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2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249084, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physician encounters with patients with type 2 diabetes act as motivation for self-management and lifestyle adjustments that are indispensable for diabetes treatment. We elucidate the sociodemographic sources of variation in encounter usage and the impact of encounter usage on glucose control, which can be used to recommend encounter usage for different sociodemographic strata of patients to reduce risks from Type 2 diabetes. DATA AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a multi-facility clinic in the Midwestern United States on 2124 patients with type 2 diabetes, from 95 ZIP codes. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to estimate the effects of various ZIP-code level sociodemographic variables on the encounter usage. A multinomial logistic regression model was built to estimate the effects of physical and telephonic encounters on patients' glucose level transitions. Results from the two models were combined in marginal effect analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conditional on patients' clinical status, demographics, and insurance status, significant inequality in patient encounters exists across ZIP codes with varying sociodemographic characteristics. One additional physical encounter in a six-month period marginally increases the probability of transition from a diabetic state to a pre-diabetic state by 4.3% and from pre-diabetic to the non-diabetic state by 3.2%. Combined marginal effect analyses illustrate that a ZIP code in the lower quartile of high school graduate percentage among all ZIP codes has 1 fewer physical encounter per six months marginally compared to a ZIP code at the upper quartile, which gives 5.4% average increase in the probability of transitioning from pre-diabetic to diabetic. Our results suggest that policymakers can target particular patient groups who may have inadequate encounters to engage in diabetes care, based on their immediate environmental sociodemographic characteristics, and design programs to increase their encounters to achieve better care outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 32: e218781, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1135949

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivou-se analisar o cenário de produção de sentidos em um grupo reflexivo para homens autores de violência conjugal: posicionamentos, dificuldades e efeitos que o grupo suscita em seus diferentes atores - homens e facilitadoras. Para tanto, foi realizada observação participante durante 10 sessões, com registros em diário de campo. A posteriori realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas com dois integrantes do grupo e as profissionais condutoras. De modo geral, o grupo demonstrou ser um ambiente propício de produção, circulação e atualização de repertórios discursivos sobre o fenômeno da violência de gênero. No entanto, estes deslocamentos discursivos não acontecem de forma homogênea, tampouco sem dificuldades e tensões. O campo e os dados das entrevistas revelaram dificuldades provenientes de diferentes ordens: tanto operacional/metodológicas, institucional/burocráticas, mas, sobretudo, acerca do vínculo profissionais/homens por este se sustentar por um frágil "acordo judicial".


Resumen El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar el escenario de producción de significados en un grupo reflexivo de hombres autores de violencia conyugal: posiciones, dificultades y efectos que tiene el grupo sobre sus diferentes actores - hombres y facilitadores. Para eso, se realizó observación participante durante 10 sesiones, con registro en un diario de campo. Posteriormente, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con dos miembros del grupo y los profesionales directores. En general, el grupo resultó ser un entorno propicio para la producción, circulación y actualización de repertorios discursivos sobre el fenómeno de la violencia de género. Sin embargo, estos desplazamientos discursivos no ocurren de manera homogénea, tampoco sin dificultades y tensiones. El campo y los datos de las entrevistas revelaron dificultades derivadas de diferentes órdenes: tanto operacional/metodológico, institucional/burocrático, pero, sobre todo, acerca del vínculo profesional/masculino porque se sustenta en un frágil "acuerdo judicial".


Abstract This article aimed to analyze the scenario of production of meanings in a reflexive group for men who committed conjugal violence: the positioning, difficulties and effects the group has in its different actors - men and facilitators. For this, 10 sessions of participative observation were made, being reported on a field journal, as well as semi-structured interviews with two group members and the conductive professionals. Generally, the group has shown itself to be propitious for the production, circulation and update of discursive repertoires on the gender violence phenomena. However, these discursive movements do not happen in a homogeneous form, nor without struggles and tensions. The fieldwork and the data from the interview revealed difficulties of different orders: operational/methodological, institutional/bureaucratic, but, above all, on the professional/men bond as it is sustained by a fragile "judicial agreement".


