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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130844, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425338

RESUMO

The sensory perception of food is a dynamic procedure, which is closely related to the released flavor stimuli. Thus, we evaluated the dynamic sensations of fresh and roasted salmon during the chewing process and investigated the tastants released in saliva. For fresh salmon, the fishy, umami, salty, and sweet attributes were perceived successively. Meanwhile, the smoky and fried flavors were the most dominant attributes of roasted salmon at the beginning, then various attributes were perceived. During the chewing process, free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides released in saliva were quantified. Compared to the sensory data, the results demonstrated that glutamic acid and inosine 5'-monophosphate released in saliva might induce the umami perception. The sweet-tasting amino acids alanine and glycine may contribute to sweetness. Therefore, we suggested that the time dimension of tastants dissolved in saliva would affect the dynamic sensation of food, even for complex food materials.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Inosina Monofosfato , Mastigação , Sensação , Paladar
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 803, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the relationship between deqi sensations and curative effect has always been controversial, deqi sensations has been regarded as the key indicator of clinical efficacy of acupuncture therapy. There is little evidence for standardization or visualization of the mechanism of acupuncture's therapeutic effect. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of needling at Zusanli (ST36) on antral contraction function as visualized by ultrasound. METHODS: This is a two-arm, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 116 acupuncture-naïve healthy subjects will be randomly allocated to the acupuncture group or sham acupuncture group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the acupuncture group will receive manual acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) with the needling depth at crural interosseous membrane. Those in the sham acupuncture group will be given penetrating needling depth at the superficial fascia layer. The primary outcome will be the changes in antral contraction frequency (ACF) before and after acupuncture. The secondary outcomes will be the changes in the thermal infrared spectrum of gastric area skin, the antral contraction amplitude (ACA), the antral movement index (AMI), and the scores on the Chinese version of Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (C-MASS). The adverse events will be evaluated and recorded in detail. DISCUSSION: This study may provide visual and objective evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of manual acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36). In addition, the results of this study will help to identify the role of Zusanli (ST36)in the inducing deqi. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000040686 . Registered on 8 December 2020.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sensação , Método Simples-Cego , Ultrassonografia
3.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(6)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817594

