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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 15, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733383

RESUMO

Introduction: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a progressive disease, which can result in disability. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary features of AS in the Department of Rheumatology of the Hospital Center University Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar. Methods: we conducted a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected on a prospective and retrospective basis over a period of 8 years, between January 2012 and December 2020. Patients were diagnosed with AS on the basis of ESSG (European Seronegative Spondylarthropathy Group) and Amor diagnostic criteria, ASAS (Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society) criteria and modified New York criteria. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS25 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software. Results: six hundred forty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria (414 women and 233 men) with a sex ratio of 1.77F/1M. Different symptomatic cases were found: axial disease (55.65%), mixed disease (44.35%) and systemic disease with extra-articular manifestations including uveitis (12.21%), aortic insufficiency (5.71%) and fibrobullous lung disease (3.86%). Sixty percent of patients were receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 47% methotrexate, and 0.92% biotherapy. Disease activity index, functional index and quality of life index enabled disease monitoring. Conclusion: our results show that there was predominance in women. Patients were mostly affected by axial spondyloarthritis. More than half of our patients were treated with anti-inflammatory, 47% with methotrexate and 0.92% with biotherapy. This study highlights that the features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are a burden to the patient with spondyloarthritis and disease progression over time.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Espondilite Anquilosante/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Senegal , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 653481, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733811

RESUMO

Since 2019, the ATLAS project, coordinated by Solthis in collaboration with national AIDS programs, has introduced, promoted and delivered HIV self-testing (HIVST) in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. Several delivery channels have been defined, including key populations: men who have sex with men, female sex workers and people who use injectable drugs. At project initiation, a qualitative study analyzing the perceptions and attitudes of key stakeholders regarding the introduction of HIVST in their countries and its integration with other testing strategies for key populations was conducted. The study was conducted from September to November 2019 within 3 months of the initiation of HIVST distribution. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 key informants involved in the project or in providing support and care to key populations: members of health ministries, national AIDS councils, international organizations, national and international non-governmental organizations, and peer educators. Semi structured interviews were recorded, translated when necessary, and transcribed. Data were coded using Dedoose© software for thematic analyses. We found that stakeholders' perceptions and attitudes are favorable to the introduction and integration of HIVST for several reasons. Some of these reasons are held in common, and some are specific to each key population and country. Overall, HIVST is considered able to reduce stigma; preserve anonymity and confidentiality; reach key populations that do not access testing via the usual strategies; remove spatial barriers; save time for users and providers; and empower users with autonomy and responsibility. It is non-invasive and easy to use. However, participants also fear, question and doubt users' autonomy regarding their ability to use HIVST kits correctly; to ensure quality secondary distribution; to accept a reactive test result; and to use confirmation testing and care services. For stakeholders, HIVST is considered an attractive strategy to improve access to HIV testing for key populations. Their doubts about users' capacities could be a matter for reflective communication with stakeholders and local adaptation before the implementation of HIVST in new countries. Those perceptions may reflect the West African HIV situation through the emphasis they place on the roles of HIV stigma and disclosure in HIVST efficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Atitude , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Percepção , Autoteste , Senegal
3.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 384, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are among high-risk groups for COVID-19. Africa is the continent with the lowest number of cases in the general population but we have little information about the disease burden in dialysis patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the hemodialysis population of Senegal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional survey, between June and September 2020 involving 10 public dialysis units randomly selected in eight regions of Senegal. After seeking their consent, we included 303 patients aged ≥ 18 years and hemodialysis for ≥ 3 months. Clinical symptoms and biological parameters were collected from medical records. Patients' blood samples were tested with Abbott SARS-CoV-2 Ig G assay using an Architect system. Statistical tests were performed with STATA 12.0. RESULTS: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 21.1% (95% CI = 16.7-26.1%). We noticed a wide variability in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence between regions ranging from 5.6 to 51.7%. Among the 38 patients who underwent nasal swab testing, only six had a PCR-confirmed infection and all of them did seroconvert. Suggestive clinical symptoms were reported by 28.1% of seropositive patients and the majority of them presented asymptomatic disease. After multivariate analysis, a previous contact with a confirmed case and living in a high population density region were associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: This study presents to our knowledge the first seroprevalence data in African hemodialysis patients. Compared to data from other continents, we found a higher proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but a lower lethality rate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Hist Ideas ; 82(4): 637-660, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840192