Assuntos
Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Agressão/psicologia , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Homens/psicologia , Controle Social Formal , Dissidências e Disputas , Relações Interpessoais
4.
Enferm. nefrol ; 22(3): 293-299, jul.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187886

RESUMO

Introducción: La Poliquistosis Renal Autosómica Dominante es una enfermedad renal crónica responsable del 10% de los casos de insuficiencia renal terminal. La participación y los grupos de apoyo entre iguales son herramientas que mejoran el bienestar, evitando complicaciones y retrasando el avance de la enfermedad. Objetivos: Detectar necesidades informativas, así como recursos de apoyo, en este grupo de pacientes mediante la puesta en marcha de una Escuela de Pacientes con poliquistosis renal autosómica dominante. Material y Método: Se utilizó un diseño mixto (cuantitativo y cualitativo). El estudio se desarrolló mediante cuatro fases: 1) Grupo focal: pacientes con poliquistosis renal y sus cuidadores; 2) Selección de los pacientes expertos; 3) Elaboración de los contenidos del programa de la Escuela de pacientes con poliquitstosis renal autosómica dominante; 4) Pilotaje del programa. Resultados: Se detectaron necesidades de información referentes al tratamiento oral y al afrontamiento de la poliquistosis renal que no están cubiertas por los equipos de nefrología. Conclusiones: La Escuela de Pacientes ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para detectar necesidades y recursos en pacientes con poliquistosis renal autosómica dominante que han de enfrentarse a una enfermedad crónica donde se requiere la participación del paciente para garantizar la adhesión al tratamiento


Introduction: Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease is a chronic kidney disease responsible for 10% of cases of end-stage renal failure. Participation and peer support groups are tools that improve well-being, avoiding complications and delaying disease progression. Objectives: To detect information needs, as well as support resources, in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease trough a Patient School. Material and Method: A mixed design (quantitative and qualitative) was used. The study was developed through four phases: 1) Focus group: patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and their caregivers; 2) Selection of expert patients; 3) Preparation of the contents of the program of the Patient School with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; 4) Piloting the program. Results: Information needs regarding oral treatment and coping with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were detected, which are not covered by nephrology teams. Conclusions: Patients School has proven to be a useful tool to detect needs and resources in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who have to face a chronic disease where patient participation is required to ensure adherence to treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Autogestão/educação , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/enfermagem , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização/organização & administração , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/organização & administração
5.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 25(2): 857-873, ago. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1279581

RESUMO

Este artigo buscou analisar, com base no conceito de sofrimento éticopolítico, cunhado por Sawaia, se e de que modo a prática grupal possibilitou o aumento da potência da força de existir de jovens e a promoção da saúde ético-política. O trabalho foi realizado com jovens que se inscreveram para atendimento psicológico em uma clínica-escola de uma universidade no interior do Estado de Minas Gerais. Em dez encontros foi possível perceber as afetações dos jovens em relação aos aspectos que permeiam suas vidas e como estes aumentam, diminuem, favorecem ou refratam suas potências de existir. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam que a prática grupal aumenta a potência de ação de jovens ao promover identificações, espaço de escuta e questionamentos. Além disso, configurou-se como espaço para os afetos e para a (res)significação das experiências, bem como para a constituição de relações que se estenderam para além daquele dos encontros.


This article aimed to analyze, based on the concept of ethical-political suffering, coined by Sawaia, whether and how group practice enabled the increase of potency of young people’s existence and the promotion of ethicalpolitical health. The study was carried out with youths who enrolled for psychological assistance in a clinical school of a university in the hinterland of Minas Gerais State. After ten reunions, it was possible to perceive the youths’ feelings related to the aspects that permeate their lives and how these aspects increase, decrease, favor or hamper their power to exist. The research results show that group practice increases young people’s potential to act when developing identifications, space to be listened and to utter questions. Furthermore, it turned out to be structured as a space for affections and for the (re)signification of experiences, as well as for the constitution of relationships that extended beyond those reunions.


