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1.
Behav Brain Funct ; 18(1): 1, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mathematical expressions mainly include arithmetic (such as 8 - (1 + 3)) and algebra (such as a - (b + c)). Previous studies have shown that both algebraic processing and arithmetic involved the bilateral parietal brain regions. Although previous studies have revealed that algebra was dissociated from arithmetic, the neural bases of the dissociation between algebraic processing and arithmetic is still unclear. The present study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the specific brain networks for algebraic and arithmetic processing. METHODS: Using fMRI, this study scanned 30 undergraduates and directly compared the brain activation during algebra and arithmetic. Brain activations, single-trial (item-wise) interindividual correlation and mean-trial interindividual correlation related to algebra processing were compared with those related to arithmetic. The functional connectivity was analyzed by a seed-based region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI analysis. RESULTS: Brain activation analyses showed that algebra elicited greater activation in the angular gyrus and arithmetic elicited greater activation in the bilateral supplementary motor area, left insula, and left inferior parietal lobule. Interindividual single-trial brain-behavior correlation revealed significant brain-behavior correlations in the semantic network, including the middle temporal gyri, inferior frontal gyri, dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, and left angular gyrus, for algebra. For arithmetic, the significant brain-behavior correlations were located in the phonological network, including the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor area, and in the visuospatial network, including the bilateral superior parietal lobules. For algebra, significant positive functional connectivity was observed between the visuospatial network and semantic network, whereas for arithmetic, significant positive functional connectivity was observed only between the visuospatial network and phonological network. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that algebra relies on the semantic network and conversely, arithmetic relies on the phonological and visuospatial networks.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Web Semântica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053327, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the key individual-level (demographics, attitudes, mobility) and contextual (COVID-19 case numbers, tiers of mobility restrictions, urban districts) determinants of adopting the NHS COVID-19 contact tracing app and continued use overtime. DESIGN AND SETTING: A three-wave panel survey conducted in England in July 2020 (background survey), November 2020 (first measure of app adoption) and March 2021 (continued use of app and new adopters) linked with official data. PARTICIPANTS: N=2500 adults living in England, representative of England's population in terms of regional distribution, age and gender (2011 census). PRIMARY OUTCOME: Repeated measures of self-reported app usage. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Multilevel logistic regression linking a range of individual level (from survey) and contextual (from linked data) determinants to app usage. RESULTS: We observe initial app uptake at 41%, 95% CI (0.39% to 0.43%), and a 12% drop-out rate by March 2021, 95% CI (0.10% to 0.14%). We also found that 7% of nonusers as of wave 2 became new adopters by wave 3, 95% CI (0.05% to 0.08%). Initial uptake (or failure to use) of the app associated with social norms, privacy concerns and misinformation about third-party data access, with those living in postal districts with restrictions on mobility less likely to use the app. Perceived lack of transparent evidence of effectiveness was associated with drop-out of use. In addition, those who trusted the government were more likely to adopt in wave 3 as new adopters. CONCLUSIONS: Successful uptake of the contact tracing app should be evaluated within the wider context of the UK Government's response to the crisis. Trust in government is key to adoption of the app in wave 3 while continued use is linked to perceptions of transparent evidence. Providing clear information to address privacy concerns could increase uptake, however, the disparities in continued use among ethnic minority participants needs further investigation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , SARS-CoV-2 , Web Semântica
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 285: 82-87, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734855