RESUMO

A great deal of ink has been spilled reflecting upon the historically contingent nature of race as a category, and as a lived experience. Bringing together the case studies of the interwar sites of Harlem, Paris, and London and, in the post-World War Two period of decolonization, the cities of Algiers and Dakar, this article is a contribution to ongoing conversations about how we might develop a critical conceptual apparatus for understanding the relationship between historical examples of black internationalism and the racial assumptions that underpin it by linking it to notions of place.


Assuntos
Cidades , Londres , Paris , Senegal
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1090, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a higher risk of preterm delivery and spontaneous abortion. Yet little data on BV prevalence exist for sub-Saharan countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Senegal. METHODS: From October 2013 to December 2018, pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited in two primary health centers (one suburban, one rural) in Senegal. Healthcare workers interviewed women and collected a lower vaginal swab and a blood sample. Vaginal flora were classified into four categories using vaginal smear microscopic examination and Gram's coloration. In our study, BV was defined as vaginal flora with no Lactobacillus spp. Variables associated with BV were analyzed using STATA® through univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 457 women provided a vaginal sample for analysis. Overall, BV prevalence was 18.6% (85/457) [95% CI 15.4-22.6]) and was similar in suburban and rural areas (18.9% versus 18.1%, p = 0.843). Multivariate analysis showed that primigravidity was the only factor independently associated with a lower risk of BV (aOR 0.35 [95% CI 0.17-0.72]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed significant BV prevalence among pregnant women in Senegal. Although the literature has underscored the potential consequences of BV for obstetric outcomes, data are scarce on BV prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries. Before authorities consider systematic BV screening for pregnant women, a larger study would be useful in documenting prevalence, risk factors and the impact of BV on pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Vaginose Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Fatores de Risco , Senegal/epidemiologia , Vagina , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1027, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis occurs worldwide but Africa remains the most affected continent, especially in the "Meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia. Three main bacteria are responsible for causing bacterial meningitis, i.e., N. meningitidis (Nm), S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type b. Among Nm, serogroup A used to be responsible for up to 80 to 85% of meningococcal meningitis cases in Africa. Since 2000, other Nm serogroups including W, X and C have also been responsible for causing epidemics. This overview aims to describe the main patterns of meningitis disease cases and pathogens from 1928 to 2018 in Africa with a special focus on disease conditions "out-of-the-belt" area that is still usually unexplored. Based on basic spatio-temporal methods, and a 90-years database of reported suspected meningitis cases and death from the World Health Organization, we used both geographic information system and spatio-temporal statistics to identify the major localizations of meningitis epidemics over this period in Africa. RESULTS: Bacterial meningitis extends today outside its historical limits of the meningitis belt. Since the introduction of MenAfrivac vaccine in 2010, there has been a dramatic decrease in NmA cases while other pathogen species and Nm variants including NmW, NmC and Streptococcus pneumoniae have become more prevalent reflecting a greater diversity of bacterial strains causing meningitis epidemics in Africa today. CONCLUSION: Bacterial meningitis remains a major public health problem in Africa today. Formerly concentrated in the region of the meningitis belt with Sub-Saharan and Sudanian environmental conditions, the disease extends now outside these historical limits to reach more forested regions in the central parts of the continent. With global environmental changes and massive vaccination targeting a unique serogroup, an epidemiological transition of bacterial meningitis is ongoing, requiring both a better consideration of the etiological nature of the responsible agents and of their proximal and distal determinants.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Meningites Bacterianas , Meningite Meningocócica , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis , Humanos , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Senegal
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 360: 109437, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673328