Este artículo tuvo como objetivo analizar, basado en el concepto de sufrimiento ético-político, acuñado por Sawaia, si y cómo la práctica grupal permitió el aumento de la potencia de existencia de los jóvenes y la promoción de la salud ético-política. El estudio fue realizado con jóvenes que se inscribieron para recibir asistencia psicológica en una clínica-escuela de una universidad en el interior de Minas Gerais. En diez encuentros fue posible percibir las afectaciones de los jóvenes en relación a los aspectos que marcan sus vidas y cómo estos aspectos aumentan, disminuyen, favorecen o refractan sus potencias para existir. Los resultados de la investigación muestran que la práctica grupal aumenta el potencial de acción de los jóvenes al promover identificaciones, espacios de escucha y cuestionamientos. Además, se configuró como un espacio para los afectos y para el (re) significado de las experiencias, así como para la constitución de relaciones que se extendían más allá de los encuentros.


Assuntos
Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde
6.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(5): 817-841, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of encounter patient decision aids (PDAs) as evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and conduct a narrative synthesis of non-randomized studies assessing feasibility, utility and their integration into clinical workflows. METHODS: Databases were systematically searched for RCTs of encounter PDAs to enable the conduct of a meta-analysis. We used a framework analysis approach to conduct a narrative synthesis of non-randomized studies. RESULTS: We included 23 RCTs and 30 non-randomized studies. Encounter PDAs significantly increased knowledge (SMD = 0.42; 95% CI 0.30, 0.55), lowered decisional conflict (SMD= -0.33; 95% CI -0.56, -0.09), increased observational-based assessment of shared decision making (SMD = 0.94; 95% CI 0.40, 1.48) and satisfaction with the decision-making process (OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.19, 2.66) without increasing visit durations (SMD= -0.06; 95% CI -0.29, 0.16). The narrative synthesis showed that encounter tools have high utility for patients and clinicians, yet important barriers to implementation exist (i.e. time constraints) at the clinical and organizational level. CONCLUSION: Encounter PDAs have a positive impact on patient-clinician collaboration, despite facing implementation barriers. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The potential utility of encounter PDAs requires addressing the systemic and structural barriers that prevent adoption in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Participação do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Satisfação Pessoal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(3): 384-399, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302577

RESUMO

Low-intensity parenting groups, such as the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Discussion Groups, appear to be a cost-effective intervention for child conduct problems. Several studies evaluating a Triple P Discussion Group on disobedience found promising results for improving child and parent outcomes. However, a sufficient exemplar training approach that incorporates generalization promotion strategies may assist parents to more flexibly apply positive parenting principles to a broader range of child target behaviors and settings, leading to greater change. We compared the effects of sufficient exemplar training to an existing narrowly focused low-intensity intervention. Participants were 78 families with a 5-8 year-old child. Sufficient exemplar training resulted in more robust changes in child behavior and superior outcomes for mothers on measures of parenting behavior, parenting self-efficacy, mental health, and perceptions of partner support at post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. These results indicate that teaching sufficient exemplars may promote generalization leading to enhanced intervention outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde da Família/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Autoeficácia
8.
Rev. psicoanál. (Madr.) ; 34(85): 47-62, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189809

RESUMO

El autor examina aspectos formales de la formación psicoanalítica que provienen de fomentar o inhibir la creatividad en el trabajo de los candidatos. Cita treinta características de los institutos psicoanalíticos que inhiben la creatividad de los candidatos en su trabajo y que, indirectamente, arrojan luz sobre problemas de la formación psicoanalítica que requieren nuestra atención. Tales características incluyen el hacer, sistemáticamente, más lento el progreso institucional de los candidatos; la enseñanza repetitiva e incuestionable de los artículos clave de Freud; tendencias monolíticas en cuanto a los enfoques teóricos; aislamiento de los candidatos respecto de las actividades profesionales y científicas de la sociedad psicoanalítica; incremento de las relaciones jerárquicas entre los docentes del psicoanálisis; rituales de graduación; desánimo de contribuciones originales por parte de los candidatos; aislamiento intelectual de los institutos; falta de presentación de trabajos clínicos por los miembros docentes de más experiencia; descuido del estudio de las controversias relativas a la técnica psicoanalítica; características «paranoiagénicas » de la relación entre docentes respecto de los requisitos exigidos a los candidatos; el sistema «convoy» (de superprotección); descuido del estudio de los límites científicos y culturales y de las aplicaciones del psicoanálisis y efectos de los conflictos institucionales sobre la admisión de analistas en formación