RESUMO

The global pandemic over the past two years has reset societal agendas by identifying both strengths and weaknesses across all sectors. Focusing in particular on global health delivery, the ability of health care facilities to scale requirements and to meet service demands has detected the need for some national services and organisations to modernise their organisational processes and infrastructures. Core to requirements for modernisation is infrastructure to share information, specifically structural standardised approaches for both operational procedures and terminology services. Problems of data sharing (aka interoperability) is a main obstacle when patients are moving across healthcare facilities or travelling across border countries in cases where emergency treatment is needed. Experts in healthcare service delivery suggest that the best possible way to manage individual care is at home, using remote patient monitoring which ultimately reduces cost burden both for the citizen and service provider. Core to this practice will be advancing digitalisation of health care underpinned with safe integration and access to relevant and timely information. To tackle the data interoperability issue and provide a quality driven continuous flow of information from different health care information systems semantic terminology needs to be provided intact. In this paper we propose and present ContSonto a formal ontology for continuity of care based on ISO 13940:2015 ContSy and W3C Semantic Web Standards Language OWL (Web Ontology Language). ContSonto has several benefits including semantic interoperability, data harmonization and data linking. It can be use as a base model for data integration for different healthcare information models to generate knowledge graph to support shared care and decision making.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Web Semântica , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Saúde Global , Humanos , Semântica
4.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(Suppl 7): 275, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fast food with its abundance and availability to consumers may have health consequences due to the high calorie intake which is a major contributor to life threatening diseases. Providing nutritional information has some impact on consumer decisions to self regulate and promote healthier diets, and thus, government regulations have mandated the publishing of nutritional content to assist consumers, including for fast food. However, fast food nutritional information is fragmented, and we realize a benefit to collate nutritional data to synthesize knowledge for individuals. METHODS: We developed the ontology of fast food facts as an opportunity to standardize knowledge of fast food and link nutritional data that could be analyzed and aggregated for the information needs of consumers and experts. The ontology is based on metadata from 21 fast food establishment nutritional resources and authored in OWL2 using Protégé. RESULTS: Three evaluators reviewed the logical structure of the ontology through natural language translation of the axioms. While there is majority agreement (76.1% pairwise agreement) of the veracity of the ontology, we identified 103 out of the 430 statements that were erroneous. We revised the ontology and publicably published the initial release of the ontology. The ontology has 413 classes, 21 object properties, 13 data properties, and 494 logical axioms. CONCLUSION: With the initial release of the ontology of fast food facts we discuss some future visions with the continued evolution of this knowledge base, and the challenges we plan to address, like the management and publication of voluminous amount of semantically linked fast food nutritional data.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Web Semântica , Fast Foods , Humanos , Idioma , Metadados
5.
J Biomed Semantics ; 12(1): 15, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ontology authoring step in ontology development involves having to make choices about what subject domain knowledge to include. This may concern sorting out ontological differences and making choices between conflicting axioms due to limitations in the logic or the subject domain semantics. Examples are dealing with different foundational ontologies in ontology alignment and OWL 2 DL's transitive object property versus a qualified cardinality constraint. Such conflicts have to be resolved somehow. However, only isolated and fragmented guidance for doing so is available, which therefore results in ad hoc decision-making that may not be the best choice or forgotten about later. RESULTS: This work aims to address this by taking steps towards a framework to deal with the various types of modeling conflicts through meaning negotiation and conflict resolution in a systematic way. It proposes an initial library of common conflicts, a conflict set, typical steps toward resolution, and the software availability and requirements needed for it. The approach was evaluated with an actual case of domain knowledge usage in the context of epizootic disease outbreak, being avian influenza, and running examples with COVID-19 ontologies. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation demonstrated the potential and feasibility of a conflict resolution framework for ontologies.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Biologia Computacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Web Semântica , Semântica , Vocabulário Controlado , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Lógica , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450877

