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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142343

RESUMO

S-RNase plays vital roles in the process of self-incompatibility (SI) in Rutaceae plants. Data have shown that the rejection phenomenon during self-pollination is due to the degradation of pollen tube RNA by S-RNase. The cytoskeleton microfilaments of pollen tubes are destroyed, and other components cannot extend downwards from the stigma and, ultimately, cannot reach the ovary to complete fertilisation. In this study, four S-RNase gene sequences were identified from the 'XiangShui' lemon genome and ubiquitome. Sequence analysis revealed that the conserved RNase T2 domains within S-RNases in 'XiangShui' lemon are the same as those within other species. Expression pattern analysis revealed that S3-RNase and S4-RNase are specifically expressed in the pistils, and spatiotemporal expression analysis showed that the S3-RNase expression levels in the stigmas, styles and ovaries were significantly higher after self-pollination than after cross-pollination. Subcellular localisation analysis showed that the S1-RNase, S2-RNase, S3-RNase and S4-RNase were found to be expressed in the nucleus according to laser confocal microscopy. In addition, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays showed that S3-RNase interacted with F-box, Bifunctional fucokinase/fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKGP), aspartic proteinase A1, RRP46, pectinesterase/pectinesterase inhibitor 51 (PME51), phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (PDAT1), gibberellin receptor GID1B, GDT1-like protein 4, putative invertase inhibitor, tRNA ligase, PAP15, PAE8, TIM14-2, PGIP1 and p24beta2. Moreover, S3-RNase interacted with TOPP4. Therefore, S3-RNase may play an important role in the SI of 'XiangShui' lemon.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Proteases , Citrus , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Citrus/metabolismo , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase , Endorribonucleases , Fucose , Giberelinas , Fosfolipídeos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , RNA , RNA Ligase (ATP) , Ribonucleases/genética , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4498, 2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922428

RESUMO

Unilateral cross incompatibility (UCI) occurs between popcorn and dent corn, and represents a critical step towards speciation. It has been reported that ZmGa1P, encoding a pectin methylesterase (PME), is a male determinant of the Ga1 locus. However, the female determinant and the genetic relationship between male and female determinants at this locus are unclear. Here, we report three different types, a total of seven linked genes underlying the Ga1 locus, which control UCI phenotype by independently affecting pollen tube growth in both antagonistic and synergistic manners. These include five pollen-expressed PME genes (ZmGa1Ps-m), a silk-expressed PME gene (ZmPME3), and another silk-expressed gene (ZmPRP3), encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. ZmGa1Ps-m confer pollen compatibility. Presence of ZmPME3 causes silk to reject incompatible pollen. ZmPRP3 promotes incompatibility pollen tube growth and thereby breaks the blocking effect of ZmPME3. In addition, evolutionary genomics analyses suggest that the divergence of the Ga1 locus existed before maize domestication and continued during breeding improvement. The knowledge gained here deepen our understanding of the complex regulation of cross incompatibility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Zea mays , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polinização , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Seda/genética , Seda/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética
4.
J Proteomics ; 256: 104505, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123051