The author examines formal aspects of psychoanalytic training relevant to the fostering or inhibiting of creativity in the work of candidates. He refers to thirty features of psychoanalytic institutes that inhibit candidates' creativity and, by implication, illustrate problems in psychoanalytic education that require our attention. These features include systematic slowing clown of institutional progression of candidates, repetitive and unquestioning teaching of key papers by Freud, monolithic tendencies regarding theoretical approaches, isolation of candidates from the professional and scientific activities of the psychoanalytic society, accentuation of the hieratical relations among the psychoanalytic faculty, graduation rituals, discouragement of original contributions by candidates, intellectual isolation of institutes, lack of full presentation of clinical work by senior members of the faculty, neglect of studies of controversies regarding psychoanalytic technique, "paranoiagenic" features of the relationship among faculty and rega.rding requirements far candidates, the "convoy" system, neglect of explorat1on of the sc1ent1fic and cultural boundaries and applications of psychoanalysis and the eff ects of institutional conflicts around the appointment of training analysts


L' auteur examine des aspects formels de la formation psychanalytique venant a promouvoir ou inhiber la créativité dans le travail des candidats. Il cite trente caractéristiques des instituts psychanalytiques qui inhibent la créativité des candidats dans leur travail et qui, indirectement, mettent l' accent sur les problemes de la formation psychanalytique qui exigent notre attention. Ce sont des caractéristiques telles que rendre, systématiquement, plus lent le processus institutionnel des candidats; l' enseigne~e?t répétitif et indiscutable des articles dé de Freud; des tendances monohth1ques en ce qui concerne les approches théoriques; l'isolement des candidats concernant les activités professionnelles et scientifiques de la Société Psychanalytique; l' augmentation des relations hiérarchiques entre les enseignant.s de la psychanalyse; rites de remise de diplomes; découragement de contnbutions originales de la part des candidats; isolement intellectuel des instituts; manque de présentations de travaux cliniques par les Membres enseignants plus expérimentés; négligence de l' étude des différends relatifs a la technique psychanalytique; caractéristiques «parano'iagéniques» de la relation entre les enseignants concernant les requis exigés aux candidats; le systeme «conboy» (de surprotection); négligence de l' étude des limites scientifiques et culturelles et des applications de la psychanalyse; et effets des conflits institutionnels sur l' admission des analystes en formation


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicanálise/educação , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Teoria Psicanalítica , Terapia Psicanalítica/educação , Transferência de Experiência/classificação , Criatividade , Aptidão/classificação , Comportamento Paranoide/psicologia , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização/classificação , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/classificação , Critérios de Admissão Escolar
9.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 31: e179960, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040904

RESUMO

RESUMO Este estudo busca caracterizar homens autores de violência contra mulheres (HAV) que participaram de Grupos Reflexivos (GR) do Núcleo Especializado de Atendimento ao Homem ao Autor de Violência Doméstica e Familiar (NEAH) em Belém-PA, com destaque para a reincidência e a percepção dos HAV sobre os GR. Trata-se de um estudo documental, com registros feitos entre 2012 e 2015. Entre os resultados, verificou-se que 33,8% desses homens (n=24) não haviam completado o Ensino Fundamental, 58,8% (n=40) eram usuários de álcool e 54,8% (n=40) conviviam com a mulher no momento da agressão. Ademais, 61,2% (n=41) deles foram processados por violência física contra a mulher, mas apenas 1,3% (n=1) reincidiram nesta forma de agressão após a participação no GR. Estes foram descritos como um mecanismo acessível na prevenção da violência, pois proporciona cuidado, aprendizado e reflexão, porém, demanda por maiores pesquisas e investimentos que se aproximem de outras políticas sociais a fim de construir uma rede sólida de reformulação das relações sociais de gênero.