RESUMO

Indoor navigation systems incorporating augmented reality allow users to locate places within buildings and acquire more knowledge about their environment. However, although diverse works have been introduced with varied technologies, infrastructure, and functionalities, a standardization of the procedures for elaborating these systems has not been reached. Moreover, while systems usually handle contextual information of places in proprietary formats, a platform-independent model is desirable, which would encourage its access, updating, and management. This paper proposes a methodology for developing indoor navigation systems based on the integration of Augmented Reality and Semantic Web technologies to present navigation instructions and contextual information about the environment. It comprises four modules to define a spatial model, data management (supported by an ontology), positioning and navigation, and content visualization. A mobile application system was developed for testing the proposal in academic environments, modeling the structure, routes, and places of two buildings from independent institutions. The experiments cover distinct navigation tasks by participants in both scenarios, recording data such as navigation time, position tracking, system functionality, feedback (answering a survey), and a navigation comparison when the system is not used. The results demonstrate the system's feasibility, where the participants show a positive interest in its functionalities.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Computadores de Mão , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos , Web Semântica
7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 9): 105, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many systems biology studies leverage the integration of multiple data types (across different data sources) to offer a more comprehensive view of the biological system being studied. While SQL (Structured Query Language) databases are popular in the biomedical domain, NoSQL database technologies have been used as a more relationship-based, flexible and scalable method of data integration. RESULTS: We have created a graph database integrating data from multiple sources. In addition to using a graph-based query language (Cypher) for data retrieval, we have developed a web-based dashboard that allows users to easily browse and plot data without the need to learn Cypher. We have also implemented a visual graph query interface for users to browse graph data. Finally, we have built a prototype to allow the user to query the graph database in natural language. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of using a graph database for storing and querying immunological data with complex biological relationships. Querying a graph database through such relationships has the potential to discover novel relationships among heterogeneous biological data and metadata.


Assuntos
Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Web Semântica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Idioma , Biologia de Sistemas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries around the world are currently threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic, and nurses are facing increasing responsibilities and work demands related to infection control. To establish a developmental strategy for infection control, it is important to analyze, understand, or visualize the accumulated data gathered from research in the field of nursing. METHODS: A total of 4854 articles published between 1978 and 2017 were retrieved from the Web of Science. Abstracts from these articles were extracted, and network analysis was conducted using the semantic network module. RESULTS: 'wound', 'injury', 'breast', "dressing", 'temperature', 'drainage', 'diabetes', 'abscess', and 'cleaning' were identified as the keywords with high values of degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality; hence, they were determined to be influential in the network. The major topics were 'PLWH' (people living with HIV), 'pregnancy', and 'STI' (sexually transmitted infection). CONCLUSIONS: Diverse infection research has been conducted on the topics of blood-borne infections, sexually transmitted infections, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, and bacterial infections. STIs (including HIV), pregnancy, and bacterial infections have been the focus of particularly intense research by nursing researchers. More research on viral infections, urinary tract infections, immune topic, and hospital-acquired infections will be needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Web Semântica , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e053402, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination rates among elderly adults in England. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: People living in private households and communal establishments in England. PARTICIPANTS: 6 655 672 adults aged ≥70 years (mean 78.8 years, 55.2% women) who were alive on 15 March 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Having received the first dose of a vaccine against COVID-19 by 15 March 2021. We calculated vaccination rates and estimated unadjusted and adjusted ORs using logistic regression models. RESULTS: By 15 March 2021, 93.2% of people living in England aged 70 years and over had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. While vaccination rates differed across all factors considered apart from sex, the greatest disparities were seen between ethnic and religious groups. The lowest rates were in people of black African and black Caribbean ethnic backgrounds, where only 67.2% and 73.8% had received a vaccine, with adjusted odds of not being vaccinated at 5.01 (95% CI 4.86 to 5.16) and 4.85 (4.75 to 4.96) times greater than the white British group. The proportion of individuals self-identifying as Muslim and Buddhist who had received a vaccine was 79.1% and 84.1%, respectively. Older age, greater area deprivation, less advantaged socioeconomic position (proxied by living in a rented home), being disabled and living either alone or in a multigenerational household were also associated with higher odds of not having received the vaccine. CONCLUSION: Research is now urgently needed to understand why disparities exist in these groups and how they can best be addressed through public health policy and community engagement.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Web Semântica , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047040, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared intrapartum interventions and outcomes for mothers, neonates and children up to 16 years, for induction of labour (IOL) versus spontaneous labour onset in uncomplicated term pregnancies with live births. DESIGN: We used population linked data from New South Wales, Australia (2001-2016) for healthy women giving birth at 37+0 to 41+6 weeks. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed for intrapartum interventions, postnatal maternal and neonatal outcomes, and long-term child outcomes adjusted for maternal age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, parity and gestational age. RESULTS: Of 474 652 included births, 69 397 (15%) had an IOL for non-medical reasons. Primiparous women with IOL versus spontaneous onset differed significantly for: spontaneous vaginal birth (42.7% vs 62.3%), instrumental birth (28.0% vs 23.9%%), intrapartum caesarean section (29.3% vs 13.8%), epidural (71.0% vs 41.3%), episiotomy (41.2% vs 30.5%) and postpartum haemorrhage (2.4% vs 1.5%). There was a similar trend in outcomes for multiparous women, except for caesarean section which was lower (5.3% vs 6.2%). For both groups, third and fourth degree perineal tears were lower overall in the IOL group: primiparous women (4.2% vs 4.9%), multiparous women (0.7% vs 1.2%), though overall vaginal repair was higher (89.3% vs 84.3%). Following induction, incidences of neonatal birth trauma, resuscitation and respiratory disorders were higher, as were admissions to hospital for infections (ear, nose, throat, respiratory and sepsis) up to 16 years. There was no difference in hospitalisation for asthma or eczema, or for neonatal death (0.06% vs 0.08%), or in total deaths up to 16 years. CONCLUSION: IOL for non-medical reasons was associated with higher birth interventions, particularly in primiparous women, and more adverse maternal, neonatal and child outcomes for most variables assessed. The size of effect varied by parity and gestational age, making these important considerations when informing women about the risks and benefits of IOL.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Web Semântica , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Parto , Gravidez
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990466