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Occupational therapy using an Ayres Sensory Integration® (ASI) approach is a common intervention that has not been extensively studied in children with idiopathic sensory processing and integration challenges (e.g., without a diagnosis of autism). OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of ASI using measures related to motor coordination and functional performance in children with a sensory-based motor disorder (SBMD). DESIGN: Nonconcurrent, multiple baseline, single subject. SETTING: Outpatient clinic that was part of a children's hospital in an urban setting. PARTICIPANTS: Three boys (ages 5-8 yr) with an SBMD. INTERVENTION: Each participant received ASI 3 times per week for 10 wk. Outcomes and Measures: Three motor probes were measured weekly. Pre- and posttest assessments included goal attainment scaling (GAS) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2). RESULTS: All 3 participants showed improvements in motor probes during the intervention period on the basis of a 2 SD band method of analysis. Statistically significant improvements were noted across GAS goals, and positive changes were found on the BOT-2, with large effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Findings suggest improved motor performance and high goal achievement using ASI for children with idiopathic sensory processing and integration challenges. What This Article Adds: This study adds to a body of literature suggesting that ASI is effective in increasing functional performance in children with sensory processing and integration challenges. Future studies using multiple baseline designs are feasible in the clinic setting and can help build the evidence base for ASI.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Percepção , Sensação , Transtornos das Sensações
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 10): 25-29, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to study impulsivity and sensation seeking in medical staff because they might shed light into the effectiveness of decision-making processes and performed responses. The aims of this study were to specify if functional impulsivity prevailed in medical staff compared to dysfunctional impulsivity; how strong the relationships between functional, dysfunctional impulsivity and sensation seeking were; furthermore, it aimed to differentiate functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, according to the size of the place where medical care was practised. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 323 medical workers and 99 medical students filled in Radoslavova and Velichkov's (2005) questionnaire measuring sensation seeking, functional impulsivity and dysfunctional impulsivity. RESULTS: Sensation seeking and functional impulsivity in medical staff did not differ statistically significantly (t(421)=1.171, p=0.242), but functional impulsivity was significantly more intensive than dysfunctional impulsivity among medical personnel (t(421)=8.132, p<0.001). Sensation seeking was significantly more strongly expressed than dysfunctional impulsivity among medical specialists (t(421)=7.388, p<0.001). Correlation analysis revealed that sensation seeking in medical specialists was more strongly related to functional impulsivity than to dysfunctional impulsivity (p<0.001). The studied medical staff practicing in the capital were more prone to functional impulsivity than the medical staff practicing in towns up to 50,000 inhabitants (pTukey=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study to reveal stronger relationships between functional impulsivity and sensation seeking in medical staff than between dysfunctional impulsivity and sensation seeking which were interpreted as an influencing factor of the quality of decision-making responses. Functional impulsivity prevailed over dysfunctional impulsivity in medical occupations, so decision-making in medical care should be more effective and timelier than inappropriate, especially for medical personnel working in the capital.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , Sensação , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1063-8, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the moxibustion sensation and the clinical therapeutic effect of heat-sensitive moxibustion of two different suspension moxibustion methods and imitation moxibustion apparatus on mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and compare the therapeutic effect of different moxibustion methods. METHODS: A total of 90 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomized into a hand-held group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off), an imitation moxibustion apparatus group (30 cases) and a moxibustion shelf group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off). Ashi point, Dubi (ST 35), Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Yinlingquan (SP 9), Liangqiu (ST 34) and Xuehai (SP 10) were selected as the frequent acupoint areas to explore and determine the heat-sensitive acupoints, after that, hand-held suspension moxibustion, suspension moxibustion with imitation moxibustion apparatus and suspension moxibustion with moxibustion shelf were adopted in the 3 groups respectively. The treatment was given once every 2 days, and totally 10-time treatment was required in the 3 groups. The moxibustion sensation (composition of moxibustion sensation, number of moxibustion sensation types in individuals and moxibustion sensation intensity) after each treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, the Lysholms knee function score and the depth of effusion and thickness of synovial hyperplasia of affected knee joint before and after treatment were observed, and the clinical therapeutic efficacy was compared in the 3 groups. RESULTS: The compositions of moxibustion sensation and numbers of moxibustion sensation types in individuals in the hand-held group and the moxibustion shelf group were richer, the moxibustion sensation intensity was higher than that in the imitation moxibustion apparatus group (P<0.01, P<0.05). After treatment, the VAS scores were decreased, the Lysholms knee function scores were increased compared before treatment in the 3 groups (P<0.01); the VAS score in the hand-held group was lower than the imitation moxibustion apparatus group (P<0.05), the Lysholms knee function scores in the hand-held group and the moxibustion shelf group were higher than the imitation moxibustion apparatus group (P<0.05). After treatment, the depth of effusion and thickness of synovial hyperplasia of affected knee joint were decreased compared before treatment in the 3 groups (P<0.01), and those in the hand-held group and the moxibustion shelf group were lower than the imitation moxibustion apparatus group (P<0.05). The cured and markedly effective rate in the hand-held group was 79.3% (23/29), which was better than 36.7% (11/30) in the imitation moxibuation apparatus group and 58.6% (17/29) in the moxibustion shelf group (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Heat-sensitive moxibustion can effectively treat knee osteoarthritis, while the different suspension moxibustion methods have an influence on clinical therapeutic effect, hand-held suspension moxibustion has the best efficacy.


Assuntos
Moxibustão , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Sensação , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613976

RESUMO

Emotional sensations and inferring another's emotional states have been suggested to depend on predictive models of the causes of bodily sensations, so-called interoceptive inferences. In this framework, higher sensibility for interoceptive changes (IS) reflects higher precision of interoceptive signals. The present study examined the link between IS and emotion recognition, testing whether individuals with higher IS recognize others' emotions more easily and are more sensitive to learn from biased probabilities of emotional expressions. We recorded skin conductance responses (SCRs) from forty-six healthy volunteers performing a speeded-response task, which required them to indicate whether a neutral facial expression dynamically turned into a happy or fearful expression. Moreover, varying probabilities of emotional expressions by their block-wise base rate aimed to generate a bias for the more frequently encountered emotion. As a result, we found that individuals with higher IS showed lower thresholds for emotion recognition, reflected in decreased reaction times for emotional expressions especially of high intensity. Moreover, individuals with increased IS benefited more from a biased probability of an emotion, reflected in decreased reaction times for expected emotions. Lastly, weak evidence supporting a differential modulation of SCR by IS as a function of varying probabilities was found. Our results indicate that higher interoceptive sensibility facilitates the recognition of emotional changes and is accompanied by a more precise adaptation to emotion probabilities.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Interocepção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684314