RESUMO

Peanuts and peanut products are significant revenue sources for smallholder farmers in the Senegalese peanut basin. However, microbial contamination during production and storage can greatly affect market access for producers. Peanut products have emerged as possible sources of foodborne illness, encouraging discussions on international standards for peanuts. In this study, we interviewed 198 households throughout the Senegalese peanut basin to assess current production practices, storage methods, and producers' prior knowledge of microbial contamination using a 162-question survey. A member of each household orally completed the survey with a trained enumerator and the results were compared to microbiological results obtained from peanut samples collected at the time of the interview using linear regression and an analysis of variance model. Samples were collected from stored peanuts at each household; peanuts were shelled and total Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, and yeast and mold populations were enumerated. Of the 198 samples analyzed, 13.0% and 13.6% were greater than the upper detection limits for Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms, respectively. A total of 21.2% of samples were above the detection limit for yeast and mold populations. Only 22.7% and 18.7% of producers were aware of pathogenic bacteria or aflatoxins, respectively; there were no significant differences in observed microbial populations between household who took preventative measures against microbial contamination and those who did not. Additionally, four households reported washing their kitchen utensils before using them to eat and 60.1% reported always washing their hands before eating. Enumerators were asked to report peanut storage container type and if the containers were stored off the ground at the time of collection. While the interaction between storage container type and if the container was stored off the ground was significant for Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms, it was not significant for yeast and mold. Additionally, when storage container type and if peanuts were stored off the ground were included in the regression model, these methods were predictive of contamination levels for Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the relationship among Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and mold contamination and producer knowledge of Senegalese peanuts. These results provide preliminary data to inform future studies to determine pathogen prevalence and impactful preventative measures to minimize microbial contamination of peanuts produced in Senegal.


Assuntos
Arachis , Enterobacteriaceae , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Senegal
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21108, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702899

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the virus causing the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in December 2019 in China and raised fears it could overwhelm healthcare systems worldwide. Mutations of the virus are monitored by the GISAID database from which we downloaded sequences from four West African countries Ghana, Gambia, Senegal and Nigeria from February 2020 to April 2020. We subjected the sequences to phylogenetic analysis employing the nextstrain pipeline. We found country-specific patterns of viral variants and supplemented that with data on novel variants from June 2021. Until April 2020, variants carrying the crucial Europe-associated D614G amino acid change were predominantly found in Senegal and Gambia, and combinations of late variants with and early variants without D614G in Ghana and Nigeria. In June 2021 all variants carried the D614G amino acid substitution. Senegal and Gambia exhibited again variants transmitted from Europe (alpha or delta), Ghana a combination of several variants and in Nigeria the original Eta variant. Detailed analysis of distinct samples revealed that some might have circulated latently and some reflect migration routes. The distinct patterns of variants within the West African countries point at their global transmission via air traffic predominantly from Europe and only limited transmission between the West African countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2 , África Ocidental , Biodiversidade , China , Europa (Continente) , Gâmbia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Gana , Humanos , Nigéria , Filogenia , Senegal , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 221, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630833

RESUMO

Introduction: psychiatric disorders affect the highest number of incarcerated individuals. Indeed, detention conditions in Senegal have been criticized for several years by referring, in particular, to overcrowding. These conditions probably play a determining role in the occurrence of mental disorders in this population. This work describes the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of these inmates followed on an outpatient basis in the Department of Psychiatry of the National University Hospital Center in Fann. Method: we conducted a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from all the inmates presenting to the External Consultation Unit of the Department of Psychiatry of the National University Hospital Center of Fann between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2010. Results: our study population consisted of 62 inmates, 92% men and 8% women. The average age of patients was 32 years, nearly three-quarters (72.6%) of individuals were single. In the majority of cases they were in a precarious employment situation and 69.3% of them had not completed secondary education. Insomnia was the leading reason for consultation (29%) followed by auditory verbal hallucinations (22.6%). Physical aggression and/or threats to fellow inmates were observed in 17.7% of cases. The main diagnostic categories found were schizophrenic disorders (32.3%) and depressive disorders (27.4%). Between 2005 and 2010, the number of consultations increased threefold/year, from 7 to 19. Conclusion: this study showed that the incarcerated population, followed on an outpatient basis in the Department of Psychiatry, were young, mostly male and single, with low level of education and disadvantaged professional status. Similar cases have been reported in the international literature. Considering Senegal's socio-economic situation and health systems development, we note that, although the number of consultations has increased over the years, only inmates with severe mental disorders are followed in specialized health services. Given the number of incarcerated subjects, the biography background of these subjects, the conditions of detention and the absence of some diseases, a survey should be conducted in prisons in order to assess mental healthcare needs of incarcerated subjects and the specific issues that could affect them.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Senegal , Adulto Jovem
10.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 1250129, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497662