RESUMO

Real-world decisions are often open ended, with goals, choice options, or evaluation criteria conceived by decision-makers themselves. Critically, the quality of decisions may heavily rely on the generation of options, as failure to generate promising options limits, or even eliminates, the opportunity for choosing them. This core aspect of problem structuring, however, is largely absent from classical models of decision-making, thereby restricting their predictive scope. Here, we take a step toward addressing this issue by developing a neurally inspired cognitive model of a class of ill-structured decisions in which choice options must be self-generated. Specifically, using a model in which semantic memory retrieval is assumed to constrain the set of options available during valuation, we generate highly accurate out-of-sample predictions of choices across multiple categories of goods. Our model significantly and substantially outperforms models that only account for valuation or retrieval in isolation or those that make alternative mechanistic assumptions regarding their interaction. Furthermore, using neuroimaging, we confirm our core assumption regarding the engagement of, and interaction between, semantic memory retrieval and valuation processes. Together, these results provide a neurally grounded and mechanistic account of decisions with self-generated options, representing a step toward unraveling cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making in the real world.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Adulto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Web Semântica
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e040600, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess a cohort of mothers for characteristics of injuries that they have suffered as a result of family and domestic violence (FDV) and which have required admission to a hospital during both the intrapartum and postpartum periods. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective, whole-population linked data study of FDV in Western Australia using the Western Australia birth registry from 1990 to 2009 and Hospital Morbidity Data System records from 1970 to 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of hospitalisations, and mode, location and type of injuries recorded, with particular focus on the head and neck area. RESULTS: There were 11 546 hospitalisations for mothers due to FDV. 8193 hospitalisations recorded an injury code to the head and/or neck region. The upper and middle thirds of the face and scalp were areas most likely to receive superficial injuries (58.7% or 4158 admissions), followed by the mouth and oral cavity (9.7% or 687 admissions). Fracture to the mandible accounted for 479 (4.2%) admissions and was almost equal to the sum of the next three most common facial fractures (nasal, maxillary and orbital floor). Mothers more likely to be hospitalised due to a head injury from FDV included those with more than one child (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.30) and those with infants (<1 year old) (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.90) and young children (<7 years old) (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.30). CONCLUSIONS: FDV is a serious and ongoing problem and front-line clinicians are in need of evidence-based guidelines to recognise and assist victims of FDV. Mothers with children in their care are a particularly vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Web Semântica , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
13.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(6): 1987-1996, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of miscarriage, there are few studies which assess the concordance of a diagnosis of miscarriage in routinely collected health databases. OBJECTIVES: To determine agreement and accuracy for the diagnosis of miscarriage between electronic health records (EHR), the Hospital Inpatient-Enquiry (HIPE) system, and hospital register books in Ireland. METHODS: This is a retrospective study comparing agreement of diagnosis of miscarriage between three hospital data sources from January to June 2017. All inpatient admissions for miscarriage were reviewed from a single, tertiary maternity hospital in Ireland. Kappa, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. RESULTS: In this retrospective concordance study, EHR records confirmed 96.2% diagnosis of miscarriage of HIPE records, and 95.1% of register books records. A total of 95 records were not recorded in the register books but were recorded in HIPE and EHR. This study found a considerable variability when comparing definitions of type of miscarriage (i.e., missed miscarriage, incomplete, and complete) between the three data sources. CONCLUSION: Although this study found a high concordance in inpatient admissions for miscarriage between EHR, HIPE, and register books, a considerable discrepancy was found when classifying miscarriage between the three data sources.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Web Semântica , Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Livros , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014987