RESUMO

Prolonged exercise in the heat elicits a number of physiological changes as glycogen stores are low and water and electrolytes are lost through sweat. However, it is unclear whether these changes provoke an increase in liking of saltiness and, therefore, palatability of an oral rehydration solution (ORS). Twenty-seven recreationally active participants (n = 13 males; n = 14 females) completed sensory analysis of an ORS, a traditional sports drink (TS), and a flavored water placebo (PL) at rest and during 60 min (3 × 20-min bouts) of cycling exercise at 70% age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) at 35.3 ± 1.4 °C and 41 ± 6% relative humidity. Before and after every 20 min of exercise, drinks were rated (using 20-mL beverage samples) based on liking of sweetness, liking of saltiness, thirst-quenching ability, and overall liking on a nine-point hedonic scale. Hydration status was assessed by changes in semi-nude body mass, saliva osmolality (SOsm), and saliva total protein concentration (SPC). After 60 min of exercise, participants lost 1.36 ± 0.39% (mean ± SD) of body mass and there were increases in SOsm and SPC. At all time points, liking of sweetness, saltiness, thirst-quenching ability, and overall liking was higher for the TS and PL compared to the ORS (p < 0.05). However, the saltiness liking and thirst-quenching ability of the ORS increased after 60 min of exercise compared to before exercise (p < 0.05). There was also a change in predictors of overall liking with pre-exercise ratings mostly determined by liking of sweetness, saltiness, and thirst-quenching ability (p < 0.001), whereas only liking of saltiness predicted overall liking post-exercise (R2 = 0.751; p < 0.001). There appears to be a hedonic shift during exercise in which the perception of saltiness becomes the most important predictor of overall liking. This finding supports the potential use of an ORS as a valuable means of hydration during the latter stages of prolonged and/or intense exercise in the heat.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Percepção , Soluções para Reidratação/administração & dosagem , Soluções para Reidratação/farmacologia , Sensação , Administração Oral , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/fisiologia , Sede/efeitos dos fármacos , Sede/fisiologia
10.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110660, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600662

RESUMO

A cross-modal interaction may exist between the perception of saltiness and the pungency elicited by Sichuan pepper oleoresin (Spo). Thirty-one hypersensitive panelists were selected to participate in this study. Spo solutions dissolved in different NaCl concentrations, ranging from 1.25 g/L to 167.9 g/L, were used as the test samples. The rated difference from control, the generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS), and the time-intensity (TI) method were used to determine the detection threshold (DT), the recognition threshold (RT), the intensity, and the dynamic perception of pungent sensation. The results revealed that the pungency thresholds increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the solution with a high NaCl (167.9 g/L) concentration. Furthermore, high NaCl solutions suppressed the pungency intensity at all Spo concentrations except for 0.02 g Spo/L in water (p < 0.05). The TI and principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that an increase in the Spo concentration prolonged the duration of the pungency sensation. However, the maximum intensity, the time to reach maximum intensity, the decay time of perception, and the end time of perception of the Spo solutions ranging from 2.13 g/L to 4.69 g/L were significantly reduced at medium (42.95 g/L) and high NaCl concentrations. Since the salty and pungency sensations exhibited by NaCl and Spo are common flavor combinations in food products and dishes, studying the influence of saltiness on the dynamic perception of pungent sensation not only aids the development of oral cleaners during pungency evaluation but also presents significant theoretical and practical value in creating pungent food and cuisine based on consumer preferences.