RESUMO

The self-incompatibility recognition mechanism determines whether the gametophyte is successfully fertilized between pollen tube SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box-RBX1) protein and pistil S-RNase protein during fertilization is unclear. In this study, the pistils of two almond cultivars 'Wanfeng' and 'Nonpareil' were used as the experimental materials after self- and nonself/cross-pollination, and pistils from the stamen-removed flowers were used as controls. We used fluorescence microscopy to observe the development of pollen tubes after pollination and 4D-LFQ to detect the protein expression profiles of 'Wanfeng' and 'Nonpareil' pistils and in controls. The results showed that it took 24-36 h for the development of the pollen tube to 1/3 of the pistil, and a total of 7684 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified in the pistil after pollinating for 36 h, of which 7022 were quantifiable. Bioinformatics analysis based on the function of DAPs, identified RNA polymerases (4 DAPs), autophagy (3 DAPs), oxidative phosphorylation (3 DAPs), and homologous recombination (2 DAPs) pathways associated with the self-incompatibility process. These results were confirmed by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), protein interaction and bioinformatics analysis. Taken together, these results provide the involvement of serine/threonine kinase protein in the reaction of pollen tube recognition the nonself- and the self-S-RNase protein. SIGNIFICANCE: Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by the highly polymorphic S locus or S haplotype, with two linked self-incompatibility genes, one encoding the S-RNase protein of the pistil S-determinant and the other encoding the F-box/SLF/SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein) protein of the pollen S-determinant. The recognition mechanism between pollen tube SCF protein and pistil S-RNase protein is divided into nonself- and self-recognition hypothesis mechanisms. At present, two hypothetical mechanisms cannot explain the recognition between pollen and pistil well, so the mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility recognition is still not fully revealed. In this experiment, we investigated the molecular mechanism of pollen-pistil recognition in self-incompatibility using self- and nonself-pollinated pistils of almond cultivars 'Wanfeng' and 'Nonpareil'. Based on our results, we proposed a potential involvement of the MARK2 (serine/threonine kinase) protein in the reaction of pollen tube recognition of the nonself- and the self-S-RNase protein. It provides a new way to reveal how almond pollen tubes recognize the self and nonself S-RNase enzyme protein.


Assuntos
Petunia , Prunus dulcis , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Petunia/genética , Petunia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Prunus dulcis/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/genética , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Serina/metabolismo
5.
Plant Cell ; 34(1): 579-596, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735009

RESUMO

The self-incompatibility (SI) system with the broadest taxonomic distribution in angiosperms is based on multiple S-locus F-box genes (SLFs) tightly linked to an S-RNase termed type-1. Multiple SLFs collaborate to detoxify nonself S-RNases while being unable to detoxify self S-RNases. However, it is unclear how such a system evolved, because in an ancestral system with a single SLF, many nonself S-RNases would not be detoxified, giving low cross-fertilization rates. In addition, how the system has been maintained in the face of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) or lost in other lineages remains unclear. Here we show that SLFs from a broad range of species can detoxify S-RNases from Petunia with a high detoxification probability, suggestive of an ancestral feature enabling cross-fertilization and subsequently modified as additional SLFs evolved. We further show, based on its genomic signatures, that type-1 was likely maintained in many lineages, despite WGD, through deletion of duplicate S-loci. In other lineages, SI was lost either through S-locus deletions or by retaining duplications. Two deletion lineages regained SI through type-2 (Brassicaceae) or type-4 (Primulaceae), and one duplication lineage through type-3 (Papaveraceae) mechanisms. Thus, our results reveal a highly dynamic process behind the origin, maintenance, loss, and regain of SI.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Células Germinativas Vegetais/fisiologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884706

RESUMO

Self-incompatibility affects not only the formation of seeds, but also the evolution of species diversity. A robust understanding of the molecular mechanisms of self-incompatibility is essential for breeding efforts, as well as conservation biology research. In recent years, phenotypic and multiple omics studies have revealed that self-incompatibility in Orchidaceae is mainly concentrated in the subfamily Epidendroideae, and the self-incompatibility phenotypes are diverse, even in the same genus, and hormones (auxin and ethylene), and new male and female determinants might be involved in SI response. This work provides a good foundation for future studies of the evolution and molecular mechanisms of self-incompatibility. We review recent research progress on self-incompatibility in orchids at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels, provide a general overview of self-incompatibility in orchids, and propose future research directions.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Evolução Molecular , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828403