RESUMO

Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of biomedical images assists physicians for a fast facilitated tissue characterization. A scheme based on combining fuzzy logic (FL) and deep learning (DL) for automatic semantic segmentation (SS) of tumors in breast ultrasound (BUS) images is proposed. The proposed scheme consists of two steps: the first is a FL based preprocessing, and the second is a Convolutional neural network (CNN) based SS. Eight well-known CNN based SS models have been utilized in the study. Studying the scheme was by a dataset of 400 cancerous BUS images and their corresponding 400 ground truth images. SS process has been applied in two modes: batch and one by one image processing. Three quantitative performance evaluation metrics have been utilized: global accuracy (GA), mean Jaccard Index (mean intersection over union (IoU)), and mean BF (Boundary F1) Score. In the batch processing mode: quantitative metrics' average results over the eight utilized CNNs based SS models over the 400 cancerous BUS images were: 95.45% GA instead of 86.08% without applying fuzzy preprocessing step, 78.70% mean IoU instead of 49.61%, and 68.08% mean BF score instead of 42.63%. Moreover, the resulted segmented images could show tumors' regions more accurate than with only CNN based SS. While, in one by one image processing mode: there has been no enhancement neither qualitatively nor quantitatively. So, only when a batch processing is needed, utilizing the proposed scheme may be helpful in enhancing automatic ss of tumors in BUS images. Otherwise applying the proposed approach on a one-by-one image mode will disrupt segmentation's efficiency. The proposed batch processing scheme may be generalized for an enhanced CNN based SS of a targeted region of interest (ROI) in any batch of digital images. A modified small dataset is available: https://www.kaggle.com/mohammedtgadallah/mt-small-dataset (S1 Data).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Web Semântica
15.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1482-1492, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: understanding care-home outbreaks of COVID-19 is a key public health priority in the ongoing pandemic to help protect vulnerable residents. OBJECTIVE: to describe all outbreaks of COVID-19 infection in Scottish care-homes for older people between 01/03/2020 and 31/03/2020, with follow-up to 30/06/2020. DESIGN AND SETTING: National linked data cohort analysis of Scottish care-homes for older people. METHODS: data linkage was used to identify outbreaks of COVID-19 in care-homes. Care-home characteristics associated with the presence of an outbreak were examined using logistic regression. Size of outbreaks was modelled using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: 334 (41%) Scottish care-homes for older people experienced an outbreak, with heterogeneity in outbreak size (1-63 cases; median = 6) and duration (1-94 days, median = 31.5 days). Four distinct patterns of outbreak were identified: 'typical' (38% of outbreaks, mean 11.2 cases and 48 days duration), severe (11%, mean 29.7 cases and 60 days), contained (37%, mean 3.5 cases and 13 days) and late-onset (14%, mean 5.4 cases and 17 days). Risk of a COVID-19 outbreak increased with increasing care-home size (for ≥90 beds vs <20, adjusted OR = 55.4, 95% CI 15.0-251.7) and rising community prevalence (OR = 1.2 [1.0-1.4] per 100 cases/100,000 population increase). No routinely available care-home characteristic was associated with outbreak size. CONCLUSIONS: reducing community prevalence of COVID-19 infection is essential to protect those living in care-homes. More systematic national data collection to understand care-home residents and the homes in which they live is a priority in ensuring we can respond more effectively in future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Escócia/epidemiologia , Web Semântica
16.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 19(1): 251-270, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251885