Assuntos
Sensação , Cloreto de Sódio , Percepção , Extratos Vegetais , Verduras
11.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500632

RESUMO

In the Valpolicella area (Verona, Italy) Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina is the main grape variety used to produce Amarone wine. Before starting the winemaking process, the Corvina grapes are stored in a withering (i.e., dehydrating) warehouse until about 30% of the berry weight is lost (WL). This practice is performed to concentrate the metabolites in the berry and enrich the Amarone wine in aroma and antioxidant compounds. In compliance with the guidelines and strict Amarone protocol set by the Consorzio of Amarone Valpolicella, withering must be carried out by setting the grapes in a suitable environment, either under controlled relative air humidity (RH) conditions and wind speed (WS)-no temperature modification is to be applied-or, following the traditional methods, in non-controlled environmental conditions. In general, the two processes have different dehydration kinetics due to the different conditions in terms of temperature, RH, and WS, which affect the accumulation of sugars and organic acids and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as stilbenes and glycoside aroma precursors. For this study, the two grape-withering processes were carried out under controlled (C) and non-controlled (NC) conditions, and the final compositions of the Corvina dried grapes were compared also to evaluate the effects on the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine. The findings highlighted differences between the two processes mainly in terms of the secondary metabolites of the dried grapes, which affect the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine. Indeed, by the sensory evaluation, wines produced by adopting the NC process were found more harmonious, elegant, and balanced. Finally, we can state how using a traditional system, grapes were characterised by higher levels of VOCs (volatile compounds), whilst wines had a higher and appreciable complexity and finesse.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes , Sensação/fisiologia , Estilbenos/química , Vinho
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521167

RESUMO

Objective: To study the oropharyngeal sensory function by Current Perception Threshold(CPT) detection, to explore the detection method of oropharyngeal sensory function in normal population, and to analyze the possible influencing factors. Methods: Fifty-eight normal subjects were included prospectively in this study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI) were collected. The age of the subjects ranged from 20 to 76 (43.27±13.52) years old. There were 34 females with 17 in childbearing period and 17 in menopause; and 24 males were included.In all the cases, 6 cases were in low BMI, 39 cases were in normal BMI, 10 cases were overweight and 3 cases were suffering from obesity. The CPT system of Neurometer was used to stimulate bilateral palatoglossal arch and tongue base.The current used was 2000 Hz, 250 Hz and 5 Hz respectively.The function of type Aß, Aδ and C sensory nerve fibers were tested and the CPT values were recorded.The values were inversely proportional to pharyngeal sensation function.To evaluate the oropharyngeal sensory function of the subjects, the CPT values of each frequency at each testing point were compared. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The CPT value of palatoglossal arch was significantly lower than that of tongue base (t=-2.58,-2.65,-2.54,-2.47,-2.37,-2.77,P<0.05), 2 000 Hz>250 Hz>5 Hz, and there was no significant difference between left and right sides(t=-0.03,-0.51,-0.49,0.06,-0.16,0.13,P>0.05). The CPT value of male was slightly higher than that of female (t=0.92,1.55,0.27,0.78,1.44,1.26,0.35,0.77,1.27,0.24,0.78,0.96,P>0.05). The CPT values of women in childbearing period were significantly less than those in menopausal women (t=-3.90,-3.64,-2.14,-4.20,-4.28,-4.28,-3.52,-4.46,-3.41,-3.63,-4.66,-2.86,P<0.05). The CPT value increased with age, and the values of all frequency of 20 to 30 years old group was significantly lower than those of subjects over 40 years old at each point (The t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 2 000 Hz were -5.57,-6.22,-10.18,-11.00;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 250 Hz were -6.39,-8.79,-6.39,-15.61;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 5 Hz were -7.09, -5.57, -9.26, -15.23;the t values of tongue base at 2 000 Hz were -3.11,-3.88,-7.60,-8.55;the t values of tongue base at 250 Hz were -6.31,-10.59,-8.52,-10.60;the t values of tongue baseat 5 Hz were -6.69,-5.09,-8.70,-7.07,P<0.05).The values at all frequencies and testing points of 30-40 years old group were significantly lower than those of all subjects over 60 years old (The t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 2 000 Hz were -10.91,-12.42;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 250 Hz were -6.25,-10.87;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 5 Hz were -5.53,-11.01;the t values of tongue base at 2 000 Hz were -8.62,-10.12;the t values of tongue base at 250 Hz were -6.89,-7.82;the t values of tongue base at 5 Hz were -6.13,-6.48,P<0.05). Conclusions: CPT can be used to evaluate oropharyngeal sensory function. The sensitivity of tongue base is lower than that of palatoglossal arch, there is no significant difference in oropharyngeal sensory function between male and female,between left and right sides. There are many factors influencing oropharyngeal sensory function. Age, hormone level changes may affect the sensitivity of oropharyngeal sensory function.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas , Sensação , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5230, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471129