RESUMO

Apple exhibits typical gametophytic self-incompatibility, in which self-S-RNase can arrest pollen tube growth, leading to failure of fertilization. To date, there have been few studies on how to resist the toxicity of self-S-RNase. In this study, pollen tube polyamines were found to respond to self-S-RNase and help pollen tubes defend against self-S-RNase. In particular, the contents of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the pollen tube treated with self-S-RNase were substantially lower than those treated with non-self-S-RNase. Further analysis of gene expression of key enzymes in the synthesis and degradation pathways of polyamines found that the expression of DIAMINE OXIDASE 4 (MdDAO4) as well as several polyamine oxidases such as POLYAMINE OXIDASES 3 (MdPAO3), POLYAMINE OXIDASES 4 (MdPAO4), and POLYAMINE OXIDASES 6 (MdPAO6) were significantly up-regulated under self-S-RNase treatment, resulting in the reduction of polyamines. Silencing MdPAO6 in pollen tubes alleviates the inhibitory effect of self-S-RNase on pollen tube growth. In addition, exogenous polyamines also enhance pollen tube resistance to self-S-RNase. Transcriptome sequencing data found that polyamines may communicate with S-RNase through the calcium signal pathway, thereby regulating the growth of the pollen tubes. To summarize, our results suggested that polyamines responded to the self-incompatibility reaction and could enhance pollen tube tolerance to S-RNase, thus providing a potential way to break self-incompatibility in apple.


Assuntos
Malus/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Malus/genética , Malus/fisiologia , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/fisiologia
8.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 127(4): 384-392, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482370

RESUMO

The breakdown of self-incompatibility (SI) in angiosperms is one of the most commonly observed evolutionary transitions. While multiple examples of SI breakdown have been documented in natural populations, there is strikingly little evidence of stable within-population polymorphism with both inbreeding (self-compatible) and outcrossing (self-incompatible) individuals. This absence of breeding system polymorphism corroborates theoretical expectations that predict that in/outbreeding polymorphism is possible only under very restricted conditions. However, theory also predicts that a diallelic sporophytic SI system should facilitate the maintenance of such polymorphism. We tested this prediction by studying the breeding system of Ligustrum vulgare L., an insect-pollinated hermaphroditic species of the Oleaceae family. Using stigma tests with controlled pollination and paternity assignment of open-pollinated progenies, we confirmed the existence of two self-incompatibility groups in this species. We also demonstrated the occurrence of self-compatible individuals in different populations of Western Europe arising from a mutation affecting the functioning of the pollen component of SI. Our results show that the observed low frequency of self-compatible individuals in natural populations is compatible with theoretical predictions only if inbreeding depression is very high.


Assuntos
Ligustrum , Oleaceae , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Humanos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polinização , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4142, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230469

RESUMO

Potato is the third most important staple food crop. To address challenges associated with global food security, a hybrid potato breeding system, aimed at converting potato from a tuber-propagated tetraploid crop into a seed-propagated diploid crop through crossing inbred lines, is under development. However, given that most diploid potatoes are self-incompatible, this represents a major obstacle which needs to be addressed in order to develop inbred lines. Here, we report on a self-compatible diploid potato, RH89-039-16 (RH), which can efficiently induce a mating transition from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility, when crossed to self-incompatible lines. We identify the S-locusinhibitor (Sli) gene in RH, capable of interacting with multiple allelic variants of the pistil-specific S-ribonucleases (S-RNases). Further, Sli gene functions like a general S-RNase inhibitor, to impart SC to RH and other self-incompatible potatoes. Discovery of Sli now offers a path forward for the diploid hybrid breeding program.


Assuntos
Diploide , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Flores/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ribonucleases/genética , Sementes
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4141, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230471

RESUMO

Genetic gain in potato is hampered by the heterozygous tetraploid genome of cultivated potato. Converting potato into a diploid inbred-line based F1-hybrid crop provides a promising route towards increased genetic gain. The introduction of a dominant S-locus inhibitor (Sli) gene into diploid potato germplasm allows efficient generation of self-fertilized seeds and thus the development of potato inbred lines. Little is known about the structure and function of the Sli locus. Here we describe the mapping of Sli to a 12.6 kb interval on chromosome 12 using a recombinant screen approach. One of two candidate genes present in this interval shows a unique sequence that is exclusively present in self-compatible lines. We describe an expression vector that converts self-incompatible genotypes into self-compatible and a CRISPR-Cas9 vector that converts SC genotypes into SI. The Sli gene encodes an F-box protein that is specifically expressed in pollen from self-compatible plants. A 533 bp insertion in the promotor of that gene leads to a gain of function mutation, which overcomes self-pollen rejection.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Diploide , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Magnoliopsida , Pólen/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
11.
Curr Biol ; 31(14): R904-R906, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314718

RESUMO

A new study reports that self-incompatibility in Brassica triggers the production of stigmatic ROS that are responsible for the rejection of incompatible pollen.