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) Este artículo propone el concepto de Generación ₿ (o blockchain) como paradigma para analizar los movimientos juveniles en la era de la web semántica. Partiendo de conceptualizaciones anteriores sobre la Generación @ (o arroba) y sobre la Generación # (o hashtag), se presentan el significante, el significado y los rasgos de la Generación ₿, que se ilustran con el análisis de las protestas de 2019, en el contexto del ciclo de movilizaciones de la última década. El concepto de blockchain o cadena de bloques sirve para reflexionar sobre el tipo de movimientos juveniles surgidos a la salida de la crisis de 2008, que se encadenan en bloques como táctica de resistencia frente a los poderes estatales y corporativos y como forma colaborativa de producir valor frente a la anomia social imperante. Palabras clave: Juventud, generación, sociedad de la información, movimientos juveniles, medios sociales.


Abstract (analytical) This article proposes the concept of Generation ₿ or Blockchain to analyze youth movements in the era of semantic web. Starting from previous conceptualizations about Generation @ or At sign and about Generation # or Hashtag, the signifier, meaning and traits of the Generation ₿ are presented, which are illustrated with the analysis of the 2019 protests, in the context of the mobilizations of the last decade. The concept of Blockchain or chain of blocks serves to reflect on the type of youth movements that emerged after the 2008 crisis, that are chained in blocks as a tactic of resistance against state and corporate powers and as a collaborative way of producing value in the face of the prevailing social anomie. Keywords: Youth, generations, information society, youth movements, social media.


Resumo (analítico) Este artigo propõe o conceito de Geração ₿ ou Blockchain para analisar os movimentos juvenis na era da web semântica. A partir de conceituações anteriores sobre Geração @ ou Arroba e sobre Geração # ou Hashtag, são apresentados o significante, significado e traços da Geração ₿, que são ilustrados com a análise dos protestos de 2019, no contesto das mobilizações da última década. O conceito de Blockchain ou cadeia de blocos serve para refletir sobre o tipo de movimentos juvenis surgidos após a crise de 2008, que se acorrentam em blocos como tática de resistência contra poderes estatais e corporativos e como forma colaborativa de produção de valor em face da anomia social prevalecente. Palavras-chave: Juventude, geração, sociedade da informação, movimentos juvenis, meios sociais.


Assuntos
Web Semântica , Blockchain , Movimento , Anomia (Social)
17.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 30(5): e13451, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated treatment and survival by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics for service evaluation using linked data. METHOD: Data on invasive female breast cancers (n = 13,494) from the South Australian Cancer Registry (2000-2014 diagnoses) were linked to hospital inpatient, radiotherapy and universal health insurance data. Treatments ≤12 months from diagnosis and survival were analysed, using adjusted odds ratios (aORs) from logistic regression, and adjusted sub-hazard ratios (aSHRs) from competing risk regression. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Five-year disease-specific survival increased to 91% for 2010-2014. Most women had breast surgery (90%), systemic therapy (72%) and radiotherapy (60%). Less treatment applied for ages 80+ vs <50 years (aOR 0.10, 95% CI 0.05-0.20) and TNM stage IV vs stage I (aOR 0.13, 95% CI 0.08-0.22). Surgical treatment increased during the study period and strongly predicted higher survival. Compared with no surgery, aSHRs were 0.31 (95% CI 0.26-0.36) for women having breast-conserving surgery, 0.49 (95% CI 0.41-0.57) for mastectomy and 0.42 (95% CI 0.33-0.52) when both surgery types were received. Patients aged 80+ years had lower survival and less treatment. More trial evidence is needed to optimise trade-offs between benefits and harms in these older women. Survival differences were not found by residential remoteness and were marginal by socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Mastectomia Segmentar , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Web Semântica , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
J Biomed Inform ; 117: 103750, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774204