RESUMO

We formulate and theoretically analyze a mathematical model of COVID-19 transmission mechanism incorporating vital dynamics of the disease and two key therapeutic measures-vaccination of susceptible individuals and recovery/treatment of infected individuals. Both the disease-free and endemic equilibrium are globally asymptotically stable when the effective reproduction number R 0(v) is, respectively, less or greater than unity. The derived critical vaccination threshold is dependent on the vaccine efficacy for disease eradication whenever R 0(v) > 1, even if vaccine coverage is high. Pontryagin's maximum principle is applied to establish the existence of the optimal control problem and to derive the necessary conditions to optimally mitigate the spread of the disease. The model is fitted with cumulative daily Senegal data, with a basic reproduction number R 0 = 1.31 at the onset of the epidemic. Simulation results suggest that despite the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination and treatment to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, when R 0(v) > 1, additional efforts such as nonpharmaceutical public health interventions should continue to be implemented. Using partial rank correlation coefficients and Latin hypercube sampling, sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the relative importance of model parameters to disease transmission. Results shown graphically could help to inform the process of prioritizing public health intervention measures to be implemented and which model parameter to focus on in order to mitigate the spread of the disease. The effective contact rate b, the vaccine efficacy ε, the vaccination rate v, the fraction of exposed individuals who develop symptoms, and, respectively, the exit rates from the exposed and the asymptomatic classes σ and ϕ are the most impactful parameters.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Dinâmica não Linear , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiologia , Vacinação
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 137, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527153

RESUMO

Introduction: after a pilot phase, Senegal is the first country in West Africa to introduce cervical cancer vaccine into its Expanded Program on Immunization. Despite the gratuity and availability of the vaccination, coverage was low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with HPV vaccination coverage in girls . Methods: we conducted a case-control analytical study from 4th to 20th January 2020 in Dakar. The study population consisted of parents or guardians of girls aged 9 to 10. We performed cluster sampling, direct structured interviews and a literature review. Socio-demographic features, parents/guardians' knowledges and information about vaccination procedure were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio. Results: during this study, 510 cases and 510 controls and 1020 parents/guardians were interviewed. Significant factors associated with vaccination of girls were: parents/guardians' education (OR=1,97; [1,81-2,25]), knowledge of the disease (OR=3,05; [2,75-4,53], high household income (OR=1,21; [1,13-1,85]), fear of side effects (OR=0,35;[ 0,27-0,44]), reception of messages via internet/social networks (OR=0,54; [0,41-0,92]) and vaccination schedules for the community (OR= 2,12 [1,59-2,64]). Conclusion: vaccination of girls can be improved by strengthening parents' knowledge through appropriate channels and a better organization of health services.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Pais/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Senegal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Cobertura Vacinal
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1490, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. RESULTS: Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. CONCLUSION: Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Benin , Burkina Faso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Costa do Marfim , Guiné , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia , Níger , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiologia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 399, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381543