Assuntos
Brassica , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Biologia , Brassica/genética , Pólen , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
12.
New Phytol ; 231(5): 2039-2049, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101188

RESUMO

Approximately one-half of all flowering plants express genetically based physiological mechanisms that prevent self-fertilisation. One such mechanism, termed RNase-based self-incompatibility, employs ribonucleases as the pistil component. Although it is widespread, it has only been characterised in a handful of distantly related families, partly due to the difficulties presented by life history traits of many plants, which complicate genetic research. Many species in the cactus family are known to express self-incompatibility but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We demonstrate the utility of a candidate-based RNA-seq approach, combined with some unusual features of self-incompatibility-causing genes, which we use to uncover the genetic basis of the underlying mechanisms. Specifically, we assembled transcriptomes from Schlumbergera truncata (crab cactus or false Christmas cactus), and interrogated them for tissue-specific expression of candidate genes, structural characteristics, correlation with expressed phenotype(s), and phylogenetic placement. The results were consistent with operation of the RNase-based self-incompatibility mechanism in Cactaceae. The finding yields additional evidence that the ancestor of nearly all eudicots possessed RNase-based self-incompatibility, as well as a clear path to better conservation practices for one of the most charismatic plant families.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Cactaceae/genética , Flores/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ribonucleases/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983990

RESUMO

Self-compatibility has become the primary objective of most prune (Prunus domestica) breeding programs in order to avoid the problems related to the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system present in this crop. GSI is typically under the control of a specific locus., known as the S-locus., which contains at least two genes. The first gene encodes glycoproteins with RNase activity in the pistils., and the second is an SFB gene expressed in the pollen. There is limited information on genetics of SI/SC in prune and in comparison., with other Prunus species, cloning., sequencing and discovery of different S-alleles is very scarce. Clear information about S-alleles can be used for molecular identification and characterization of the S-haplotypes. We determined the S-alleles of 36 cultivars and selections using primers that revealed 17 new alleles. In addition, our study describes for the first time the association and design of a molecular marker for self-compatibility in P. domestica. Our phylogenetic tree showed that the S-alleles are spread across the phylogeny, suggesting that like previous alleles detected in the Rosaceae., they were of trans-specific origin. We provide for the first time 3D models for the P. domestica SI RNase alleles as well as in other Prunus species, including P. salicina (Japanese plum), P. avium (cherry), P. armeniaca (apricot), P. cerasifera and P. spinosa.


Assuntos
Prunus domestica/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Agricultura/métodos , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Haplótipos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus/genética , Ribonucleases/genética , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/ultraestrutura
14.
New Phytol ; 231(2): 878-891, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864700

RESUMO

Mating system transitions from self-incompatibility (SI) to self-compatibility (SC) are common in plants. In the absence of high levels of inbreeding depression, SC alleles are predicted to spread due to transmission advantage and reproductive assurance. We characterized mating system and pistil-expressed SI factors in 20 populations of the wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites from the southern half of the species range. We found that a single SI to SC transition is fixed in populations south of the Rio Chillon valley in central Peru. In these populations, SC correlated with the presence of the hab-6 S-haplotype that encodes a low activity S-RNase protein. We identified a single population segregating for SI/SC and hab-6. Intrapopulation crosses showed that hab-6 typically acts in the expected codominant fashion to confer SC. However, we found one specific S-haplotype (hab-10) that consistently rejects pollen of the hab-6 haplotype, and results in SI hab-6/hab-10 heterozygotes. We suggest that the hab-10 haplotype could act as a genetic mechanism to stabilize mixed mating in this population by presenting a disadvantage for the hab-6 haplotype. This barrier may represent a mechanism allowing for the persistence of SI when an SC haplotype appears in or invades a population.


