similarities among these constructs. Factor analytic and phenomenological work has demonstrated equivocal evidence for a distinction between defeat and entrapment; hopelessness is not typically analyzed together with defeat and entrapment despite evidence of large-magnitude interrelationships. This study explored the interrelationships among the foregoing constructs within a sample of undergraduate students (N = 344) from two universities within the Southeastern United States. Participants, oversampled for lifetime history of suicidal ideation and attempts, completed an online cross-sectional survey assessing defeat, entrapment, hopelessness and SI. Exploratory factor and parallel analyses demonstrated support for a one factor solution when analyzed at subscale level of the three measures as well as when all items of the three measures were analyzed together. Ad hoc exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) bifactor results evinced support for the existence of a single, general factor at the item level. Item level communalities and bifactor fit indices suggest that hopelessness may be somewhat distinct from defeat and entrapment. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed in the context of study limitations.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to measure the level of attitudes and the current practices of the female community in Brunei Darussalam regarding the usage of cosmetics. METHODS: An online survey was conducted using a non-probabilistic snowball sampling approach via the social media channels WhatsApp and Instagram. The inclusion criteria were female Bruneian citizens or permanent residents, aged between 18 and 65 years old, who can understand English or Malay, and use cosmetic products at least once a day. RESULTS: A total of 445 participants responded to the online survey. Most of the participants agreed that the use of cosmetic products improves one's physical appearance to the public (391, 87.8%) and also improves self-confidence (405, 91.1%). There were significant differences in monthly cosmetic product expenses and participants' attitudes about safe cosmetic use (p = 0.001). No significant changes in the individuals' attitudes based on their age or educational level were observed. Overall, the participants had a good level of cosmetic safety practice. Almost half of the participants use social media to obtain information regarding what cosmetics to use or purchase. CONCLUSION: There is a medium to high level of attitude and a high level of practice regarding the safe use of cosmetics among Bruneian female adults. Social media was the main source of information for the respondents, followed by friend circle and family members.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brunei , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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