RESUMO

Decompressive craniectomy is a surgical technique considered to be the last step in the management of intracranial hypertension. The objective of our study was to evaluate our results in the management of intracranial hypertension by decompressive craniectomy. This was a retrospective study of 24 cases of decompressive craniectomy performed over a 9-year period (from January 2010 to December 2019) at the Fann Neurosurgery Clinic. The mean age of the patients was 33.82 years, there was a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.42. The most frequent indication was severe cranioencephalic trauma with 50%. The cerebral computed tomography (CT) scan was the key examination and was performed in all our patients. Complications were entirely infectious and were the cause of 73.33% of deaths. Thirty-five percent of the patients had received prior treatment before the decompressive craniectomy. The functional prognosis was good in 44.44% of cases, moderate in 33.33% of cases, 1 (11.11%) patient had a severe disability and 1 (11.11%) patient was in a vegetative state. Mortality rate was 62.5% of patients in our study series. Despite the lack of sophisticated techniques for diagnosis and monitoring of intracranial hypertension, our results remain acceptable with 37.5% survival. The early completion of this surgery allows us to be more efficient with a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Craniectomia Descompressiva/métodos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Craniectomia Descompressiva/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Senegal , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 867, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito born disease associated with self-limited to life threatening illness. First detected in Senegal in the nineteenth century, and despite its growing incidence this last decade, significant knowledge gaps exist in our knowledge of genetic diversity of circulating strains. This study highlights the circulating serotypes and genotypes between January 2017 and December 2018 and their spatial and temporal distribution throughout all regions of Senegal. METHODS: We used 56 dengue virus (DENV) strains for the analysis collected from 11 sampling areas: 39 from all regions of Senegal, and 17 isolates from Thiès, a particular area of the country. Two real time RT-qPCR systems were used to confirm dengue infection and corresponding serotypes. For molecular characterization, CprM gene was sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis for serotypes and genotypes assignment. RESULTS: Three dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-3) were detected by all used methods. DENV-3 was detected in 50% (28/56) of the isolates, followed by DENV-1 and DENV-2, each representing 25% (14/56) of the isolates. DENV-3 belongs to genotype III, DENV-1 to genotype V and DENV-2 to Cosmopolitan genotype. Serotype 3 was detected in 7 sampling locations and a co-circulation of different serotypes was observed in Thiès, Fatick and Richard-toll. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the need of continuous DENV surveillance in Senegal to detect DENV cases, to define circulating serotypes/genotypes and to prevent the spread and the occurrence of severe cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Senegal/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Análise Espacial
15.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 18(3): 168-170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341203

RESUMO

Context: Choledochal cyst is a rare malformation that mainly affects girls. Aims: The aim of this work is to report the diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of bile duct cyst in children in Dakar. Subjects and Methods: we conducted a prospective monocentre descriptive study from 1 July, 2016, to 30 June, 2019, in the Pediatric Surgery Department of Albert Royer Children's Hospital in Dakar. The studied parameters featured clinical, biological, radiological, therapeutic and evolutionary data. Overall, ten patients, including eight girls and two boys, were selected. Results: Two patients presented the classic triple-syndrome complex featuring an abdominal pain, an abdominal mass and jaundice. Most of the patients presented a symptomatology associating abdominal pain and vomiting. Biological cholestasis syndrome was present in six cases and biological cytolysis syndrome in five cases. The abdominal ultrasound-computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the diagnosis and helped to set the Todani classification with a predominance of Types 1 and 4. Surgical treatment by laparotomy consisted of total excision of the cyst followed by a Y-en-Roux hepatico-jejunal anastomosis in nine cases, whereas we performed a drainage of the cyst in one case. Two patients presented a morbidity of anastomotic suture release and evisceration and had a good outcome after surgical repair. There was no mortality. Conclusions: The diagnosis of choledochal cyst dilatation (CCD) can be suspected in the postnatal period on the basis of a gastro-intestinal symptomatology with or without associated to jaundice. The combination ultrasound-abdominal CT-scan helps set the diagnosis. The laparatomic approach always has its place for the management of CCD, especially in our context.