Assuntos
Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Solanum , Flores , Peru , Pólen/genética , Ribonucleases , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(8): 3202-3219, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822137

RESUMO

Evolutionary dynamics at the population level play a central role in creating the diversity of life on our planet. In this study, we sought to understand the origins of such population-level variation in mating systems and defensive acylsugar chemistry in Solanum habrochaites-a wild tomato species found in diverse Andean habitats in Ecuador and Peru. Using Restriction-site-Associated-DNA-Sequencing (RAD-seq) of 50 S. habrochaites accessions, we identified eight population clusters generated via isolation and hybridization dynamics of 4-6 ancestral populations. Detailed characterization of mating systems of these clusters revealed emergence of multiple self-compatible (SC) groups from progenitor self-incompatible populations in the northern part of the species range. Emergence of these SC groups was also associated with fixation of deleterious alleles inactivating acylsugar acetylation. The Amotape-Huancabamba Zone-a geographical landmark in the Andes with high endemism and isolated microhabitats-was identified as a major driver of differentiation in the northern species range, whereas large geographical distances contributed to population structure and evolution of a novel SC group in the central and southern parts of the range, where the species was also inferred to have originated. Findings presented here highlight the role of the diverse ecogeography of Peru and Ecuador in generating population differentiation, and enhance our understanding of the microevolutionary processes that create biological diversity.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Solanum/genética , Acetilação , Equador , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Peru , Filogeografia , Autofertilização , Solanum/metabolismo
16.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(8): 1410-1415, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913600

RESUMO

Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been widely used for precise gene editing in plants. However, simultaneous gene editing of multiple homoeoalleles remains challenging, especially in self-incompatible polyploid plants. Here, we simultaneously introduced targeted mutations in all three homoeoalleles of two genes in the self-incompatible allohexaploid tall fescue, using both CRISPR/Cas9 and LbCas12a (LbCpf1) systems. Loss-of-function mutants of FaPDS exhibited albino leaves, while knockout of FaHSP17.9 resulted in impaired heat resistance in T0 generation of tall fescue. Moreover, these mutations were inheritable. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of generating loss-of-function mutants in T0 generation polyploid perennial grasses using CRISPR/Cas systems.


Assuntos
Alelos , Edição de Genes , Poaceae/genética , Poliploidia , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Mutagênese/genética , Mutação/genética
17.
Am Nat ; 197(3): E89-E109, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625968

RESUMO

AbstractIn angiosperm self-incompatibility systems, pollen with an allele matching the pollen recipient at the self-incompatibility locus is rejected. Extreme allelic polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent selection favoring rare alleles. However, two challenges result in a chicken-or-egg problem for the spread of a new allele (a tightly linked haplotype in this case) under the widespread "collaborative non-self-recognition" mechanism. A novel pollen function mutation alone would merely grant compatibility with a nonexistent style function allele: a neutral change at best. A novel pistil function mutation alone could be fertilized only by pollen with a nonexistent pollen function allele: a deleterious change that would reduce seed set to zero. However, a pistil function mutation complementary to a previously neutral pollen mutation may spread if it restores self-incompatibility to a self-compatible intermediate. We show that novel haplotypes can also drive elimination of existing ones with fewer siring opportunities. We calculate relative probabilities of increase and collapse in haplotype number given the initial collection of incompatibility haplotypes and the population gene conversion rate. Expansion in haplotype number is possible when population gene conversion rate is large, but large contractions are likely otherwise. A Markov chain model derived from these expansion and collapse probabilities generates a stable haplotype number distribution in the realistic range of 10-40 under plausible parameters. However, smaller populations might lose many haplotypes beyond those lost by chance during bottlenecks.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Haplótipos , Mutação , Plantas/genética , Seleção Genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3710, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580108