RESUMEN Este estudio busca caracterizar a hombres autores de violencia contra mujeres (HAV) y su participación en Grupos Reflexivos (GR) del Núcleo Especializado de Atendimento ao Homem ao Autor de Violência Doméstica e Familiar (NEAH) en Belém-PA, con destaque para la reincidencia y la percepción de los HAV sobre los GR. Se trata de un estudio documental con registros realizados entre 2012 y 2015. Entre los resultados, se verificó que el 33,8% de esos hombres (n = 24) no habían completado la Enseñanza Fundamental, el 58,8% (n = 40) eran usuarios de alcohol y el 54,8% (n = 40) residían con la mujer en el momento de la agresión. Además, 61,2% (n = 41) de ellos fueron procesados por violencia física contra la mujer, pero sólo el 1,3% (n = 1) reincidieron en esta forma de agresión después de la participación en Grupos Reflexivos. Estos fueron descritos como un mecanismo accesible en la prevención de la violencia, pues proporciona cuidado, aprendizaje y reflexión, pero demanda mayores investigaciones e inversiones que se aproximen a otras políticas sociales a fin de construir una red sólida de reformulación de las relaciones sociales de género.


ABSTRACT This study seeks to characterize men who were perpetrators of violence against women (HAV) and their participation in Reflexive Groups (GR) of the Nucleus X in Belém-PA, Brazil, highlighting the recidivism and the perception of HAV about GR. This is a documentary study with records made between 2012 and 2015. Among the results, 33.8% of these men (n = 24) did not complete Elementary School, 58.8% (n = 40) were alcohol users, 54.8% (n = 40) lived with the woman at the time of the aggression. In addition, 61.2% (n = 41) were prosecuted for physical violence against women, but only 1.3% (n = 1) relapsed in this form of aggression after participating in the GR. These have been described as an accessible mechanism in the prevention of violence that provides care, learning and reflection, demand for more research and investments that approach other social politics in order to build a solid network of reformulation of social relations of gender.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Violência contra a Mulher , Comportamento Criminoso , Reincidência/psicologia , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Relações Interpessoais
10.
Rev. Costarric. psicol ; 37(2): 163-186, jul.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1091949

RESUMO

Resumen En las últimas décadas ha aumentado el número de publicaciones sobre programas de entrenamiento socioemocional y se consideran como factores protectores que facilitan la adaptación de la persona al contexto y favorecen un mejor afrontamiento ante diferentes situaciones de la vida, así como ante situaciones de estrés. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar una revisión sistemática de programas de entrenamiento socioemocional realizados en niños y adolescentes con el fin de seleccionar los más apropiados. El proceso de búsqueda se efectuó a partir de las bases de datos: PsycInfo, MedLine, ERIC, Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y El Caribe, Scielo, PUBMED, con palabras claves en inglés y español. Los resultados muestran que, de los 19 artículos que fueron seleccionados por cumplir con los criterios, se identificaron 17 programas de entrenamiento, la mayoría realizados en España y en el período 2011-2015. Los objetivos fueron, en mayor medida, destinados a entrenar la inteligencia emocional, seguido por los entrenamientos mixtos y en menor medida los destinados a entrenar las habilidades sociales. Se identificaron las técnicas empleadas en estos programas, la duración promedio de las intervenciones, la modalidad de aplicación, los administradores y los destinatarios. Por último, del total de los estudios analizados, la mayoría evidencia efectividad del entrenamiento para algunas de las variables analizadas. La evidencia presentada puede ser de utilidad para investigadores y profesionales del área de la salud y la educación que trabajen con niños y adolescentes.