RESUMO

The role of transcription factors during astrocyte development and their subsequent effects on neuronal development has been well studied. Less is known about astrocytes contributions towards circuits and behavior in the adult brain. Astrocytes play important roles in synaptic development and modulation, however their contributions towards neuronal sensory function and maintenance of neuronal circuit architecture remain unclear. Here, we show that loss of the transcription factor Sox9 results in both anatomical and functional changes in adult mouse olfactory bulb (OB) astrocytes, affecting sensory processing. Indeed, astrocyte-specific deletion of Sox9 in the OB results in decreased odor detection thresholds and discrimination and it is associated with aberrant neuronal sensory response maps. At functional level, loss of astrocytic Sox9 impairs the electrophysiological properties of mitral and tufted neurons. RNA-sequencing analysis reveals widespread changes in the gene expression profiles of OB astrocytes. In particular, we observe reduced GLT-1 expression and consequential alterations in glutamate transport. Our findings reveal that astrocytes are required for physiological sensory processing and we identify astrocytic Sox9 as an essential transcriptional regulator of mature astrocyte function in the mouse OB.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Sensação/fisiologia , Animais , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577482

RESUMO

Herein, we describe the Virtually Enhanced Senses (VES) system, a novel and highly configurable wireless sensor-actuator network conceived as a development and test-bench platform of navigation systems adapted for blind and visually impaired people. It allows to immerse its users into "walkable" purely virtual or mixed environments with simulated sensors and validate navigation system designs prior to prototype development. The haptic, acoustic, and proprioceptive feedback supports state-of-art sensory substitution devices (SSD). In this regard, three SSD were integrated in VES as examples, including the well-known "The vOICe". Additionally, the data throughput, latency and packet loss of the wireless communication can be controlled to observe its impact in the provided spatial knowledge and resulting mobility and orientation performance. Finally, the system has been validated by testing a combination of two previous visual-acoustic and visual-haptic sensory substitution schemas with 23 normal-sighted subjects. The recorded data includes the output of a "gaze-tracking" utility adapted for SSD.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Cegueira , Humanos , Sensação
15.
J Exp Biol ; 224(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477876

RESUMO

Sensitivity to magnetic fields is dependent on the intensity and color of light in several animal species. The light-dependent magnetoreception working model points to cryptochrome (Cry) as a protein cooperating with its co-factor flavin, which possibly becomes magnetically susceptible upon excitation by light. The type of Cry involved and what pair of magnetosensitive radicals are responsible is still elusive. Therefore, we developed a conditioning assay for the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus, an insect species that possesses only the mammalian cryptochrome (Cry II). Here, using the engineered Cry II null mutant, we show that: (i) vertebrate-like Cry II is an essential component of the magnetoreception response, and (ii) magnetic conditioning continues even after 25 h in darkness. The light-dependent and dark-persisting magnetoreception based on Cry II may inspire new perspectives in magnetoreception and cryptochrome research.


Assuntos
Criptocromos , Campos Magnéticos , Animais , Criptocromos/genética , Escuridão , Insetos , Sensação
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food Sensations for Adults, funded by the Western Australian Department of Health, is a four-week nutrition education program focused on food literacy, with demonstrated success amongst Western Australians. In the last two years, 25% of programs have been in regional and remote areas and therefore the aim of this research is to explore the impact of the program in regional areas. METHODS: Participants answered validated pre- and post-questionnaires to assess change in food literacy behaviours (2016-2018). RESULTS: Regional participants (n = 451) were more likely to live in low income areas, have lower education levels, and identify as Aboriginal, than metropolitan participants (n = 1398). Regional participants had statistically significantly higher food literacy behaviours in the plan and manage and preparation domains, and lower selection behaviours at baseline than metropolitan participants. Post program, regional participants showed matched improvements with metropolitan participants in the plan and manage, and preparation domains. Food selection behaviour results increased in both groups but were significantly higher in regional participants. CONCLUSIONS: The program demonstrates effective behaviour change in all participants; however, the increased disadvantage experienced by people residing outside of major cities highlights the need for additional government support in addressing regional specific barriers, such as higher food costs, to ensure participants gain maximum benefit from future food literacy programs.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Austrália , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Sensação , Austrália Ocidental
17.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(5): 525-536, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472888