RESUMO

In Rosaceae species, two gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) mechanisms are described, the Prunus self-recognition system and the Maleae (Malus/Pyrus/Sorbus) non-self- recognition system. In both systems the pistil component is a S-RNase gene, but from two distinct phylogenetic lineages. The pollen component, always a F-box gene(s), in the case of Prunus is a single gene, and in Maleae there are multiple genes. Previously, the Rosa S-locus was mapped on chromosome 3, and three putative S-RNase genes were identified in the R. chinensis 'Old Blush' genome. Here, we show that these genes do not belong to the S-locus region. Using R. chinensis and R. multiflora genomes and a phylogenetic approach, we identified the S-RNase gene, that belongs to the Prunus S-lineage. Expression patterns support this gene as being the S-pistil. This gene is here also identified in R. moschata, R. arvensis, and R. minutifolia low coverage genomes, allowing the identification of positively selected amino acid sites, and thus, further supporting this gene as the S-RNase. Furthermore, genotype-phenotype association experiments also support this gene as the S-RNase. For the S-pollen GSI component we find evidence for multiple F-box genes, that show the expected expression pattern, and evidence for diversifying selection at the F-box genes within an S-haplotype. Thus, Rosa has a non-self-recognition system, like in Maleae species, despite the S-pistil gene belonging to the Prunus S-RNase lineage. These findings are discussed in the context of the Rosaceae GSI evolution. Knowledge on the Rosa S-locus has practical implications since genes controlling floral and other ornamental traits are in linkage disequilibrium with the S-locus.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Rosa/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Genoma de Planta
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(4-5): 435-447, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296063

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: LC-MS based metabolomics approach revealed that putative metabolites other than flavonoids may significantly contribute to the sexual compatibility reactions in Prunus armeniaca. Possible mechanisms on related microtubule-stabilizing effects are provided. Identification of metabolites playing crucial roles in sexual incompatibility reactions in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) was the aim of the study. Metabolic fingerprints of self-compatible and self-incompatible apricot pistils were created using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by untargeted compound search. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed 15 significant differential compounds among the total of 4006 and 1005 aligned metabolites in positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Total explained variance of 89.55% in principal component analysis (PCA) indicated high quality of differential expression analysis. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between genotypes and pollination time as well, which demonstrated high performance of the metabolic fingerprinting and revealed the presence of metabolites with significant influence on the self-incompatibility reactions. Finally, polyketide-based macrolides similar to peloruside A and a hydroxy sphingosine derivative are suggested to be significant differential metabolites in the experiment. These results indicate a strategy of pollen tubes to protect microtubules and avoid growth arrest involved in sexual incompatibility reactions of apricot.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Polinização/genética , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Prunus armeniaca/metabolismo
20.
Plant J ; 104(5): 1348-1368, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048387

RESUMO

Self-incompatibility in Petunia is controlled by the polymorphic S-locus, which contains S-RNase encoding the pistil determinant and 16-20 S-locus F-box (SLF) genes collectively encoding the pollen determinant. Here we sequenced and assembled approximately 3.1 Mb of the S2 -haplotype of the S-locus in Petunia inflata using bacterial artificial chromosome clones collectively containing all 17 SLF genes, SLFLike1, and S-RNase. Two SLF pseudogenes and 28 potential protein-coding genes were identified, 20 of which were also found at the S-loci of both the S6a -haplotype of P. inflata and the SN -haplotype of self-compatible Petunia axillaris, but not in the S-locus remnants of self-compatible potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Comparative analyses of S-locus sequences of these three S-haplotypes revealed potential genetic exchange in the flanking regions of SLF genes, resulting in highly similar flanking regions between different types of SLF and between alleles of the same type of SLF of different S-haplotypes. The high degree of sequence similarity in the flanking regions could often be explained by the presence of similar long terminal repeat retroelements, which were enriched at the S-loci of all three S-haplotypes and in the flanking regions of all S-locus genes examined. We also found evidence of the association of transposable elements with SLF pseudogenes. Based on the hypothesis that SLF genes were derived by retrotransposition, we identified 10 F-box genes as putative SLF parent genes. Our results shed light on the importance of non-coding sequences in the evolution of the S-locus, and on possible evolutionary mechanisms of generation, proliferation, and deletion of SLF genes.


Assuntos
Petunia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Haplótipos , Petunia/fisiologia , Pseudogenes , Ribonucleases/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Solanaceae/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Regiões não Traduzidas
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