Abstract: In recent decades the number of publications on social-emotional training programs has increased, achieving consideration as protective factors that facilitate the adaptation of the individual to their context and allow better coping with different life situations, as well as of stressful situations. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of social-emotional training programs in children and adolescents in order to select the most appropriate ones. The search process was carried out in the following databases: PsycInfo, MedLine, ERIC, Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, Scielo, PUBMED, with key words in English and Spanish and certain inclusion criteria. The results showed that of the 19 articles that were selected because they met the criteria, 17 training programs were identified, most of them carried out in Spain during the 2011-2015 period. The objectives of these training programs were to a greater extent, adapted to emotional intelligence, followed to a lesser extent by mixed training. The techniques used in these programs were identified, together with the duration of the interventions, the mode of application, the administrators and the recipients. Finally, of the total studies analyzed, most evidenced the effectiveness of training for some of the variables analyzed. The evidence presented may be useful for researchers and professionals in the area of health and education who work with children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Social , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais , Inteligência Emocional , Habilidades Sociais , Regulação Emocional , Argentina , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização
11.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e022522, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of disclosure to and testing of contacts of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Zambia. DESIGN: We used a convergent parallel mixed-method research design including a quantitative survey and focus group discussions with patients with HBV. SETTING: A university hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: 79 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, HIV-negative, adults (18+ years) receiving HBV care completed a quantitative survey and 32 also participated in a focus group discussion. OUTCOMES AND ANALYSIS: Contacts of patients with HBV were enumerated and patient-reported disclosure, contact testing and contact HBV test results were used to develop a testing cascade. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified factors associated with disclosure of HBV status. In focus groups, we explored how index patient knowledge and awareness of their condition shaped perspectives on contact disclosure and testing. Focus groups coding and analysis followed a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Among 79 patients with HBV (median age 35 years; 26.6% women), the majority reported disclosure to ≥1 contact. According to the index patients' knowledge, of 776 contacts enumerated, 326 (42.1%) were disclosed to, 77 (9.9%) were tested, 67 (8.6%) received results and 8 (11.9%) were HBsAg-positive. Increased stigma score was associated with reduced disclosure. In focus groups, HBV awareness, knowledge and stigma emerged as barriers to disclosure and referral of contacts for testing. Association of HBV with HIV-related stigma was also reported as a strong barrier to contact disclosure and testing and to taking antivirals for HBV monoinfection. CONCLUSIONS: HBV contact disclosure and testing were feasible and yielded new diagnoses in Zambia. A better understanding of barriers to seeking HBV testing and treatment is needed to scale-up this important intervention in Africa. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03158818.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Busca de Comunicante , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Estigma Social , Virologia/métodos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
12.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 47(3): 140-147, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-978314

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: In Latin America is not known for certain the quantity or quality of therapeutic communities (TCs) available in the region. The objective of this study is to describe and quantify the quantity and quality of the existing TCs in 5 different countries. Design: A multicenter quantitative description of the TCs was conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods: A survey was realized through the TCs regulatory entities of each country that accepted to participate in the study. Results: Of the 285 TCs identified in the 5 countries, 176 (62%) accepted to participate in this study. The TCs quality vas evaluated according to the scoring system stablished by De Leon, finding that 70% of the facilities have scores of 11/12 or 12/12 using these criteria. We also found that the majority of the De Leon criteria are known by more than 90% of the institutions, however, the dimensions of "separation of the community" and "encounter groups between residents" were the least known with 63 and 85% respectively. The main reasons for abandonment of TCs were "not accepting the rules of the institution", "lack of money" and "not feeling comfortable with the facilities". 98% of the TCs provided services to other substance abuse problems, 94% for alcohol and 40% for other types of substances. Conclusions: The majority of the TCs identified in our sample meet the quality criteria stablished by De Leon, mostly providing services for substance abuse. However, they should put in place additional policies to improve the unfulfilled conditions and investigate the reasons for the dissatisfaction and abandonment of these institutions.