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems are assisting physicians in providing care to patients. However, in the context of clinical pathway management such systems are rather limited as they only take the current state of the patient into account and ignore the possible evolvement of that state in the future. In the past decade, the availability of big data in the healthcare domain did open a new era for clinical decision support. Machine learning technologies are now widely used in the clinical domain, nevertheless, mostly as a tool for disease prediction. A tool that not only predicts future states, but also enables adaptive clinical pathway management based on these predictions is still in need. This paper introduces weighted state transition logic, a logic to model state changes based on actions planned in clinical pathways. Weighted state transition logic extends linear logic by taking weights - numerical values indicating the quality of an action or an entire clinical pathway - into account. It allows us to predict the future states of a patient and it enables adaptive clinical pathway management based on these predictions. We provide an implementation of weighted state transition logic using semantic web technologies, which makes it easy to integrate semantic data and rules as background knowledge. Executed by a semantic reasoner, it is possible to generate a clinical pathway towards a target state, as well as to detect potential conflicts in the future when multiple pathways are coexisting. The transitions from the current state to the predicted future state are traceable, which builds trust from human users on the generated pathway.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Clínicos , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Humanos , Lógica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Web Semântica
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652781

RESUMO

Infants need sufficient nutrients even during disasters. Only qualitative descriptive analysis has been reported regarding nutritional problems of mothers and children after the Kumamoto earthquake, and non-subjective analysis is required. This study examined issues concerning maternal and child health, food and nutrition after the Kumamoto earthquake using automatic computer quantitative analysis from focus group interviews (FGIs). Study participants (n = 13) consisted of dietitians in charge of nutrition assistance of infants in affected areas. The content of the interviews was converted into text, nouns were extracted, and co-occurrence network diagram analysis was performed. In the severely damaged area, there were hygienic problems not only in the acute phase but also in the mid-to-long-term phase. "Allergy" was extracted in the surrounding area in the acute and the mid-to-long-term phase, but not in the severely damaged area as the acute phase issue. In the surrounding area, problems have shifted to health and the quality of diet in the mid-to-long-term phase. This objective analysis suggested that dietary problems for mothers and children after disaster occurred also in the mid-to-long-term phase. It will be necessary to combine the overall trends obtained in this study with the results of qualitative descriptive analysis.


Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos , Nutricionistas , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Web Semântica
20.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(1): 68-79, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the mass and social media contents and structures related to particulate matter before and after the policy enforcement of the comprehensive countermeasures for particulate matter, derive nursing implications, and provide a basis for designing health policies. METHODS: After crawling online news articles and posts on social networking sites before and after policy enforcement with particulate matter as keywords, we conducted topic and semantic network analysis using TEXTOM, R, and UCINET 6. RESULTS: In topic analysis, behavior tips was the common main topic in both media before and after the policy enforcement. After the policy enforcement, influence on health disappeared from the main topics due to increased reports about reduction measures and government in mass media, whereas influence on health appeared as the main topic in social media. However semantic network analysis confirmed that social media had much number of nodes and links and lower centrality than mass media, leaving substantial information that was not organically connected and unstructured. CONCLUSION: Understanding of particulate matter policy and implications influence health, as well as gaps in the needs and use of health information, should be integrated with leadership and supports in the nurses' care of vulnerable patients and public health promotion.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Material Particulado/análise , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Formulação de Políticas , Web Semântica , Mídias Sociais
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