Assuntos
Cisto do Colédoco , Colestase , Criança , Cisto do Colédoco/diagnóstico , Cisto do Colédoco/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Senegal , Ultrassonografia
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 653565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354973

RESUMO

Background: The ATLAS program promotes and implements HIVST in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. Priority groups include members of key populations-female sex workers (FSW), men having sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD)-and their partners and relatives. HIVST distribution activities, which began in mid-2019, were impacted in early 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This article, focusing only on outreach activities among key populations, analyzes quantitative, and qualitative program data collected during implementation to examine temporal trends in HIVST distribution and their evolution in the context of the COVID-19 health crisis. Specifically, we investigated the impact on, the adaptation of and the disruption of field activities. Results: In all three countries, the pre-COVID-19 period was marked by a gradual increase in HIVST distribution. The period corresponding to the initial emergency response (March-May 2020) witnessed an important disruption of activities: a total suspension in Senegal, a significant decline in Côte d'Ivoire, and a less pronounced decrease in Mali. Secondary distribution was also negatively impacted. Peer educators showed resilience and adapted by relocating from public to private areas, reducing group sizes, moving night activities to the daytime, increasing the use of social networks, integrating hygiene measures, and promoting assisted HIVST as an alternative to conventional rapid testing. From June 2020 onward, with the routine management of the COVID-19 pandemic, a catch-up phenomenon was observed with the resumption of activities in Senegal, the opening of new distribution sites, a rebound in the number of distributed HIVST kits, a resurgence in larger group activities, and a rebound in the average number of distributed HIVST kits per primary contact. Conclusions: Although imperfect, the program data provide useful information to describe changes in the implementation of HIVST outreach activities over time. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIVST distribution among key populations was visible in the monthly activity reports. Focus groups and individual interviews allowed us to document the adaptations made by peer educators, with variations across countries and populations. These adaptations demonstrate the resilience and learning capacities of peer educators and key populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoteste , Senegal/epidemiologia
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 642895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336754

RESUMO

In recent decades, computer vision has proven remarkably effective in addressing diverse issues in public health, from determining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases in humans to predicting infectious disease outbreaks. Here, we investigate whether convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can also demonstrate effectiveness in classifying the environmental stages of parasites of public health importance and their invertebrate hosts. We used schistosomiasis as a reference model. Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease transmitted to humans via snail intermediate hosts. The parasite affects more than 200 million people in tropical and subtropical regions. We trained our CNN, a feed-forward neural network, on a limited dataset of 5,500 images of snails and 5,100 images of cercariae obtained from schistosomiasis transmission sites in the Senegal River Basin, a region in western Africa that is hyper-endemic for the disease. The image set included both images of two snail genera that are relevant to schistosomiasis transmission - that is, Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi - as well as snail images that are non-component hosts for human schistosomiasis. Cercariae shed from Bi. pfeifferi and Bulinus spp. snails were classified into 11 categories, of which only two, S. haematobium and S. mansoni, are major etiological agents of human schistosomiasis. The algorithms, trained on 80% of the snail and parasite dataset, achieved 99% and 91% accuracy for snail and parasite classification, respectively, when used on the hold-out validation dataset - a performance comparable to that of experienced parasitologists. The promising results of this proof-of-concept study suggests that this CNN model, and potentially similar replicable models, have the potential to support the classification of snails and parasite of medical importance. In remote field settings where machine learning algorithms can be deployed on cost-effective and widely used mobile devices, such as smartphones, these models can be a valuable complement to laboratory identification by trained technicians. Future efforts must be dedicated to increasing dataset sizes for model training and validation, as well as testing these algorithms in diverse transmission settings and geographies.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , África Ocidental , Animais , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Senegal
18.
Langmuir ; 37(35): 10547-10559, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427446

RESUMO

Adsorption of five different hyperbranched arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) fractions from Acacia senegal gum was thoroughly studied at the solid-liquid interface using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The impact of the protein/sugar ratio, molecular weight, and aggregation state on the adsorption capacity was investigated by studying AGP fractions with different structural and biochemical features. Adsorption on a solid surface would be primarily driven by the protein moiety of the AGPs through hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions. Increasing ionic strength allows the decrease in electrostatic repulsions and, therefore, the formation of high-coverage films with aggregates on the surface. However, the maximum adsorption capacity was not reached by fractions with a higher protein content but by a fraction that contains an average protein quantity and presents a high content of high-molecular-weight AGPs. The results of this thorough study highlighted that the AGP surface adsorption process would depend not only on the protein moiety and high-molecular-weight AGP content but also on other parameters such as the structural accessibility of proteins, the molecular weight distribution, and the AGP flexibility, allowing structural rearrangements on the surface and spreading to form a viscoelastic film.