RESUMEN Objetivo: En Latinoamérica no se conoce a ciencia cierta la cantidad o la calidad de las comunidades terapéuticas disponibles en los distintos países de la región. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar y describir la cantidad y la calidad de las comunidades terapéuticas existentes en 5 países de la región. Diseño: Se realizó un estudio multicéntrico descriptivo cuantitativo de las comunidades terapéuticas en Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, México y Perú. Métodos: Mediante las entidades reguladoras de las comunidades terapéuticas de cada país, se realizó una encuesta a las que aceptaran participar en el estudio. Resultados: De las 285 comunidades terapéuticas identificadas en los 5 países, 176 (62%) aceptaron participar en el estudio. La calidad de las comunidades terapéuticas se evaluó por las puntuaciones establecidas con los criterios de De León; se encontró que el 70% de las instituciones tienen puntuaciones de 11/12 o 12/12 según estos criterios. También se encontró que cumplen la mayoría de los criterios de De León más del 90% de las instituciones; sin embargo, las dimensiones «separación de la comunidad¼ y «grupos de encuentro entre residentes¼ fueron los menos cumplidos (el 63 y el 85% de las comunidades respectivamente). Las principales razones de abandono de las comunidades terapéuticas fueron no aceptar las normas de la institución, falta de recursos económicos y no sentirse a gusto con ella. El 98% de las comunidades terapéuticas prestaban servicios para problemas de abuso de otras sustancias, el 94% para abuso de alcohol y el 40% para otros tipos de abusos. Conclusiones: La mayoría de las comunidades terapéuticas identificadas en nuestra muestra cumplen los criterios de calidad establecidos por De León, y en su gran mayoría prestan servicios para abuso de sustancias, pero deben instaurarse políticas para mejorar las condiciones no cumplidas e indagar los motivos de las disconformidades y el abandono de estas instituciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização , Comunidade Terapêutica , Ciência , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Alcoolismo , Emoções , América Latina , Métodos
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757562

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope combined with Clotrimazole Ointment in the treatment of pregnancy with otitis externa mycotica.Method:From May 2015 to May 2017,16 cases of pregnant patients(19 ears)with otitis externa mycotica were divided into two groups:pure cleaning up group and cleaning up combined with medication group.In the pure cleaning up group,external auditory canal were only cleaned up under otoendoscope conventionally in 9 patients(11 ears),while in the cleaning up combined with medication group,Clotrimazole Ointment was topically applied after cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope in 7 patients(8 ears).After treatment of 2 weeks,the clinical curative effect,adverse reaction and average time interval to take effect were compared at the end of treatment.Result:The total effective rate(100%)in cleaning up combined with medication group's was significantly better than that in pure cleaning up group's(81.81%)(P<0.05);The average time interval to take effect in cleaning up combined with medication groupwas significantly shorter than that in pure cleaning up group's[(2.71±0.70)d vs(5.40±1.96)d,P<0.05].After the two-week treatment,there was a four-week follow-up.Only one patient in pure cleaning up group relapsed.After two-week treatment by Clotrimazole Ointment,this patient was cured.Conclusion:Cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope combined with Clotrimazole Ointment is effective and safe for the treatment of otitis externa mycotica in pregnant women.The addition of topical application of Clotrimazole Ointment further improve the therapeutic efficacy,as compared to the conventional method of cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope.We suggest clinical application of this method.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Clotrimazol/uso terapêutico , Otite Externa/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Meato Acústico Externo , Feminino , Humanos , Micoses/terapia , Gravidez , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização
15.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (231): 97-101, ene.-mar. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173281

RESUMO

El Modelo de Recuperación para personas con Trastorno Mental grave (TMG), es un modelo centrado en la persona, que enfatiza la atención sobre las potencialidades y fortalezas, más allá de la enfermedad. Se fundamenta en la necesidad de construcción de un proyecto vital y se promueve, entre otras cosas, mediante la educación y empoderamiento, para que asuman el cuidado de sí mismos y reivindiquen sus derechos de ciudadanía e inclusión social. El modelo de recuperación no se entiende si no se trabaja con las personas con TMG en alcanzar una participación plena y responsable, para lo que se hace necesaria la capacitación y la autodeterminación de las personas implicadas. Por lo tanto, uno de los elementos claves de la recuperación es la formalización de Espacios para la Participación. En este trabajo presentamos cómo surgieron y se organizaron las I Jornadas de Participación de usuarios de la LRHP, a partir de un proyecto de colaboración con usuarios y profesionales de la ciudad de París