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions play an important role in alcohol use. Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence alcohol use outcomes is critical for identifying modifiable targets and developing prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we examined the role of sensation seeking and social support from family and friends in linking genetic risk to alcohol use. We also examined the role of social support in moderating the associations between genetic risk and sensation seeking and alcohol use. Data were drawn from a sample of 2,836 European American adults from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (46% male, mean age = 35.65, standard deviation [SD] = 10.78). Results from path analysis indicated that genome-wide polygenic scores for alcohol consumption (alc-GPS) were associated with higher sensation seeking, which in turn was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. alc-GPS was also associated with higher alcohol use indirectly via lower levels of family support. In addition, high friend support attenuated the association between alc-GPS and sensation seeking and alcohol use. The pattern of associations was similar for males and females, with some differences in the associations between social support and alcohol use observed across age. Our findings highlight the important role of intermediate phenotypes and gene-environment interplay in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex alcohol use outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Sensação , Apoio Social
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478466

RESUMO

Self-reporting of pain can be difficult in populations with communication challenges or atypical sensory processing, such as children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Consequently, pain can go untreated. An objective method to identify discomfort would be valuable to individuals unable to express or recognize their own bodily distress. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a brain-imaging modality that is suited for this application. We evaluated the potential of detecting a cortical response to discomfort in the ASD population using NIRS. Using a continuous-wave spectrometer, prefrontal and parietal measures were collected from 15 males with ASD and 7 typically developing (TD) males 10-15 years of age. Participants were exposed to a noxious cold stimulus by immersing their hands in cold water and tepid water as a baseline task. Across all participants, the magnitude and timing of the cold and tepid water-induced brain responses were significantly different (p < 0.001). The effect of the task on the brain response depended on the study group (group x task: p < 0.001), with the ASD group exhibiting a blunted response to the cold stimulus. Findings suggest that NIRS may serve as a tool for objective pain assessment and atypical sensory processing.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensação/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17826, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497303

RESUMO

Sensation seeking is a multidimensional phenotype that predicts the development of drug addiction in humans and addiction-like drug seeking in rodents. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic stress increases sensation seeking and addiction-like drug seeking through common genetic mechanisms. Discovery and characterization of these mechanisms would reveal how chronic stress interacts with the genome to influence sensation seeking and how drugs of abuse hijack these fundamental reward mechanisms to drive addiction. To this end, we tested the hypothesis that chronic isolation housing stress (relative to environmental enrichment) influences operant sensation seeking as a function of strain, sex, or their interaction. To determine if the BXD recombinant inbred panel could be used to identify genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying any identified gene-by-environment interactions, we used mice from the two BXD founder strains. Following 10 weeks of differential housing, we assessed operant sensation seeking using several reinforcement schedules. The primary finding from this study was that DBA/2J but not C57BL/6J mice were significantly vulnerable to an isolation-induced increase (relative to environmental enrichment) in sensation seeking during extinction when the sensory reward was no longer available; this effect was significantly more robust in females. These data reveal a previously unknown isolation-induced effect on extinction of operant sensation seeking that is sex-dependent, addiction-relevant, and that can be dissected using the BXD recombinant inbred panel.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Recompensa , Sensação/fisiologia , Animais , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
20.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110493, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399489

RESUMO

Pungency is increasingly being recognized as an important factor of overall sensory quality, palatability, and consumer preference of distilled spirits. The characterization of pungency is necessary to evaluate the potential sensory quality of distilled spirits. In this study, the temporal profiles of pungency of Baijiu with different aging times were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) methods, considering both pungency intensity and pungency sub-qualities. TI results indicated significant differences in release rate of pungency during Baijiu consumption. Compared to young Baijiu, old Baijiu tend to show higher release rate of pungency, the areas under the curve and duration of pungency were significantly decreased in old Baijiu. The TDS results showed significant differences in the combination of dominant sub-qualities, as well as in the maximum dominance rates and the dominant duration of sub-qualities among Baijiu. The young Baijiu were mainly characterized by the dominant sub-qualities of "burning" and "numbing", whereas for old Baijiu, "burning", "prickle", and "drying" were dominant. The application of TI and TDS provided dynamic and temporal profiles of pungency to fully characterize pungency differences of distilled beverages.


Assuntos
Sensação , Paladar , Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor
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