Assuntos
Acacia , Adsorção , Galactanos , Mucoproteínas , Proteínas de Plantas , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo , Senegal , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254870, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The concept of death is abstract, complex and has a number of meanings. Thus, its understanding and the approach taken to it depend, to a large extent, on aspects such as age, culture, training and religion. Nursing students have regular contact with the process of death and so it is of great interest to understand the attitudes they have towards it. As we live in a plural society it is even more interesting to not only understand the attitudes of Spanish students but, also, those of students coming from other countries. In the present article, we seek to identify and compare the attitudes held by nursing degree students at Hekima-Santé University (Senegal) and the University of Huelva (Spain) about end of life processes. The study identifies elements that condition attitudes and coping with death, whilst considering curricular differences with regards to specific end of life training. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-center study was conducted. The overall sample (N = 142) was divided into groups: Hekima-Santé University (Dakar, Senegal) and the University of Huelva (Huelva, Spain). The measurement instruments used were an ad-hoc questionnaire and Bugen´s Coping with Death Scale. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences (p = 0.005, 95%CI) were found in relation to overall Bugen Scale scores. We can confirm that specialized end of life training (University of Huelva, Spain) did not lead to better coping when compared with a population whose academic curriculum did not provide specific training and who engaged in more religious practices (Hekima-Santé University, Senegal). CONCLUSIONS: In cultures where religion not only influences the spiritual dimension of the individual, but acts in the ethical and moral system and consequently in the economic, educational and family sphere, the accompaniment at the end of life transcends the formative plane. Considering the plural society in which we live, the training that integrates the Degree in Nursing with regard to the care of the final process, must be multidimensional in which spirituality and faith are integrated, working emotional and attentional skills, as well as cultural competence strategies in this process.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cultura , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Morte , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Senegal , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e050090, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rural areas are considered safe havens against the increased spread of COVID-19 and associated restrictive measures, especially in contexts where public authorities are not in a position to systematically and substantially ease COVID-19-induced economic shocks. In the current sub-Saharan Africa context, still marked by uncertainty surrounding the spread of COVID-19, we present the protocol of an ongoing longitudinal study aimed at investigating COVID-19-related attitudes, risks perceptions, preventive behaviours and economic impact in rural areas in Senegal. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective randomised longitudinal study of 600 households located in three semiurban villages and nine randomly selected rural villages in the Niakhar area (located 135 km East of Dakar). Three ad hoc phone surveys are administered to 600 heads of households, their housewives in charge of managing the household and a relative living temporarily in the household, respectively. In addition to sharing identical sets of questions on several topics (risks perceptions, attitudes to curfew, attitudes to vaccines, beliefs about COVID-19 infection), the three separate survey questionnaires also include other topics (economic impact, local preventive strategies) whose related questions differ between questionnaires. As analysing evolutions is the study's primary focus, data on all the topics covered will be collected in three waves unless the spread of COVID-19 by mid-2021 justifies extending data collection. The present article presents the study protocol and details about the implementation of the first wave of data collection which started in July 2020. The decision to wait before presenting the protocol was based on the unprecedented context the COVID-19 pandemic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The survey's protocol was approved by the Senegalese National Ethical Committee for Research in Health (131/MSAS/CNERS/Sec) and received authorisation from both the Senegalese Ministry of Health (619/MSAS/DPRS/DR) and the French Commission on Information Technology and Liberties (CNIL 2220771).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , África ao Sul do Saara , Atitude , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal
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