The Recovery Model for people with severe mental disorders (TMD) is a person-centered model that emphasizes attention to potential and strengths, beyond the disease. It is based on the need to build a vital project and is promoted, among other things, through education and empowerment, so that they take care of themselves and claim their rights of citizenship and social inclusion. The recovery model is not understood if you do not work with people with SMI to achieve full and responsible participation, for which the training and self-determination of the people involved is necessary. Therefore, one of the key elements of the recovery is the formalization of Spaces for Participation. In this paper, we present how the 1st Conference of Participation of users of the LRHP, from a collaboration project with users and professionals from the city of Paris


Assuntos
Humanos , Participação Social , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Integração Comunitária/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Relações Interpessoais , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização/organização & administração , Autoimagem , Cursos/análise
16.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 32(2): 116-126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346196

RESUMO

While breastfeeding initiation rates for African American mothers are low, an innovative model of group prenatal care, CenteringPregnancy, holds promise to increase breastfeeding rates. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of CenteringPregnancy versus individual prenatal care on breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Using a systematic approach and PRISMA guidelines, 4 electronic databases were used to search the literature. English-language studies, comparing CenteringPregnancy and individual prenatal care, including African American participants, and specifying breastfeeding initiation as an outcome were screened for inclusion. Study strength and quality were assessed and 7 studies were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. Participation in CenteringPregnancy increased the probability of breastfeeding initiation by 53% (95% confidence interval = 29%-81%) (n = 8047). A subgroup analysis of breastfeeding initiation among only African American participants was performed on 4 studies where data were available. Participation in CenteringPregnancy increased the probability of breastfeeding initiation by 71% (95% confidence interval = 27%-131%) (n = 1458) for African American participants. CenteringPregnancy is an effective intervention to increase breastfeeding initiation for participants, especially for African Americans. To close the racial gap in breastfeeding initiation, high-quality research providing specific outcomes for African American participants in CenteringPregnancy are needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Educação Pré-Natal/métodos , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização/organização & administração , Afro-Americanos , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
17.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 29(4): 527-532, nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167762

RESUMO

Background: University lecturers often complain about their students' lack of learning strategies, but not many universities in Spain offer specific courses in this area. Studies on their effectiveness are also rare. Method: This study presents the results of a Learning Strategies Course implemented at the School of Teacher Training and Education, University of Oviedo, Spain. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experi-mental (n = 60) and a control group (n = 57) of students on the Educational Psychology course. A Spanish adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ): the CEAMR2 was used as a pre and post-test measure. Group A (EG) received training in learning strategies, while group B (CG) received no training. Results: Post-test measures showed significant differences in five out of the ten learning strategies assessed: elaboration, organization, repetition, self-questioning and study space, and also an improvement in one out of the six motivational scales: control of learning beliefs. Discussion: The results suggest that learning strategies courses with proven effectiveness should be offered to university students (AU)


Antecedentes: los profesores universitarios se quejan de la forma de estudiar sus alumnos, pero escasean en nuestro país cursos específicos en este área y estudios sobre su eficacia. Método: presentamos los resultados obtenidos con el Curso de Estrategias de Aprendizaje en un grupo de estudiantes de la Facultad de Formación del Profesorado y Educación de la Universidad de Oviedo. Se utilizó un diseño quasi-experimental con grupo experimental (n = 60) y grupo de control(n = 57), formados por estudiantes de primer curso de la asignatura Psicología de la Educación. Se utilizó el Cuestionario de Estrategias de Aprendizaje y Motivación (CEAM-R2), adaptación del MSLQ, como medida pre y post-test. El grupo A (GE) recibió entrenamiento en estrategias de aprendizaje, mientras que el grupo B (GC) no lo recibió. Resultados: el posttest muestra diferencias significativas en cinco de las diez estrategias de aprendizaje evaluadas: elaboración, organización, repetición, auto-interrogación y lugar de estudio, y también en una de las seis escalas motivacionales: creencias de control del aprendizaje. Discusión: los resultados sugieren que se deberían ofertar a los universitarios cursos de estrategias de aprendizaje eficaces (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Curva de Aprendizado , Aprendizagem , Planejamento Estratégico , Psicologia Educacional/métodos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Treinamento de Sensibilização/organização & administração , Cursos , 35174 , Psicometria/instrumentação
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